Lhadi Merhari CERAMEC R&D
Samuel S. Mao Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
and University of California-Berkeley
Jeroen van Schijndel TNO Science and Industry-Materials Technology
Loucas Tsakalakos General Electric Global Research Center
P1: Nanotech Energy Solutions
Jeroen van Schijndel
Monday PM, November 30, 2009
9:00 AM - **P1.1
Nanotechnology: A Path to Commercialization at GE.
Margaret Blohm 1 Show Abstract
1 , GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York, United States
Converting any disruptive science into a meaningful disruptive technology takes significant time and investment, and nanotechnology is no exception. At GE Global Research, we have been developing a strategy to develop, manufacture and commercialize innovative new nanotechnology-based products across GE's broad technology spaces, from Energy to Healthcare products. R&D highlights and learnings will be discussed.
9:30 AM - **P1.2
BASF Future Business: Turning Trends into New Businesses.
Mark Mielke 1 Show Abstract
1 , BASF Future Business America, Somerset, New Jersey, United States
In addition to innovation activities carried out by BASF business units as well as the corporate R&D functions, BASF Future Business (BFB) pursues entirely new directions for growth through corporate venturing activity. As a global team, BFB identifies future business fields and scouts for relevant technology which fit these new areas. The talk will describe BFB's approach to scouting and strategy in the mega-trend fields of energy, electronics, health and environment.
10:00 AM - **P1.3
Technology Transfer in Energy Materials.
Horst Hahn 1 2 Show Abstract
1 Institute for Nanotechnology, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany, 2 Joint Research Laboratory Nanomaterials, TU Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Hesse, Germany
Nanoscience research has led to major new discoveries in areas which are of interest for novel industrial applications, including electronics, health, energy etc. The transfer of exciting new results into economical products remains a challenge due to the immense investments needed and the substantial time to develop the technology. Several concepts, such as start-ups, joint research laboratories with international cooperations, public-private-partnerships etc., are being employed in many countries. In this talk, examples of technology transfer in the area of energy materials in Germany and, in particular the Karlsruhe region, will be presented.
10:30 AM - **P1.4
A Business Case for Nanotechnology: Nanodevices for Energy Conversion
M. Saif Islam 1 , Logeeswaran Veerayah Jayaraman 1 Show Abstract
1 Electrical & Computer Engineering, University of California Davis, Davis, California, United States
In the last decade, nanotechnology has been an exponentially growing area of science and engineering showing increasing potential to transform a broad range of industries - from energy, sensing, agriculture and healthcare to computing - with promise of products that are engineered down to the level of individual atoms. This talk will focus on some of the main challenges nanotech start-ups face in turning laboratory inventions into valuable and marketable nanotech products. Important issues including environmental, health and safety concerns, mass-manufacturing, integrability, reliability, and intellectual property will be discussed with specific examples on nanotech start-ups in the field of renewable energy.
11:30 AM - **P1.5
Mechanical Processing in Hydrogen Storage Research and Development.
Viktor Balema 1 Show Abstract
1 Aldrich Materials Science, Sigma-Aldrich Corp., Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States
The growing demand for energy and recent global climate changes call for new approaches to energy generation and storage. One of the possible ways to satisfy growing energy requirements is the conversion of solar energy into electricity. Thus, generated electricity can be immediately used to power a broad variety of tools and devices. It can also be stored in chemical form in hydrogen rich materials such as hydrides, composite materials or metal-organic frameworks. The latter approach—conversion of solar energy into materials with high hydrogen content such as oil and natural gas—is the way in which fossil fuels were formed in nature; of course that process took millions of years.Storing hydrogen in solids offers a unique opportunity for its convenient and safe use in automotive, portable, stationary and other applications. Unfortunately, none of the materials currently on the market satisfy the needs of end users, which explains the interest and investments into hydrogen storage related research and development. This presentation addresses an experimental approach which proved to be indispensable in basic and applied hydrogen storage R&D—the preparation and modification of hydrogen rich molecular and ionic materials at nano-level using high-energy mechanical milling. This approach, also know as mechanochemistry, has proven to be an extremely useful tool for the preparation of novel materials as well as the investigation of chemical transformations that can take place in solids under solvent-free conditions. Recent research suggests that the exact mechanism of mechanochemical processes should be determined on a case-by-case basis. It also appears that mechanochemical processes in solids can be driven by structural changes and high pressure, generated in the material during milling. The crystal structure, lattice energy, and chemical reactivity of materials involved may govern the magnitude of the energy input required for such processes to occur.
12:00 PM - **P1.6
Nano-stuctured Composite Cathodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.
