Symposium C: Advanced Materials Processing for Scalable Solar-Cell Manufacturing

Symposium A: Amorphous

Symposium Support

General Electric - Global Research
Solexant, Inc
Transmill Technologies, Inc

April 25 - 28, 2011


Henry Ji


Transmill Technologies, Inc.

Venkatesen Mannivanan


Colorado State University

Binxian Ren


Hebei University of Technology

Loucas Tsakalakos


General Electric

* Invited paper


C/D: Solar Photovoltaics—Materials, Devices Fundamentals, and Manufacturing Considerations 

Monday, April 25, 8:00 am - 5:00 pm
Room 2003, Moscone West

The tutorial undertakes a holistic approach to enhancing the knowledge of the audience with respect to the most important aspects of the field of solar photovoltaics.

Part 1
Danielle Merfeld will provide a broad background to the applications of photovoltaics. Key market segments, along with the performance requirements, will be discussed in detail. These include required efficiency, cost, and reliability, and how each of these drivers impacts market growth. Issues such as balance of systems costs, government incentives, and related items will also be discussed.

Part II
Stephen Fonash will focus on the fundamental physics of photovoltaics. Topics include the solar spectrum, carrier absorption and generation, band structures, recombination, and related fundamental parameters critical to the functionality of solar cells. Advanced, so-called third generation, device physics concepts, such as multi-junctions, intermediate bands, hot carriers, and related items, will also be discussed.

Part III
Joel Ager will explore the major materials systems and technologies in solar photovoltaics. A discussion of silicon solar cells, thin films such as CdTe and Cu(In,Ga)Se2, III-N, and other IIIV-based multi-junctions will be covered. Materials parameters and challenges will be addressed. Emerging materials systems such as organic PV, nanostructured solar cells, and other concepts will also be considered.

Part IV
Ralph Romero will present an overview of the main approaches to materials processing used in the manufacture of the major, established solar photovoltaic technologies. The specific manufacturing technologies, how processes contribute to both yield and cost, and related issues will be addressed. This will begin with how silicon is mined and purified to produce solar-grade silicon, followed by fabrication of either single crystalline or polycrystalline single ingots. Challenges related to wafering, including the well-known problem of Kerf-loss, will be addressed. Finally, methods for doping of silicon wafers, passivation, and contacts will be addressed. Vapor and solution-based processes such as closed-space sublimation, sputtering, co-evaporation, solution coating, and related methods for deposited absorber layers will be addressed. Challenges with fabrication on glass, metal, and polymer substrates will be discussed. This segment of the tutorial will address the processing of III-V-based technologies that are used primarily in space and terrestrial concentrator applications. These are typically GaAs-based multi-junction technologies that rely on metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) for growth of the absorber layers. Issues with contacts and anti-reflective layers will also be discussed.

Danielle Merfeld

GE Global Research

Stephen Fonash
The Pennsylvania State University

Joel Ager
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

Ralph Romero
Black & Veatch Corporation


SESSION C1: Nanostructure-Based Photovoltaics & Multi-Component Thin Film PV Manufacturing I
Chair: Loucas Tsakalakos
Tuesday Morning, April 26, 2011
Room 2000 (Moscone West)

8:00 AM *C1.1
Waferless High Efficiency Photovoltaics Based on Flexible Si Wire Arrays. Harry A. Atwater, Applied Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California.

8:30 AM C1.2
High-efficiency Ordered Silicon Nano-conical-frustum Array Solar Cells by Self-powered Parallel Electron Lithography. Yuerui Lu and Amit Lal; Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.

8:45 AM C1.3
Atomic Layer Deposition and Chemical Vapor Deposition of Copper Sulfide for Nanostructured Solar Cells. Ian Carbone1,3, Glenn B. Alers3,1, Anna Bezryadina3,1, Frank Bridges1, Scott Medling1, Timothy Ohno2 and Jonathan Kintnerr2; 1Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California; 2Physics, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado; 3Advanced Studies Laboratories, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California.

9:00 AM C1.4
Resonating Mode Enhanced Optical Absorption in Si Hollow Nanospheres. Yan Yao1, Jie Yao1, Zhichao Ruan2, Jia Zhu2, Ching-Mei Hsu1, Shanhui Fan2 and Yi Cui1; 1Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California; 2Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California.

9:15 AM C1.5
Performance of Ultra-Thin Film Mo/CdTe/AZO Schottky Diode Photovoltaics in a Substrate Configuration. Chris E. France1,2, Hector Romo3, Sue A. Carter1,2 and Glenn B. Alers2,1; 1Physics Department, University of California-Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California; 2Advanced Studies Laboratories, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California; 3Electrical Engineering Department, University of California-Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California.


