Nanoscale electronic devices have the potential to achieve superior sensitivity as sensors for the detection of molecular interactions, thereby decreasing diagnostics costs and enabling previously impossible sensing in disparate field environments. Using integrated silicon nanowire field-effect transistors (NW-FETs) that are compatible with CMOS technology  we study a wide range of biochemical and macromolecular sensing applications. Direct, label-free detection of biomolecules such as proteins and DNA enables the study of binding kinetics by real-time measurements [2, 3]. Multiplexed NW-FETs allow for differential  and multianalyte sensing. Indirect methods such as the detection of enzyme-substrate interactions in physiological buffers  present ways to overcome critical limitations of nanowire sensors such as the Debye screening limitation , the competing surface reactions , and the lack of internal calibration for analyte quantification, which have prevented their use in clinical applications and physiologically relevant solutions. We will present approaches that solve these longstanding problems, which demonstrates the detection at clinically important concentrations of biomarkers from whole blood samples , integrated assays of cancer biomarkers , and the use of these as a quantitative tool for drug design and discovery.
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