Mojie Cheng 1 , Xiaomin Zhang 1 Show Abstract
1 , Dalian Inst. of Chemical Physcis, China, Dalian China
Solid oxide fuel cells are one of the most desirable technologies for the efficient and clean conversion of energy stored in fuels into electricity. Now, world-wide effort is being given to SOFCS for their commercialization. High fabrication cost is recognized as one of main hurdles, and various approaches are under investigation to reduce the cost. Nano-structured composite cathodes are the most promising cathodes for improving cell performance, enhancing reliability and stability and reducing the fabrication cost. In this presentation, our researches on the properties and electrochemical performances of nano-structured cathodes will be introduced and discussed.
12:30 PM - **P1.7
Cost-effective Aqueous Chemical Fabrication of Metal Oxide Quantum Rods and Dots Structures and Devices.
Lionel Vayssieres 1 Show Abstract
1 , National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba Japan
The need of low cost functional materials with optimized geometry, orientation, and aspect ratio combined with inexpensive large scale manufacturing methods will play a decisive role in the successful implementation of nanotech-based product and technology. However, fabricating and manufacturing large area of such functional materials remains a serious challenge. Novel smarter and cheaper fabrication techniques and, just as important, better fundamental knowledge and comprehensive understanding of materials and their syntheses as well as their properties using nanoscale phenomena such as quantum confinements to create multi-functional structures and devices is the key to success. Moreover, the necessity of materials development which is not limited to materials that can achieve their theoretical limits, but makes it possible to raise theoretical limits by changing the fundamental underlying physics and chemistry while keep the fabrication cost to a minimum is crucial.Materials nanotechnologies based on chemical fabrication approaches is one of the immediate answer to the enormous need for cost-effective new materials for energy, electronics, and health. R&D exploiting chemical nanoscience and nanotechnology has the greatest potential to efficiently contribute to such challenging goals. Indeed, the creation of new materials with higher performance and improved stability achieved by atomic, molecular and nanostructural design and control using unique nanoscale phenomena such as quantum confinements is the key. Such ideas will be illustrated and demonstrated on the modeling, design and fabrication of metal oxide quantum dots and quantum rods-based structures and devices and their applications for visible light-active metal oxide semiconductors for solar hydrogen generation, as well as for gas sensors, magnetic and optoelectronic devices.
Monday PM, November 30, 2009
2:30 PM - **P2.1
Some Recent Experiences With Startup Companies in Materials.
John Rogers 1 Show Abstract
1 , University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, United States
This talk will review some of our recent experiences with materials-centric startup companies, including three detailed examples: one in photovoltaics; another in biomedical devices; and a third in solid state lighting. Thoughts on challenges and opportunities, some specific to the current economic climate, will be presented.
3:00 PM - **P2.2
Nanotechnology Enabled Micro-Gas Chromatograph Analyzers.
Mark Shannon 1 Show Abstract
1 MechSE, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, United States
Micro-gas chromatograph analyzers are being developed around the world for a host of applications ranging from detecting undesirable compounds in air for security and safety, process control in industry and energy, and sensing compounds in breath for health monitoring and diagnosis. Some drivers for their development include speed (down to seconds for security), cost (<$1000), size (cell phone size and smaller), energy consumption (< 10 J), decrease in gas sample volumes (to milliliters), and perhaps surprisingly, reduction in false positives (to less than 1 in 106). While normal scale gas chromatographs (GC) are a highly developed and exquisite technology, due to differing constraints applied to micro-gas chromatographs (μ~GC) such as speed and energy consumption as well as differing physical phenomena dominating at the microscale, simply reducing the size of a GC runs into significant problems, leading to far worse results for μ~GC than a GC. However, nanotechnology is being employed in creating high-speed, high-pressure microvalves and pumps in order to control and route fluids, in the preconcentrator with metal organic framework molecules that have over a 1000 m2 of area per gram, enabling highly specific gain in concentration of target molecules, and in micro-nano sensors based on carbon nanotubes (CNT’s). These technologies have now left the university laboratory and are now being commercialized by Cbana Laboratories, a small startup out of Illinois’s Research Park, and hopefully at least one large Fortune 500 company. By exploiting nanotechnology, we are now able to preconcentrate gaseous species to several hundred times their ambient concentration within seconds, inject and separate over 30 species in micromachined columns in less than 4 seconds, and detect species down to the parts per trillion levels, all in a microsystem. Thus, new applications and markets are now possible to be created, which could not happen with even state-of-the-art gas analyzers, thereby opening up new businesses and opportunities.
3:30 PM - P2.3
Synthesis of Highly-Specific Nanoparticles from the Gas Phase on the Pilot-Plant Scale.