10:00 AM *C1.6
Scaling CdTe PV from Pilot Production to High Volume Manufacturing. Fred H. Seymour, PrimeStar Solar, Inc, Arvada, Colorado.

10:30 AM *C1.7
Ion Beam Texturing and Reactive Deposition for Photovoltaic Materials. Bruce M. Clemens1, J. R. Groves1, Vardaan Chawla1, Joel B. Li2, Garrett Hayes1 and Charles Teplin3; 1Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California; 2Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California; 3National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado.

11:00 AM C1.8
Synthesis of CuInSe2 Absorbers from Bilayer Compound Precursors. Rangarajan Krishnan1, David Wood1, Vaibhav Chaudhari1, Andrew Payzant2, Rommel Noufi3 and Timothy Anderson1; 1Chemical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida; 2Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; 3National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado.

11:15 AM C1.9
In-line Control Quality of Chacolpyrite Based Solar Cells by Advance Raman Spectroscopy. Victor Izquierdo Roca3, Xavier Fontane2, Edgardo Saucedo2, Jesus Salvador Jaime Ferrer1, Jacobo Alvarez3, Alejandro Perez Rodriguez2, Juan Ramon Morante2 and Veronica Bermudez1; 1NEXCIS, Rousset, France; 2IREC, Barcelone, Spain; 3IN2UB, Barcelone, Spain.

11:30 AM *C1.10
Rapid Printing of High-efficiency Monolithically Integrated CIGS Photovoltaic Modules. Louay Eldada, Baosheng Sang, Dingyuan Lu, Peter Hersh, Casey Martinez and Billy J. Stanbery; HelioVolt Corporation, Austin, Texas.


SESSION C2: Solution-Based Processes I & Transparent Conductors and Coatings I
Chair: Venkatesen Mannivanan
Tuesday Afternoon, April 26, 2011
Room 2000 (Moscone West)

1:30 PM *C2.1
Molecular Precursor and Nanocrystal-ink Based Routes to CIGS and CZTS Solar Cells. Hugh W. Hillhouse, Chemical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.

2:00 PM C2.2
Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 Thin Film Solar Cells from Binary and Ternary Chalcogenide Nanoparticles. Yanyan Cao, Michael S. Denny, Jonathan V. Caspar, Alex S. Ionkin, Lynda K. Johnson, Meijun Lu, Irina Malajovich, Daniela Radu and H. D. Rosenfeld; DuPont CR&D, Wilmington, Delaware.

2:15 PM C2.3
Microwave-enhanced Synthesis of Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide Colloidal Nanoparticle Inks. Brendan Flynn and Gregory Herman; School of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon.

2:30 PM C2.4
Fabrication and Performance of Dual Back-contact Thin Film Photovoltaic Devices. Daniel Josell1, Carlos M. Hangarter1, Behrang H. Hamadani2, Suyong Jung2 and Jonathan E. Guyer1; 1Metallurgy Division, NIST, Gaithersburg, Maryland; 2CNST, NIST, Gaithersburg, Maryland.

2:45 PM C2.5
Analysis and Control of Plating Baths in the Electrodeposition of Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS) Films with Ion Chromatography. Joseph Duimstra, Sarah Lastella, Muharrem Kunduraci, Tuncay Cetiner, Serdar Aksu and Mustafa Pinarbasi; SoloPower Inc, San Jose, California.


3:30 PM C2.6
Durable Anti-reflective Coatings for PV Module Cover Glass. Sudip Mukhopadhyay, Renato DeTorres, Hai Bien, Boris Korolev, Ahila Krishnamoorthy and VaraPrasad Desaraju; Honeywell, Sunnyvale, California.

3:45 PM C2.7
Deposition of Aluminum Doped Zinc Oxide Using an Atmospheric, Low Temperature Plasma Deposition Process. Mirjam Theelen, Hans Winands, Frank Grob, Sandra Kouijzer, Hans Goverde, Joop van Deelen, Ariel de Graaf and Paul Poodt; TNO, Eindhoven, Netherlands.

4:00 PM C2.8
Investigation on the Discharge Formation Mechanisms and Surface Analysis of SiO2-like Layers on Polymers Synthesized Using DBD Assisted CVD at Atmospheric Pressure. Antony P. Peter1,3, Richard van de Sanden1, Sergey Starostin2, Hindrik de Vries2 and Mariadriana Creatore1; 1Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, Netherlands; 2FUJIFILM Manufacturing Europe B.V,, Tilburg, Netherlands; 3Materials innovstion institute (M2i), Delft, Netherlands.

