Hongyou Fan, Sandia National Laboratories
Feng Bai, Henan University
Mei Cai, General Motors Company
Yu Han, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology
Angstrom Thin Film Technologies LLC
MilliporeSigma (Sigma-Aldrich Materials Science)
NM05.01: Session I
Monday AM, April 02, 2018
PCC North, 200 Level, Room 229 B
8:00 AM - NM05.01.01
Aminolated and Thiolated PEG-Covered Gold Nanostructures with High Stability and Anti-Aggregation for Lateral Flow Devices
Purdue University1Show Abstract
The few lateral flow assays (LFAs) established for detecting the endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) bisphenol A (BPA) have employed citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles (GNPs), which have inevitable limitations and instability issues. To address these limitations, we developed more stable sensitive lateral flow assay by designing strategies for modifying the surfaces of gold nanostructures with polyethylene glycol and then testing their effectiveness and sensitivity toward BPA in an LFA.
To further enhance detection, the work was extended to the incorporation of gold nannostructures into the design of a surface-enhanced Raman scattering lateral flow assay (SERS-LFA). The assay includes high-SERS-performance gold nanoparticles, i.e., 40 nm gold nanostars (GNSs), and 4-aminothiolphenol (4-ATP) as a Raman reporter. To demonstrate the performance of this SERS-LFA kit toward BPA detection, we tested BPA stock solutions with concentrations ranging from 0 to 32 ppb. Without the application of any enhancement strategy, this modified BPA LFA can achieve a naked-eye limit of detection (LOD) of 0.8 ng/mL, which is 12.5 times better than the LOD of other reported BPA LFAs, and a quantitative LOD of 0.472 ng/mL. The limit of detection for the SERS signals was 0.074, which was 202 and 8 times more sensitive than those of visual intensity and color intensity quantification, respectively. The range of quantification of the SERS signals doubled compared to that of color intensity quantification.
8:30 AM - NM05.01.02
Colloidal Nanoparticles for Ultrasensitive Biosensing
Imperial College London1Show Abstract
This talk will provide an overview of our recent developments in the design of nanomaterials for ultrasensitive biosensing. Bio-responsive nanomaterials are of growing importance with potential applications including drug delivery, diagnostics and tissue engineering (1). Using enzyme-mediated signal readouts we have developed a suite of nanoparticle based ultrasensitive biosensing approaches as well as a cell/tissue-interfacing nanoneedle platform (2). We are applying these biosensing approaches both in high throughput drug screening and to diagnose diseases ranging from cancer to global health applications.
 Stevens MM, George JH, Exploring and engineering the cell surface interface., Science, 2005, Vol:310, Pages:1135-1138.
 Howes PD, Chandrawati R, Stevens MM, 2014, Colloidal nanoparticles as advanced biological sensors, Science, 2013, Vol:346, DOI: 10.1126/science.1247390.
9:00 AM - NM05.01.03
Synthesis of Octahedral PtNiCu Ternary Alloy Nanostructure as Efficient Electrochemical Catalyst
University of California, Los Angeles1Show Abstract
Platinum-nickel (Pt-Ni) octahedral based nanomaterials represent an emerging class of highly active electrochemical catalysts, but can not meet the increasing activity demand for broad application and suffer from stability issue. We introduced Cu into octahedral Pt-Ni with controlled morphology. The octahedral Pt-Ni-Cu shows significantly enhanced activity and stability compared to octahedral Pt-Ni catalysts for cathode oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) , which is demonstrated to be a potential electrochemical catalyst. Computational simulation confirmed that the presence of Cu can improve the transition metal (Ni and Cu) retention thus improve both activity and stability.
9:15 AM - NM05.01.04
Synthesis and Chemical Transformation of Ni Nanoparticles Embedded in Silica
Joseph Tracy1,Brian Lynch1,Bryan Anderson1,2,3,W. Kennedy3
North Carolina State University1,Universal Technology Corporation2,Air Force Research Laboratory3Show Abstract
Ni nanoparticles (NPs) catalyze many chemical reactions, in which they can become contaminated or agglomerate, resulting in poorer performance. We report deposition of silica (SiO2) onto Ni NPs from tetraethyl orthysilicate (TEOS) through a reverse microemulsion approach, which is accompanied by an unexpected etching process. Ni NPs with an initial average diameter of 27 nm were embedded in composite SiO2-overcoated Ni NPs (SiO2-Ni NPs) with an average diameter of 30 nm. Each SiO2-Ni NP contained a ~7-nm oxidized Ni core and numerous smaller oxidized Ni NPs with diameters of ~2 nm distributed throughout the SiO2 shell. Etching of the Ni NPs is attributed to use of ammonium hydroxide as a catalyst for deposition of SiO2. Aliquots acquired during the deposition and etching process reveal agglomeration of SiO2 and Ni NPs, followed by dissociation into highly uniform SiO2-Ni NPs. This etching and embedding process may also be extended to other core materials. The stability of SiO2-Ni NPs was also investigated under high-temperature oxidizing and reducing environments. The structure of the SiO2-Ni NPs remained significantly unchanged after both oxidation and reduction, which suggests structural durability when used for catalysis.