Tim Huelser 1 , Sophie Schnurre 1 , Hartmut Wiggers 1 2 3 , Christof Schulz 1 2 3 Show Abstract
1 Nano-Energy & Nano Particle Synthesis, Institute of Energy and Environmental Technology (IUTA), Duisburg Germany, 2 Institute for Combustion and Gas Dynamics (IVG), University of Duisburg-Essen, Duisburg Germany, 3 Center for NanoIntegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE), University of Duisburg-Essen, Duisburg Germany
Highly-specific nanoparticles provide promising properties for a large variety of applications as the size dependence of their properties allows to tailor materials for specific applications. Synthesis of nanoparticles can follow different routes, while wet-chemical synthesis usually ends up in materials grown by thermodynamic control, gas-phase processes enable for a kinetic control of nanoparticle formation. Therefore, this method is favored for the formation of metastable materials like doped nanoparticles and nanocomposites. Industrial nanoparticle production, however, is covered by flame processes as they enable cost-effective production with high throughput. The quality of the resulting materials is limited and often agglomerates with a broad size distribution are formed. Highly specific nanomaterials, however, are synthesisized in specific lab-scale reactors - often available in minute quantities. Therefore, subsequent processing steps cannot be studied and many nanomaterials that require sophisticated synthesis technologies have not yet found their way into practical applications.Based on our experience of lab-scale reactors, we designed a unique pilot-plant-scale particle synthesis plant enabling for three different synthesis routes using either a hot-wall reactor, a flame reactor or a plasma reactor. In these reactors the energy required for precursor decomposition is provided by either an electrical heat source, a flame, or a microwave-supported plasma. Depending on precursor and gas-phase composition, materials like metals, metal oxides or semiconductors are generated. The chemical composition of the nanoparticles can be adjusted to pure, doped, mixed and composite materials. Pressure, precursor concentration, and residence time can be varied over a wide range to fine-tune particle size and morphology. The facility generates passivated pure and doped silicon nanoparticles, passivated iron particles, iron-oxide and different metal oxides like titanium dioxide with structures sizing between a few nm and a few µm. The reactors provide ample opportunities for sampling and in-situ measurements like in-situ laser diagnostics, molecular-beam particle mass spectrometry, and gas chromatography with subsequent mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Based on the multiple characterization methods we are able to fully characterize the reaction processes and to provide information for the development and validation of numerical simulations describing particle formation and growth. Due to the ability of continuous synthesis and on-line diagnostics, nanoparticulate materials with different size-distributions and degrees of agglomeration can be produced.The reactors enable for the synthesis of significant amounts (up to kg/h) of nanoparticles without losing their specification. Therefore, we are able to produce sufficient amounts for first approaches in industrial processes to develop and enable nanoparticle-based materials with new properties.
3:45 PM - P2.4
Fascinating World of Nanomaterials, Applications and Technology Hurdles in Commercial Production.
Shiva Hullavarad 1 , Nilima Hullavarad 1 Show Abstract
1 Office of Electronic Miniaturization, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska, United States
Nanoparticles, nanowires, nanorods and other kinds of nanostructures have been of great interest to scientific field since a past decade. Recently, semiconducting nanowires have attracted much attention due to the fact that quantized geometrical shapes lead to size effects and strong two-dimensional confinement of electrons, holes and photons make them particularly attractive as potential building blocks for nanoscale electronics and optoelectronic devices, highly quantum efficient lasers and non-linear optical converters. It is generally accepted that the low dimensional structures (where the size in one direction is equivalent to or smaller than the de Broglie wavelength) are useful materials for investigating the dependence of electrical and thermal transport or mechanical properties on the dimensionality and quantum confinement. Nanomaterials also play an important role as functional units in fabricating the electromechanical devices. Semiconductor nanostructures of different materials and shapes are investigated due to their size dependent electronic properties observable at dimensions comparable to or less than Bohr radius of exciton in these materials. Especially various oxides and sulphides have generated interests in variety of applications. In this talk, the recent progress in semiconducting nanostructures, production methods, applications and technology hurdles in implementing nanostructures will be discussed.