4:15 PM C2.9
Recent Progress in Transparent Conducting Materials by Use of Metallic Grids on Metaloxides. Joop van Deelen, Henk Rendering, Bert Huis in het Veld, Mirjam Theelen, Paul Poodt and Arjan Hovestad; Materials Technology, TNO, Eindhoven, Netherlands.

4:30 PM C2.10
Scalable Transparent Electrodes with Electrospun Nanowires. Hui Wu, Liangbing Hu and Yi Cui; Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford Univ., Palo Alto, California.

4:45 PM C2.11
Formation of Self Assembled MgO Nano-facet: Toward the Yablonovitch Limit for the Light Trapping in Thin Silicon Solar Cell. Hak Ki Yu1,2, Jong-Lam Lee1,2, Gwan Ho Jung1,2, Wan Jae Dong1,2, Kihyon Hong1,2 and Sungjun Kim1,2; 1Material Science & Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang, Kyungbuk, Korea, Republic of; 2Graduate Institute of Advanced Materials Science, POSTECH, Pohang, Kyungbuk, Korea, Republic of.


SESSION C3: Poster Session: Advanced Processes and Manufacturing for Photovoltaics
Chairs: Henry Ji, Venkatesen Mannivanan, Binxian Ren and Loucas Tsakalakos
Tuesday Evening, April 26, 2011
8:00 PM
Exhibition Hall (Moscone West)

Low Cost ZnO/Cu2O Solar Cells Produced by Atmospheric ALD. Andrew Marin, David Munoz-Rojas, Diana Iza and Judith MacManus-Driscoll; Materials Science & Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Optimizing Materials Processing and Device Geometry for Scalable ZnO/Cu2O Solar Cell Fabrication. Talia Gershon1, Kevin Musselman2, Andrew Marin1 and Judith MacManus-Driscoll1; 1Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom; 2Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Forming Gradient Multilayer (GML) Nano Films for Photovoltaic and Energy Storage Applications. Boris Gilman and Igor Altman; Coolsol R&C, Mountain View, California.

Abstract Withdrawn 

Abstract Withdrawn 


Metal Gettering in Porous-Si Reflector for Epitaxial Silicon Solar Cells. Chihak Ahn1, Hariharsudan S. Radhakrishnan2, Jan Van Hoeymissen2, Jonathan P. Goss1 and Nick E. Cowern1; 1School of Electrical, electronic and computer engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom; 2IMEC, Leuven, Belgium.

Versatile Applications of Chemically Deposited SnS in Thin Film Solar Cells. Maricela Rebeca Aragon-Silva, Ana Rosa García, M. T. Santhamma Nair and P. Karunakaran Nair; CIE, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Temixco, Morelos, Mexico.

Chemically Deposited Solar Cells with Tin Selenide Absorber Films. Enue Barrios-Salgado, M. T. Santhamma Nair and P. Karunakaran Nair; CIE, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Temixco, Morelos, Mexico.

Fabrication and Characteristics of Solution Processed Films for Organic Solar Cells. Ashwith Kumar Chilvery, Ashok K Batra and Padmaja Guggilla; Physics, Alabama A&M University, Normal, Alabama.

Rapid Growth of Large Transparent Films of Chemically Converted Graphene, Graphite Oxide, and Aligned Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes. Julio M. D'Arcy1,2, Richard B. Kaner1,2,3 and Yang Yang3,2,1; 1Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California; 2California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California; 3Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California.

Fabrication of Improved p-AgGaSe2/n-Si Heterojunction Solar Cells on Optimum Quality Thermally Evaporated AgGaSe2 Thin Films. Krishna C. Mandal and Sandip Das; Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina.

Application of a Dual-spectral-range, Expanded-beam Spectroscopic Ellipsometer for Mapping Large-area, Laterally-inhomogeneous, Photovoltaic Multilayers. Miklos Fried1, G. Juhasz1, C. Major1, A. Nemeth2,1, P. Petrik1, P. Polgar1, C. Salupo2 and R. W. Collins2; 1Photonics, MFA, Budapest, Hungary; 2PVIC, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio.

CdS, CdSe Nanoparticles in Silica Matrix by Sol Gel Method. Nilima Hullavarad and Shiva Hullavarad; Advanced Materials Group, Institute of Northern Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska.

