R. Stanley Williams is an HP senior fellow and vice president at Hewlett-Packard Laboratories. He received a B.A. degree in chemical physics in 1974 from Rice University and his Ph.D. in physical phemistry from U. C. Berkeley in 1978. He was a member of technical staff at AT&T Bell Labs from 1978-1980 and a faculty member (assistant, associate and full professor) of the Chemistry Department at UCLA from 1980–1995. He joined HP Labs in 1995 to found the Quantum Science Research group, which originally focused on fundamental research at the nanometer scale.
His primary scientific research during the past 30 years has been in the areas of solid-state chemistry and physics and their applications to technology. In 2008, a team of researchers he led announced that they had built and demonstrated the first intentional memristor, the fourth fundamental electronic circuit element predicted by Prof. Leon Chua in 1971, complementing the capacitor, resistor and inductor.
He has received recognition for business, scientific and academic achievement, including being named one of the top 10 visionaries in the field of electronics in 2012 by EETimes, 2009 EETimes Innovator of the Year ACE Award, the 2007 Glenn T. Seaborg Medal for Contributions to Chemistry, the 2004 Herman Bloch Medal for Industrial Research, and the 2000 Julius Springer Award for Applied Physics. He has over 150 US patents with ~100 pending and over 400 papers published in reviewed scientific journals.
The current-voltage characteristic of a simple cross-point device that has a thin film of niobium dioxide, a Mott insulator, sandwiched between two metal electrodes displays a current-controlled or 'S'-type negative differential resistance (NDR) caused by Joule self-heating if the ambient temperature is below the metal-insulator transition (MIT). We derived simple analytical equations for the behavior these devices that quantitatively reproduce their experimentally measured electrical characteristics with only one fitting parameter, and found that the resulting dynamical model was mathematically equivalent to the "memristive system" formulation of Leon Chua and Steve Kang from 1976; we thus call these devices "Mott Memristors". Moreover, these devices display the property of "local activity"; because of the NDR, they are capable of injecting energy into a circuit (converting DC to AC electrical power) over a limited biasing range. We built and demonstrated Pearson-Anson oscillators based on a parallel circuit of one Mott memristor and one capacitor, and were able to quantitatively model the dynamical behavior of the circuit, including the subnanosecond and subpicoJoule memristor switching time and energy, using SPICE. We then built a neuristor, an active subcircuit originally proposed by Hewitt Crane in 1960 without an experimental implementation, using two Mott memristors and two capacitors. The neuristor electronically emulates the Hodgkin- Huxley model of the axon action potential of a neuron, which has been recently shown by Chua et al. to be a circuit with two parallel memristors, and we show experimental results that are quantitatively matched by SPICE simulations of the output bifurcation, signal gain and spiking behavior that are believed to be the basis for computation in biological systems that are produced by this inorganic and electronic system.
A special issue of the Journal of Electronic Materials will be published with peer-reviewed papers from the 55th Electronic Materials Conference.
A FREE Springer book (author’s choice, up to $250 in value) will be awarded for the best paper from this issue!
Energy Conversion and Storage Materials
Nanoscale Science and Technology in Materials
Organic Materials and Thin-Film Technology
ENERGY CONVERSION AND STORAGE MATERIALS
Photovoltaics—Organic and Hybrid
Next-generation Solar-cell Materials and Devices
Thermoelectrics and Thermionics
Ionic Conductors for Solid-oxide Fuel Cells and Batteries
Highly Mismatched Dilute Alloys
Group-III Nitrides—Growth, Processing, Characterization, Theory and Devices
Indium Nitride—Growth, Processing, Characterization, Theory and Devices
Silicon Carbide—Growth, Processing, Characterization, Theory and Devices
Oxide Semiconductors—Growth, Doping, Defects, Nanostructures and Devices
Point Defects, Doping and Extended Defects
Embedded Nanoparticles and Rare-earth Materials in III-V Semiconductors
Metamaterials and Materials for THz, Plasmonics and Polaritons
Epitaxial Materials and Devices
- Steve Ringel, The Ohio State University
- Seth Bank, The University of Texas at Austin
- Kei-May Lau, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
- Kurt Eyink, Air Force Research Laboratory
- Archie Homes, University of Virginia
- Amy Liu, IQE, Inc.
- Charles Lutz, IQE Inc.
- Michael Tischler, OCIS Technology
- Christine Wang, Massachusetts Institute of Technology: Lincoln Laboratory
Narrow-bandgap Materials and Devices
Dilute Nitride Semiconductors
Compound Semiconductor Growth on Si Substrates and Si-based Heterojunctions
Oxide Thin-film Integration—Alternative Dielectrics, Epitaxial Oxides, Multifunctional Oxides, Superlattices and Metal Gates
Nondestructive Testing and In Situ Monitoring and Control
Contacts to Semiconductor Epilayers, Nanowires, Nanotubes and Organic Films
Semiconductor Processing—Oxidation, Passivation and Etching
Materials Integration—Wafer Bonding and Engineered Substrates
Nanomagnetic, Magnetic Memory and Spintronic Materials
NANOSCALE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN MATERIALS
Graphene, BN, MoS2 and Other 2D Materials and Devices
Carbon Nanotubes—Growth, Processing, Characterization and Devices
Nanowires—Growth, Processing, Characterization and Devices
Low-dimensional Structures—Quantum Dots, Wires and Wells
Nanoscale Characterization—Scanning Probes, Electron Microscopy and Other Techniques
ORGANIC MATERIALS AND THIN-FILM TECHNOLOGY
Biomaterials and Interfaces
Molecular Electronics and OLEDs—Devices, Materials and Sensors
Organic Thin-film and Crystalline Transistors—Devices, Materials and Processing
Flexible and Printed Thin-film Electronics