4:30 PM - **P2.5
Edward Hughes 1 , Eric Bruner 1 Show Abstract
1 , Aculon, Inc., San Diego, California, United States
Aculon, Inc. specializes in inventing and commercializing unique molecular-scale surface and interfacial coatings leveraging nanotechnology discoveries made at Princeton University. These coatings can be classified into three functional areas; non-stick, pro-stick/adhesion, and anti-corrosion.The company has formulated coating solutions and processes for numerous markets including optical, display, electronics, consumer products and industrial coatings. These specialized coatings outperform all known alternatives in characteristics such as adhesion, stain resistance, and scratch resistance.Fueling the company’s commercialization efforts are its proprietary Self-Assembled Monolayer of Phosphonates (SAMP) technology. The commercialization of SAMP treatments can be used for a variety of applications including imparting hydrophobicity, adhesion, or corrosion inhibition to numerous substrates. For surface treatments to be effective, they must be mechanically and chemically stable under conditions experienced in the intended area of use. Aculon’s proprietary Self-Assembled Monolayer of Phosphonates methodology can impart any of these properties as desired to metals, metal oxides and even some polymer surfaces by drawing on its library of structurally tailored phosphonic acids.The secret to the success of SAMP technology is its superior covalent bonding, which creates a uniquely strong attachment between the SAMP and the substrate. The SAMP is one approximately 1.5 nm thick. It completely covers the material to which it is applied, and assures total surface coverage regardless of the type or texture of that material. The composition of the SAMP determines the properties that it imparts to its substrate. In 1998, Professor Jeffery Schwartz of Princeton University discovered that well-ordered monolayers of phosphonates could be formed by self-assembly on a wide variety of oxide and oxide-terminated surfaces. At that time Professor Schwartz and his team also discovered that a simple dip process enabled SAMP formation on substrates of complex structures and geometries, as well as traditionally “unreactive” surfaces.The research showed that SAMP adhesion to oxides was mechanically strong and resisted removal by hydrolysis and oxidation. It showed further that by using the dip method, SAMPs of a variety of molecular structures, including aliphatic, aromatic, and heteroaromatic, could be prepared.Commercialization of SAMPs proves that such surface-bound phosphonates can dictate control of the surface properties of myriad substrates and that they can be implemented using well-known industrial techniques and conditions. These processes can be scaled to meet the needs of large or small facilities, and can be applied to surfaces of nearly any size or shape without special needs. Based on the needs of the producer, surface modification can be completed during the time of manufacturing or can be performed as a post-production step.
5:00 PM - P2.6
Behavior of Electron Trapping and Detrapping in Defect Sites of Polycrystalline Silicon Thin Films.
Emi Machida 1 , Yukiharu Uraoka 1 2 , Hiroshi Ikenoue 3 Show Abstract
1 Graduate School of Materials Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Ikoma, Nara, Japan, 2 CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama, Japan, 3 Advanced Course, Kochi National College of Technology, Nankoku, Kochi, Japan
In recent years, polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) thin films are widely used in channel material for thin film transistor (TFT). However, the poly-Si films have many electrical defects, and these defects cause a marked reduction in field-effect mobility of TFT. We have studied local electrical properties of the poly-Si films by conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KFM). In this paper, we investigate behavior of electron in defect sites of grain. The poly-Si films were formed by conventional laser annealing method, and sample structure was poly-Si (50 nm)/ SiO2/ SiNx/ non-alkali glass substrate. C-AFM and KFM measurements were performed using Shimadzu SPM-9600 with a platinum-coated cantilever at room temperature in air ambient. Before the measurements, native oxide on the poly-Si films was removed using a 5% HF solution. First, we observed local current images of an identical area of a poly-Si film taken at a constant sample voltage of -2.0 V by C-AFM. During the ninth scans, conductivity of grain boundary was almost unchanged in spite of repeat scanning of the cantilever. It is considered that defect sites are so dense to easily cause hopping conduction; thus, current flow continuously at grain boundary. In contrast, conductivity of grain significantly decreased in area with an increase in the number of scan. This phenomenon was most often found during the first to fourth scans, and conductivity in grain was almost unchanged after the fifth scans. Next, we measured the rise in surface potential in the poly-Si film due to the fourth scanning C-AFM measurements by KFM. While the rise in surface potential of grain boundary was little changed, that of grain was clearly observed. It is well known that positive charging of defect sites induces the increase in coulomb scattering of free carrier. Consequently, the reduction of conductivity in grain is caused due to positive charging of defect sites by the electron detrapping from the defect sites to the cantilever. During the seventh to ninth scans, some newly appeared current spots due to repeat scanning were observed in grain. It is considered that electrons which flow in the poly-Si films are trapped at positively charged defect sites, and this reduces coulomb scattering at defect sites. As the result, current spots are newly appeared in grain. The average and standard deviation of the current spot size was roughly estimated to 5.2 ± 2.2 nm. These newly appeared spots repeat appearance and disappearance. Therefore, we conclude that some electrons repeat trapping and detrapping at defect sites in grain. We also estimated the density of positively charged defect sites from the rise in surface potential measured by KFM. As the estimation, the occupation area of one defect site (density of emitted electrons) was from several nanometers square to tens of nanometers square, and the result gave close agreement with the area of newly appeared current spot.