Abstract Withdrawn 


Abstract Withdrawn 

Low-temperature Atomic Layer Deposition of ZnO, TiO2, and Al2O3 Thin Films for Application to Transparent Conducting Oxide. Woo-Hee Kim1,2, Jae-Min Kim1, Min-Kyu Kim1 and Hyungjun Kim1; 1School of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, Yonsei, Seoul, Korea, Republic of; 2Department of Material Science and Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang, Korea, Republic of.

Atomistic Simulations of the Silicon Surface Structure at the Interface of Silver Thick Film Contacts on n-Type Silicon. Stefan Kontermann1,2, Alexander Ruf1 and Ralf Preu1; 1Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Freiburg, Germany; 2Fraunhofer Heinrich Hertz Institute, Goslar, Germany.

Surface Passivation of Pre-oxidized Silicon by Atomic Layer Deposited Al2O3. Wei-Cheng Lai1, Jenn-Chang Hwang1, Chien-Hsun Chen2, Hung-Jen Yang2 and Wei-Yu Chen2; 1National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan; 2Industrial Technology Research Institute., Hsinchu, Taiwan.

Enhanced Optical Absorption of Medium-temperature PECVD Grown Si-rich Si1-xCx. Chaio-Ti Lee and Gong-Ru Lin; Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, and Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Optical Layers and Materials for Next Generation Solar Cells. Ping Lee1, Jason Shank1, Mikael Marra1, Yeona Kang1 and C. M. Fortmann1,2; 1Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York; 2Idalia Solar Technologies LLC, New York, New York.

Vertically-segregated Hhole Extraction Layers to Enhance Open Circuit Voltage and Device Lifetime of Organic Solar Cells. Kyung Geun Lim1, Mi-Ri Choi1, Jin-Seck Kim2, Taiho Park2 and Tae-woo Lee1; 1Materials Science and Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang, Korea, Republic of; 2Chemical Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang, Korea, Republic of.

A Novel Buffering Technique for Aqueous Processing of Zinc Oxide Nanostructures and Interfaces, and Corresponding Improvement of Electrodeposited ZnO-Cu2O Photovoltaics. Kevin P. Musselman1,2, Andrew Marin2, Andreas Wisnet3, Christina Scheu3, Judith L. MacManus-Driscoll2 and Lukas Schmidt-Mende4; 1Physics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom; 2Materials Science, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom; 3Chemistry, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich, Germany; 4Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich, Germany.

Rapid Plasma-assisted, Ambient-pressure Deposition of Conformal Nanocrystalline Zinc Oxide Thin Films for Solar Cell Applications. Kwok Siong Teh and Joachim D. Pedersen; School of Engineering, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California.

Single-step, Co-production of Cd2SnO4 Nanoparticles and High Quality Thin Films by Geometrically Flux Flow Controlled Spray Pyrolysis. Sarika Phadke, Anil Suryawanshi and Satishchandra B. Ogale; Physical Chemistry, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune, Maharashtra, India.

Pore-opening Process in Nanoporous AAO Membranes for Electrodeposition of Semiconducting Nanowires. Sovannary Phok1, Suresh Rajaputra2, Vijay P. Singh2, Hamda Ali Al Thani1 and Falah Hasoon3; 1Measurements and Characterization, National Energy and Water Research Center, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates; 2Center for Nanoscale, Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky; 3National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado.

Nanostructured CuInGaSe2 Thin films For High-performance Solar Cells. Aswini Pradhan, Center for Materials Research, Norfolk State University, Norfolk, Virginia.

Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis Deposition of Tin Oxide and Tin Sulfide Thin Films for Solar Cells. Manoj Ramachandran, Dalia Martinez and Aaron Sanchez; CIE, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Temixco, Morelos, Mexico.

Impurity-free Seeded Crystallization of Amorphous Silicon by Nanoindentation. Simon Ruffell1, Andrew P. Knights2, David J. Sprouster1, Jodie E. Bradby1 and Jim S. Williams1; 1Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia; 2Department of Engineering Physics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Hydrogen Diffusion in PECVD Stack Layer of Silicon Oxide and Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Nitride. Samy A. Strola1,2, M. S. Hanssen1, M. M. Mandoc1, R. Mary Joy2, M. G. Hussein2, R. C. Bosch2, F. C. Dings2, W. M. Kessels1 and M. C. van de Sanden1; 1P&MP, TU Eindhoven, Eindhoven, Netherlands; 2OTB Solar, Eindhoven, Netherlands.