9:30 AM - NM05.01.05
Biocompatible, Radiotherapeutic Hafnium Oxide Nanoparticle Imaging Probes Prepared Using a Novel Templated Synthesis
Prakash Nallathamby1,Viktoriya Sokolova2,Oleg Prymak2,Matthias Epple2,Ryan Roeder1
University of Notre Dame1,University of Duisburg-Essen2Show Abstract
Hafnium oxide (HfO2) with a k-edge of 50 keV is being explored as a clinical X-ray contrast agent. HfO2 NPs are also in clinical trials as radiosensitizers that induce immune action against tumor sites. However, the unpredictable stability of commercially available HfO2 makes it hard to predict their pharmacokinetics and their size range of ((50-100 nm) results in zero clearance from an in vivo system. Therefore, in this study we have executed a modular approach for the design and scalable synthesis of novel, non-sintered, 4-8 nm metal oxide nanoparticles (e.g. Hafnium oxide, Gadolinium oxide) with 40-60 fold higher X-ray attenuation cross-sections than the NPs diameter. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and spectral (color) X-ray CT with the aid of these new class of probes have the potential to enable targeted image guided therapeutics with CT as a lower cost and higher resolution alternative to PET and MRI.
Amorphous HfO2 seed NPs, ~1.5 nm in size, embedded in a polycationic mesh and immobilized inside a silica template, were prepared by the simultaneous reduction and stabilization of tetrakis dimethyl amido hafnium by oleylamine at >250°C in a polyol solvent. Seed NPs were subsequently subjected to high-temperature calcination (>650°C), followed by alkaline digestion of the silica template, to prepare crystalline HfO2 NPs. As-prepared HfO2 NPs were surface functionalized with a monolayer of fluorescent silane to enable fluorescence imaging. The hydrodynamic diameter and zeta potential were measured using dynamic light scattering. In vitro cytocompatibility was characterized using established methods which included Live/Dead assay and confocal laser scanning microscopy after incubating NPs with HeLa cancer cells and THP-1 macrophage cells at 25-200 mg NPs/100,000 cells
We achieved >95% efficient conversion of the amorphous seed NPs to crystalline orthorhombic-HfO2 NPs. HfO2 NPs were ~4-5 nm in diameter and formed non-sintered flocculants, 220-290 nm in diameter. As-prepared CY5 tagged-HfO2 NPs exhibited simultaneous X-ray contrast and fluorescence in multispectral imaging. Both HfO2 and CY5 tagged-HfO2 NPs remained well-dispersed over 24 h. The measured zeta potential was -13 to -16 mV. Encapsulating the HfO2 NPs in a SiO2 shell reduced the hydrodynamic diameter to ~30 nm and inhibited the formation of flocculants. MTT and Live/Dead assays confirmed that the HfO2 NPs were neither cytotoxic nor pro-inflammatory. Confocal microscopy confirmed highly efficient uptake of Cy5-HfO2 NPs by HeLa cells and THP-1 cells.
HfO2 NPs were prepared using a novel templated synthesis resulting in crystalline NPs, ~4-5 nm in diameter, which flocculate into 220-290 nm clusters. Therefore, these NPs provide both long blood circulation and eventual renal clearance through phagocytic breakdown after delivery as radiographic imaging probe or radiosensitizer.
9:45 AM - NM05.01.06
Brightness-Equalized Indium Phosphide Quantum Shells Tunable Through Visible and NIR
Boston University1Show Abstract
The future of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) in biomedical imaging lies not with well-established CdSe-based materials that raise issues of toxicity and limited tissue penetration depths, but rather with heavy metal-free compositions that emit in the near infrared (NIR) and short wave infrared (SWIR) in addition to visible wavelength ranges. With this motivation, we have developed semiconductor quantum shells (QSs) comprising non-toxic constituents. These ZnSe/InP/ZnS core/shell/shell structures are dubbed QSs because their Inverted-Type I bandgap structure yields quantum confinement-based emission from the InP shell. The excitonic emission from the QSs is tunable from the visible through the NIR with shell thickness, yielding emission peaks ranging from 515 – 850 nm. This tunablility range is wider than that seen for Type I InP QDs, particularly expanding emission deeper in the first optical tissue window, which spans from 650 – 950 nm. In this talk, I will detail the synthetic control of these heterostructured nanomaterials. In depth photophysical characterization has elucidated the structure/function relationship, enabling the concerted design of these emitters. Of particular note is our ability to match the brightness of emitters of various colors by tuning both the core size and shell thickness. The presentation will include early nanotoxicity and animal imaging results.
10:30 AM - NM05.01.07
Crystal Phase-Controlled Synthesis of Novel Noble Matel Nanomaterials
Nanyang Technological University1Show Abstract
In this talk, I will summarize the recent research on the crystal phase-engineering of novel nanomaterials in my group. It includes the first-time synthesis of hexagonal-close packed (hcp) Au nanosheets (AuSSs) on graphene oxide, surface-induced phase transformation of AuSSs from hcp to face-centered cubic (fcc) structures, the first-time synthesis of 4H hexagonal phas