5:15 PM - P2.7
Optical Spectroscopic Techniques to Characterize the Performance of Nanomaterials Based Solar Cells.
Yasuhiro Tachibana 1 Show Abstract
1 Applied Chemistry, Osaka University, Osaka Japan
Nanomaterials based solar cells, such as dye sensitized, semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) sensitized, organic bulk heterojunction and organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells, have recently attracted considerable attentions as emerging photovoltaic devices. These solar cells have been developed with the advancement of nanotechnology, particularly with structurally controlled nanomaterials. Such devices are extremely attractive with potentially low fabrication costs and relatively high solar energy conversion efficiencies.The performance of nanomaterials based solar cells is controlled by interfacial electron transfer kinetics. The efficiency is optimized if (i) a charge separation reaction occurs faster than the excited state decay and (ii) the charge recombination is sufficiently slow compared to the charge diffusion rates. For monitoring and ideally controlling such kinetics, time-resolved spectroscopy is a powerful technique, where the parameters controlling the kinetics can directly be identified, further introducing to design nanostructures in the solar cells. Time-resolved spectroscopy can therefore be employed to improve the solar cell performance.Photocurrent of nanomaterials based solar cells originates from charge diffusion inside a semiconductor and charge collection at an electrode support. The charge diffusion usually occurs as a result of charge trapping-detrapping processes inside the semiconductor, resulting in slow charge collection processes. The photocurrent amplitude depends on the number of generated charges by light excitation, i.e. light intensity, and the charge collection time scales. Thus, spectral response measurements, i.e. incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) measurements, require high intensity monochromatic light source or white light bias.In this presentation, recent developments of time-resolved laser spectroscopy and IPCE measurement equipments will be introduced. Transient absorption spectroscopy, as one of time-resolved spectroscopic techniques, has been developed to monitor transient absorption by electrons and holes simultaneously in a wavelength range of <400~2500 nm, following the charge separation reaction. The parameters identified by the measurements will be correlated with the solar cell performance.This work was financially supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research, No. 21550133, from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan. TEPCO Research Foundation, and the Venture Business Laboratory, Osaka University are also acknowledged for the financial support. Y. Tachibana, et al., J. Phys. Chem. C, 113 (16), 6852-6858 (2009).
5:30 PM - P2.8
Porous Ultrathin Silicon for Nanoscale Membrane Applications.
Christopher Striemer 1 2 , Thomas Gaborski 1 3 , David Fang 2 , Jessica Snyder 4 , James McGrath 3 , Philippe Fauchet 2 Show Abstract
1 , SiMPore, Inc., West Henrietta, New York, United States, 2 Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, United States, 3 Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, United States, 4 Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, United States
A new class of porous membrane has been fabricated that is unique in its combination of nanoscale thickness (<20 nm) with macroscopic, yet robust, millimeter-scale lateral dimensions and tunable pores from ~5nm to ~50nm. Commercial separation membranes with pores in this size regime are typically polymeric materials that are microns in thickness, with pore morphologies that resemble long narrow tubes or tortuous-path 3-D matrices. In these new membranes, thickness nearly equals pore diameter, creating a simplified structure of holes in a thin sheet, greatly enhancing both diffusive and forced flow through the membrane, as predicted by classical transport theories. Indeed, record-breaking transport rates have been measured and reported and will be discussed briefly.The membrane material is porous nanocrystalline Si (pnc-Si), first reported in a 2007 Nature paper by researchers at the University of Rochester and now being scaled-up to commercial volumes by a startup company, SiMPore, Inc. Pnc-Si is formed on a silicon wafer substrate when a thin layer of sputter-deposited amorphous Si is crystallized in a precise rapid thermal process. Pores are formed as nanocrystals nucleate and grow in thin amorphous Si films. Pore size and density are indirectly controlled through deposition and annealing parameters. Masking and etching processes allow comparatively large membrane areas to be freely suspended across openings in the silicon wafer frame with geometries required for specific applications. Scaling up production of this nanomaterial is simplified by the existing silicon wafer processing infrastructure (deposition, thermal, etch, cleaning, etc.), however the unique aspects of our bottom-up pore formation and the nature of ultrathin suspended structures introduces a number of challenges involving uniformity, reproducibility, yield, cost, etc. Our approach and experience in overcoming these challenges will also be discussed.Applications for this highly precise silicon-based membrane range from highly efficient separations and purification of biomolecules, complexes, and nanoparticles to substrates for microscopy and cellular co-culture. SiMPore is focused on quickly getting products on the market that will allow the company to become self-sustaining and profitable though direct sales and partnerships with market leaders. Key product development drivers include potential competitive performance advantages and perceived value to a particular market, the IP landscape, development costs of the membrane and the device package/interface, and alignment with existing in-house capabilities. SiMPore’s first product family, substrates for electron microscopy, was introduced in Jan 2009 and is available directly though an e-commerce website and will soon be carried by several distributors. A separation/purification product is currently in final development and is expected to be released in late 2009. An overview of these efforts will be presented.