Morphology Control of Electrodeposited CuInSe2 Absorber Layer. Juan Sun2,1, Sudip K. Batabyal1, Lydia H. Wong2 and Subodh G. Mhaisalkar1; 1Energy Research Institute @ NTU, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore; 2Mmaterials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore.

Systematic Study of Methanol Addition to Enhance the Film Development of APCVD Tin Oxide. Joop van Deelen, Ioanna Volintiru and Paul Poodt; Materials Technology, TNO, Eindhoven, Netherlands.

Systematic Study of High Deposition Rate of Low Resistivity ZnO:Al Deposition on an Industrial Moving Belt Reactor. Joop van Deelen, Andrea Illiberi, Bas Kniknie and Paul Poodt; Materials Technology, TNO, Eindhoven, Netherlands.

Development of Zinc Sulfide as a Hetero-junction Partner by a Novel Process Route. Parag Vasekar, Laxmikanth Ganta, Daniel Vanhart and Seshu Desu; Center for Autonomous Solar Power, Binghamton University, Vestal, New York.

Design, Fabrication and Solar Cell Application of CuInSe2 Nanotube Arrays on Conducting Glass Substrates. Jun Xu1,2 and Chun-Sing Lee1,2; 1Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China; 2Center of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films (COSDAF), City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Cost Effective Fabrication of Wafer Scale Nanoholes for Solar Cells Application. Yingqi Zhao, Ka Kuen Leung and Charles Surya; Department of Electronic and Information Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China.

The Fabrication of Large Scale Single/Few Layer Graphene as Flexible Transparent Conductive Electrodes. Gorkem Soyumer and Ismet Inonu Kaya; Materials Science and Engineering, Sabanci University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Thick and Crack-free Nanocrystalline Mesoporous TiO2 Films Obtained by Capillary Coating from Aqueous Solutions. Natacha Krins1,2, Marco Faustini1, Benjamin Louis1 and David Grosso1; 1UPMC, Paris, France; 2ULg, Liege, Belgium.

Current Collecting Grids in R2R Processed Organic Solar Cells. Robert Abbel1, Joost Valeton2, Tim van Lammeren1 and Erwin Meinders1; 1Holst Centre - TNO, Eindhoven, Netherlands; 2NeoDec, Eindhoven, Netherlands.

Abstract Withdrawn 

Printable Carbon Free CIGS Thin Film for Solar Cell Applications. Byoung Koun Min and Eunjoo Lee; Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, Korea, Republic of.

Continuous Microreactor-assisted Solution Deposition for the Scalable Production of Cadmium Sulfide Thin Films. Sudhir Ramprasad1, Yu-Wei Su2, Chih-hung Chang2, Brian Paul3, Clayton Hires3 and Daniel Palo1; 1Energy and Environment, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Corvallis, Oregon; 2School of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon; 3School of Mechanical, Industrial, & Manufacturing Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon.

Use of SiO2 Nanotemplates for Relieving Thermally Induced Stress During Epitaxial Growth of Ge on Si for III-V Photovoltaic Applications. Swapnadip Ghosh2, Darin Leonhardt1 and Sang M. Han1,2; 1Chemical & Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico; 2Electrical Engineering & Computer Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

Degradation of CuInGaSe2 Devices Studied Using Controlled Moisture Ingress. Rajalakshmi Sundaramoorthy, John Pern, Jian Li and Tim Gessert; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado.

Structural Study of CIGS2 Thin Film Absorbers Using EBSD Technique. Ashwani Kaul1, Shirish A. Pethe1, Neelkanth G. Dhere1 and Helio R. Moutinho2; 1Florida Solar Energy Center, University of Central Florida, Cocoa, Florida; 2National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado.

Thin Film Solar Cells with Antimony Sulfide and Lead Sulfide Complementary Absorbers. Manuela Calixto-Rodriguez, Jonathan Sayago, Ana Rosa Garcia, M. T. Santhamma Nair and P. Karunakaran Nair; CIE, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Temixco, Morelos, Mexico.

Growth of CuInGaSe2 Thin Film Solar Cells. Gary L. Harris, HNF, Howard University, Washington, District of Columbia.

Abstract Withdrawn 

Electrospun Composite Nanofiber Transparent Conductor Layer for Solar Cells. Justin Ritchie, Joel Mertens, Heejae Yang, Peyman Servati and Frank Ko; Materials Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.