Lhadi Merhari CERAMEC R&D
Samuel S. Mao Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
and University of California-Berkeley
Jeroen van Schijndel TNO Science and Industry-Materials Technology
Loucas Tsakalakos General Electric Global Research Center
P3: Nanobiotech and Green Nanotech Challenges
Jeroen van Schijndel
Tuesday AM, December 01, 2009
9:00 AM - **P3.1
Large Scale Nanomaterial Production Using Microfluidizer High Shear Processing.
Kenneth Chomistek 1 , Thomai Panagiotou 1 Show Abstract
1 , Microfluidics, Newton, Massachusetts, United States
Microfluidics has developed scalable and low cost award winning technologies, capable of producing nanomaterials with desirable properties for a wide variety of applications. The industries served are pharmaceuticals and biotech, energy, specialty chemicals, cosmetics and nutraceuticals. Microfluidics approach is based on an in-depth understanding of applications, unique design of high shear fluid processors, and development of processes tailored for each individual application. The understanding of the requirements and ecosystem of specific applications includes the desired end properties of the material, the production environment requirements (cGMP, explosion proof, etc.), time and cost restrictions. Pharmaceutical and biotech applications include the development and the production of FDA approved nanotechnology drugs such as vaccines, cancer drugs, anesthetics, controlled delivery systems that include polymers drugs and proteins, etc. Chemical applications include inkjet inks, fuel cell and battery electrodes, carbon nanotube dispersion and purification in liquid media including polymer resins. Cosmetics include nanoencapsulation of oxygen carriers and nutrients, and collagen processing. Nutraceuticals include nanoencapsulation of fish oil for protection of omega-3 fatty acids and odor control, nanoemulsions that contain plant sterols and vitamins. Two main methods are used for production of nanomaterials: (a) the “top down”, particle size reduction method, and (b) the “bottom up”, Microfluidics reaction Technology (MRT) for production of nanoparticles through chemical reactions and physical processes, such as crystallization. This technology received the Nano50 Award in 2007. Both technologies are continuous and can be used in line with upstream or downstream processes such as premixing, filtration, etc., and are consistent with process intensification principals. The heart of the technology is the interaction chamber which consists of “fixed geometry” microchannels. Flow through the chamber is characterized by high fluid velocities (up to 500 m/s) and subsequent impingement of fluid jets to the chamber walls or to one another. The velocities and shear rates inside the interaction chamber are orders of magnitude higher than those of existing technologies. The unique “fixed geometry” feature combined with the high shear rates ensure that varied formulations (emulsions, liposomes and dispersions) achieve the smallest particle size and the narrowest particle size distribution when compared to other particle reduction techniques.The technology is fully scalable and has been used extensively from lab scale to production of market drugs, nutraceuticals and inks, among others. Microfluidizer® processors offer a variety of options, such as steam sterility, cleanability and data acquisition capabilities, so they are cGMP compliant, CE certified, ATEX and explosion proof, and therefore are suitable for a variety of manufacturing environments.
9:30 AM - P3.2
A Novel MEH-PPV/Alq3 Radiation Sensor Used as Smart Device for Neonatal Phototherapy Application.
Giovana Ferreira 1 , Rodrigo Bianchi 1 Show Abstract
1 Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Ouro Preto Brazil
Since the discovery of electroluminescence properties of organic crystals and conjugated polymers, a considerable number of researches have been done in order to investigate the semiconducting properties of this class of materials and their related applications in optoelectronic de- vices. Recently efforts have focused on improving the lifetimes of these devices, but the photoxidation process of the organic materials is yet an obstacle for many of their commercial applications. This effect reflects the possibility to design and develop dosimeters where the influence of visible radiation on the optical properties of conjugated materials is more important then improving the luminance and life-time of light-emitting devices made from them. In present work, we design and developed a novel blue-light dosimeter based on the change in the optical properties of tris(8-hydroxyquinolato)aluminum (Alq3) and poly[(2-methoxy-5-hexyloxy)p-phenylenevinylene (MEH-PPV) organic systems during photoxidation process. The results show that the material presents a gradation of color from orange to yellow clearly, while its peak position emission shifts from orange-red (571 nm) to green (540 nm) with the blue radiation exposure time (460 nm focus, 40 mW/cm2 /nm). The rate of these changes can be altered by manipulations of organic materials and they are usually slow from 2 to 8 h, suggesting these color and emission changes can be used to design a low cost and easy to make smart device for phototherapy application which is easy to read and to operate to represent easily the radiation exposure time usually used in management of neonatal jaundice. This work was sponsored by FAPEMIG, CNPq, CNPq/INEO and Capes.
9:45 AM - P3.3
Blue-light Dosimeter based on Luminescent Polymers and Measuring Device.
Andre Duarte 1 , Jorge Pires 1 , Claudia Vasconcelos 1 , Giovana Ferreira 1 , Rodrigo Bianchi 1 , Andrea Bianchi 1 Show Abstract
1 Physics Department, Federal University of Ouro Preto, Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Luminescent polymers are commonly employed in light-emitting displays because of their processability, lightweight and higher luminance with low power consumption. However, even though they are good candidates for lighting applications, they are highly susceptible to photoxidation which dramatically change their color with light exposure time, Ferreira et. al. used the light instability of a luminescent polymer solution to design a blue-light dosimeter. Visible dosimetry is desired especially in medical applications where blue-light phototherapy is used, for example, in a neonatal disease treatment that correlates the rate of decline in serum bilirubin level of infant’s skin with intensity of spectral light source, as well as the distance between the source and the neonates. Previous results discussed by Ferreira et. al , aimed the importance of monitoring the irradiation of concentration solutions of MEH-PPV (poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene) in real time. They investigated the influence of blue-light radiation in the optical properties of MEH-PPV and developed a new medical sensor for phototherapy treatment. This work proposes a portable and low cost system capable of monitoring the absorbance and photoemission spectra behavior of MEH-PPV solutions as a function of blue-light radiation exposure time (or dosage). The system is designed as a colorimeter in with the electronic device is composed by three photosensors (red, green, blue) that collect data by transmission using a blue light source; the polymer solution is introduced between them. A mathematical modeling scheme was used to identify the optical properties of the polymer solution based in supervised neural networks and regression approaches. While neural network system is characterized by learning capacity upon a training set of empirical data and is ideal for a set of disorganized one, the regression modeling allows quantification of quality and reliability. Both methods allow the polymer degradation classification according to the medical judgment. The preliminary results using regression present a good agreement between modeling and experimental data. However the correlation matrix shows that voltage photosensors values have a strong correlation, from 89% to 97%. Such results were corroborated by the determination coefficient, measurement of regression modeling agreement, where the reliability was about 98% for each sensor separately and 85% for three. This result indicated that one single photosensor produces better results than three. Thus, in what solution classification is concerned, the proposed system represents a promising and acceptable prototype for industrial applications, such as medical application, where reliability is distinguished, and must be measured accuracy. This work was supported by Fapemig, Capes and Cnpq. G. R. Ferreira, C. K. B. de Vasconcelos, R. F. Bianchi, Medical Physics, 36, 2009.
10:00 AM - **P3.4
Bridging the Nano-gap: From Scientific Discovery to Real World Products.
Partha Dutta 1 2 Show Abstract
1 ECSE, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York, United States, 2 , Auterra Inc. (previously Applied Nanoworks Inc.), Malta, New York, United States
Going from a small scale laboratory invention or discovery to a large scale application is not a trivial task and incorporating them into a product for a viable business is even more difficult. As technologies approach final products and applications, the number of criteria it must meet increases exponentially. Economics of the manufacturing process, environmental issues, intellectual property management, etc. needs to be assessed and monitored carefully. Bridging the gap from research to business not only needs multi-disciplinary understanding of the various aspects of the technology, but also how and what it could potentially enable or replace in current technologies and how to go about it through partnerships with global business entities. Especially with new materials, such as nano-scale materials, technology push needs to be rigorous and often the end results are uncertain. One needs to start from a large number of end user applications and narrow down to 1-2 high value-add or high volume opportunities. This process also requires constant development of the existing products to meet the exact needs for the high opportunity end markets. Timing for such efforts is crucial and the resources needed for such activities are often under-estimated by small start-up firms. Even for materials with well understood end products and established markets, significant market pull requires huge investments in product reliability demonstrations, cost of manufacturing, etc. Innovation, flexibility, change, educated risk, adaptability, focus and excellence are all key drivers and necessary ingredients for a successful and sustainable start-up venture. While scientific and engineering innovations are absolutely necessary, the metric for success for any business is revenue generation. Finding the right mechanisms for closing this gap (so-called the valley of death) is where the innovations of entrepreneurs lies. In this talk, I will share my personal learning experiences through the start-up company Applied Nanoworks Inc., (now Auterra Inc.). Auterra Inc. is an inorganic materials development company with its patent pending Molecular Control Platform (MCP) Technology that is being used to create new inorganic molecules for custom applications in organic material systems. The flexibility and organic compatibility of the designed molecules are enabled through ligand attachment sites and nano-particle growth capabilities. This new technology platform enables molecules to form nano-particle with very tight size distributions. In essence, these nano-particles are inorganic polymers that are highly controllable. The MCP Technology™ process is being applied to creating new catalysts, thin films and functional polymers where mechanical, electrical and optical properties are important. Applications currently in development through MCP include: Oxydesulfurization catalyst for oil and oil distillates, Water-soluble tin oxide thin film precursor for photovoltaic application, Non-halogenated flame retardants for plastics and coatings, Water soluble, green catalysts with tailored reactivity and selectivity, Tailored single and multi-metal catalysts, Advanced bonding agent for several different materials applications, Adhesion promoter for improvement of adhesion strength in composites. The company’s large scale technology application focus has been in the areas of petroleum oxydesulfurization and flame retardants. In addition, advanced R&D is underway for high efficiency phosphors for solid state lighting and display applications.