Improved High Efficiency Organic Solar Cells via Incorporation of a Conjugated Polyelectrolyte Interlayer. Jung Hwa Seo1,2, Andrea Gutacker2, Alan J. Heeger2 and Guillermo C. Bazan2;1Department of Materials Physics, Dong-A University, Korea, Republic of; 2Center for Polymers and Organic Solids, University of California, Santa Barbara, California.




SESSION C4: Silicon Solar Cells
Chairs: Henry Ji and Binxian Ren
Wednesday Morning, April 27, 2011
Room 2000 (Moscone West)

8:30 AM *C4.1
Sliver Solar Cell Technology: Pushing the Material Boundaries. Evan Franklin, Andrew Blakers, Klaus Weber and Vernie Everett; School of Engineering, The Australian National Universit, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia.

9:00 AM *C4.2
Comparative Study on Manufacturability of Selective Emitter and Double Printing. Yong Liu and Wei Shan; JA Solar, Shanghai, China.

9:30 AM C4.3
Doping of Silicon and Zinc Oxide by Femtosecond-laser Irradiation for Efficient and Scalable Photovoltaic Cell. Apurba Dev, Andreas Schneider, Waldemar Freund and Tobias Voss; Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.

9:45 AM C4.4
High Throughput, Low Cost Deposition of Alumina Passivation Layers by Spatial Atomic Layer Deposition. Ad Vermeer1, Fred Roozeboom2,3, Paul Poodt2 and Roger Gortzen1; 1SoLayTec, Eindhoven, Netherlands; 2TNO, Eindhoven, Netherlands; 3Eindhoven university of Technology, Eindhoven, Netherlands.

10:00 AM BREAK

10:30 AM C4.5 

Evidence and Characterization of Crystallographic Defect and Material Quality After SLIM-Cut Process.  Alex Masolin1, 2, Jan Vaes1, Frederic Dross1, Amaia Pesquera Rodriguez3, Jef Poortmans1, 2 and Robert Mertens1, 2; 1imec, Leuven, Belgium;
2Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; 3University of Basque Country, Bilbao, Spain.

10:45 AM C4.6 

On the Chemical and Field-effect Passivation of c-Si by Al2O3 and SiO2/Al2O3 Stacks. Gijs Dingemans, Richard van de Sanden and Erwin Kessels; Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, Netherlands.


SESSION C5: Multi-Component Thin Film Manufacturing II & Transparent Conductors and Coatings II
Chairs: Venkatesen Mannivanan and Loucas Tsakalakos
Wednesday Afternoon, April 27, 2011
Room 2000 (Moscone West)

1:30 PM *C5.1
Flexible Cu(In,Ga)Se2 and CdTe Solar Cells and Roll-to-roll Manufacturing. Ayodhya N. Tiwari1,2, Adrian Chirila1, Patrick Bloesch1, Julian Perrenoud1, Lukas Kranz1, Sieghard Seyrling1, Fabian Pianezzi1, Stephan Buecheler1, Rajneesh Verma1, Shiro Nishiwaki1, Yaroslav E. Romanyuk1, Roger Ziltener2 and David Bremaud2; 1Photovoltaics 130, Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Duebendorf, Switzerland; 2FLISOM Ltd., Duebendorf, Switzerland.

2:00 PM *C5.2
Printed Nanoparticle CdTe Solar Cells on Flexible Metal Foils. Damoder Reddy, Charlie Hotz, Craig Leidholm, Donald Zehnder, Margaret Hines, Chris Sunderland, Puthur Paulson, Steve Conner and Brian Gergen; Solexant, Inc, San Jose, California.

2:30 PM C5.3
Light Scattering of ZnO Nano Particle Based Thin Films. Andrey Raykov1, Sahar Arabi1, Rahul Dewan1, Sujay Phadke2, Rodrigo Noriega2, Alberto Salleo2 and Dietmar Knipp1; 1School of Engineering and Science, Science, Electronic Devices and Nanophotonics Laboratory, Jacobs University Bremen, Bremen, Germany; 2Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Stanford University, Stanford, California.


3:15 PM C5.4
Band Energy Structure Arrangement for Organic Solar Cells with Metalized Deoxyribonucleic Acid Strands on Anode Electrode. Ali B. Guvenc1, Emre Yengel1, Shirui Guo2, Hayri E. Akin1, Cengiz S. Ozkan3,4 and Mihrimah Ozkan1; 1Electrical Engineering, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, California; 2Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, California; 3Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, California; 4Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, California.

3:30 PM C5.5
Large Scale Solution Process of Silver Nanowire Electrodes for High Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells. Zhibin Yu, Lu Li, Qingwu Zhang and Qibing Pei; Materials science and engineering, UCLA, Los Angeles, California.

3:45 PM C5.6
High-efficiency Inverted Polymer Solar Cell by Spin Coating a Nano-layered Salt on TiO2/ITO Electrode. Ten-Chin Wen and Yu-Chun Wang; Chemical Engineering, Nationl Cheng Kung Uni., Tainan, Taiwan (R.O.C), Taiwan.

4:00 PM C5.7
Solution Processed V2O5 as High Work Function Charge Extraction Layers in Organic Solar Cells. Kirill Zilberberg1, Sara Trost1, Hans Schmidt2 and Thomas Riedl1; 1Electrical Engineering, University of Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Germany; 2Electrical Engineering, Technical University of Braunschweig, Braunschweig, Germany.

4:15 PM C5.8
Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition of a-SiCN:H Antireflection Coatings for c-Si Solar Cell Applications. Srinivasan Guruvenket, Kyle Johnson, Steven Andrie, Mark Simon, Robert Sailer, Jacob Fink, John Lovaasen, Justin Hoey and Douglas L. Schulz; Center for Nanoscale Science and Engineering, North Dakota State Unuiversity, Fargo, North Dakota.

4:30 PM C5.9
Roll-to-Roll Front Contact Patterning by Wire Shading. Rainer Merz, Markus B. Schubert and Jürgen H. Werner; Universität Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany.

4:45 PM C5.10
High Performance Bulk-heterojunction Organic Solar Cells Fabricated using Non-halogenated Solvent Processing. Choong-Do Park1,2, Jian Li2 and Bryan D. Vogt2; 1Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona; 2Flexible Display Center, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona.


SESSION C6: Multi-Component Thin Film Manufacturing III & IV
Chairs: Loucas Tsakalakos and Binxian Ren
Thursday Morning, April 28, 2011
Room 2000 (Moscone West)

8:00 AM *C6.1
Abstract Withdrawn 


8:30 AM C6.2
Interlayer Adhesion and Delamination in Roll-to-roll Processed Inverted Organic Solar Cells. Mark Oliver1, Stephanie R. Dupont1, Frederik C. Krebs2 and Reinhold H. Dauskardt1; 1Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California; 2Riso National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Roskilde, Denmark.

8:45 AM C6.3
High Efficiency CdS/CdTe Cells Without CdCl2 Activation. Naba R. Paudel, Kristopher A. Wieland and Alvin D. Compaan; Physics & Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio.

9:00 AM C6.4
5.4 % Kesterite Device by Improved Annealing Process. Dominik M. Berg, Alex Redinger, Phillip J. Dale and Susanne Siebentritt; Laboratory of Photovoltaics, University of Luxembourg, Belvaux, Luxembourg.

9:15 AM C6.5
Local Structural Probing of Pulsed Laser Deposited CdS/CdTe Thin Films by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy. Mehmet A. Sahiner1, Michael Newby1, Samuel Emery1, Michelle Jamer1, Jeffrey Serfass1 and Mark Croft2; 1Physics Department, Seton Hall University, South Orange, New Jersey; 2Physics Department, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey.


10:00 AM *C6.6
Web Coating of Flexible CIGS on Polyimide Substrate for Rigid and Flexible Solar Modules. Alexander Braun, Hendrik Zachmann and Andreas Rahm; Solarion AG, Leipzig, Germany.

10:30 AM C6.7
Data-intensive Metrology for Process Design for Scalable Solar Cells with the Aid of Photovoltaic Informatics. Changwon Suh, Stephen Glynn, John Scharf, Jian Li, Miguel A. Contreras, Rommel Noufi and Wesley B. Jones; NREL, Golden, Colorado.

10:45 AM C6.8
Characterisation of Thin Film CdTe Photovoltaic Devices Deposited by High Plasma Density Magnetron Sputtering. John M. Walls, Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.

11:00 AM C6.9
Device Performance of InGaAs Solar Cell on InP Substrate and Hybrid InP or InGaAs/Si Substrate. Robyn Woo1, William Hong1, Marina Leite2, Emily Warmann2, Harry Atwater2 and Daniel Law1; 1Spectrolab, Inc. A Boeing Company, Sylmar, California; 2California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California.

11:15 AM C6.10
Large Scale In2S3 Buffer Layers Deposited by Ion Layer Gas Reaction: From Growth Process to Process Growth. Rodrigo Saez-Araoz1, Sophie Gledhill1, Tristan Koehler1, Martin Krueger1, Johannes Richter2, Peter Wohlfart2, Thomas P. Niesen3, Joerg Palm3, Martha C. Lux-Steiner1 and Christian H. Fischer1; 1Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Berlin, Germany; 2Singulus Technologies AG, Kahl am Main, Germany; 3Avancis GmbH & Co. KG, Munich, Germany.

11:30 AM C6.11
Al-induced Layer Exchange Crystallization Kinetics of Poly-Ge on Glass Substrates. Shu Hu1 and Paul C. McIntyre1,2; 1Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California; 2Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Stanford, California.

11:45 AM C6.12
Thin film III-V photovoltaics on Flexible Metal Substrates Using Single-crystalline-like Germanium Films. Venkat Selvamanickam1, Senthil Sambandam2, Aarthi Sundaram1, Goran Majkic1, Akhil Mehrotra1 and Alex Freundlich1; 1Mechanical Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, Texas; 2SuperPower, Houston, Texas.

SESSION C7: Transparent Conductors and Coatings III & IV
Chair: Henry Ji
Thursday Afternoon, April 28, 2011
Room 2000 (Moscone West)

1:30 PM *C7.1
Large Scale Deposition of Transparent Conducting Oxides by Hollow Cathode Sputtering. Alan E. Delahoy, Kai Jansen, Chris Robinson, Anthony Varvar and Paul Fabiano; R&D, New Millennium Solar Equipment Corp., Robbinsville, New Jersey.

2:00 PM C7.2
Investigation of Alternative Dopants in MOCVD-grown SnO2:F. Teresa M. Barnes1, James Burst1, Carrie Wyse2, Marty Scott1, Xiaonan Li1, Rob Torres2 and Tim Gessert1; 1NREL, Golden, Colorado; 2Matheson Tri-Gas, Longmont, Colorado.

2:15 PM C7.3
Effect of Working Distance on Properties of Sputtered Molybdenum Films. Shirish A. Pethe1, Ashwani Kaul1, Neelkanth G. Dhere1 and Helio R. Moutinho2; 1Florida Solar Energy Center, University of Central Florida, Cocoa, Florida; 2National Renewable energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado.

2:30 PM C7.4
Printable Metallization Inks for Photovoltaics. Susan E. Habas, Heather A. S. Platt, Maikel F. A. M. van Hest, Calvin J. Curtis, Alex Miedaner and David S. Ginley; National Center for Photovoltaics, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado.

2:45 PM C7.5
Processing, Characterization, and Simulation of Laser Fired Contacts for Solar Cell Devices. Brittany Hedrick1, Brennan DeCesar2, Brian Downey1, Joseph Flemish1,2, Edward W. Reutzel2 and Suzanne Mohney1; 1Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania; 2Applied Research Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania.


3:30 PM C7.6
Solution-processed Metal Nanowire Transparent Electrodes. Liangbing Hu1, Hui Wu1, Han Sun Kim1, Jung-Yong Lee2, Peter Peumans2 and Yi Cui1; 1Material Science, Stanford University, Stanford, California; 2Electrical Engineering, Stanford, Stanford, California.

3:45 PM C7.7
Low-temperature Formation of Tin Oxide Nanocones over Large Areas. Sangmoo Jeong1, Matthew T. McDowell2 and Yi Cui2; 1Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California; 2Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California.

4:00 PM C7.8
Chemical Vapour Deposition at Atomospheric Pressure. Stefan Kaskel, TU Dresden, Dresden, Germany; Fraunhofer Institute Materials and Beam Technology, Dresden, Germany.

4:15 PM C7.9
Solution Processing of Highly Conductive and Transparent Single-walled Carbon Nanotube Films: Surfactant-free Dispersions and Non-acidic Dopants. Brian A. Larsen, Jeremy D. Bergeson, Matthew O. Reese, Teresa M. Barnes and Jeffrey L. Blackburn; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado.

4:30 PM C7.10
The Production of Photoactive Coatings by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation. Liza K. Mirelman, Chris Dunleavy and Bill Clyne; Materials Science & Metallurgy, University of Cambrigde, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

4:45 PM C7.11
Nanostructured Flexible Antireflectance Coatings and Their Application to Solar Cells. Jonathan Moghal1,2, James Best2, Martin Gardener2, Gareth Wakefield2 and Andrew Watt1; 1University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom; 2Oxford Advanced Surfaces plc, Oxford, United Kingdom.

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