10:30 AM - **P3.5
Plasma Synthesis: A Novel Way of Making Catalysts.
Maximilian Biberger 1 Show Abstract
1 , SDCmaterials, Inc., Tempe, Arizona, United States
In the present paper a novel method of manufacturing catalysts is presented. The process begins by feeding the proper mixture of micron sized powders consisting of an oxide carrier, typically Al2O3 or SiO2 or the like, and precious metals, Pt, Pd, Au or the like, into a DC plasma gun. Inside the gun the powders are vaporized at temperatures of approximately 25,000 K. After the powders are vaporized the vapor is rapidly quenched approaching quench rates of approximately 1,000,000 K/s. This rapid quench causes the powder to recondense in form of nanopowders. More specifically: Due to the higher boiling point the oxide nanoparticles condense first, followed by the precious metal nanoparticles, which condense on the surface of the slightly larger oxide nanoparticles. TEM image will show Pt nanoparticles condensed on Al2O3 (Pt are the smaller, black particles). After the nanoparticles have been collected, the so-called Nano on Nano Catalyst™ has to be transformed into catalysts of usable form, i.e. micron sized powders, extrudates or monoliths. This is accomplished by dispersing the Nano on Nano Catalyst™ in water and then impregnating, e.g. extrudates, by means of incipient wetness method. This is followed by a calcining step. The catalyst is now ready for use.The above described novel way of making catalysts offers several advantages. The catalysts are: a) Tunable as it relates to particle size of the active material independent of the final loading and b) the catalysts exhibit much better high temperature and long term stability than commercially available catalysts.The latter is shown in the example below and right: Using the method described above a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) was built. As reference a VW DOC was used. Results will be presented clearly showing that the SDC built catalyst has superb high temperature stability, better CO, Hydrocarbon and NOx performance at vastly reduced PGM precious metal levels.A table will be presented showing a list of demonstrated model reactions relating to the field of fine chemical / process catalysts using these novel catalysts:The results will show that the SDC catalysts can catalyze the six listed molecules.Finally we will discuss the green aspect of this novel way of making catalysts: SDCmaterials’ technology uses only electricity and water for its manufacturing process. No chemicals are used and have to be disposed of. Also presented in this paper will be high volume manufacturing aspects of this technology as well as the cost related to this process. One will see that manufacturing cost is at least comparable, in some cases even less expensive than the existing process flows.
11:30 AM - **P3.6
The Future of TCO Materials: Stakes and Challenges.
Marie-Isabelle Baraton 1 Show Abstract
1 SPCTS, University of Limoges & CNRS, Limoges France
The field of major applications of transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) continues to expand, thus generating a growing demand for new materials with lower resistivity and higher transparency over extended wavelength ranges. Moreover, p-type TCOs are opening new horizons for high-performance devices based on p-n junctions. Among the most commonly used TCO materials are zinc oxide (ZnO), indium tin oxide (ITO), tin oxide (SnO2), and indium oxide (In2O3). Still, design and synthesis of improved TCO materials leading to a marked increase in conductivity and robustness remain highly desirable while a more detailed understanding of the conductivity mechanisms is critical to further improvement. For example, there is an accelerating effort worldwide by both academia and industry to develop a transparent conductor that can meet or beat the performance of the commonly used ITO at lower costs and with more physical resilience.This lecture will review new developments in TCO materials to be used in various applications spanning from photovoltaics to lighting, smart windows, or gas sensors. The financial stakes, far from being negligible in the TCOs market, and the current scientific and technological challenges to be taken up will be discussed.
12:00 PM - P3.7
Performance Evaluation of an Oxygen Sensor as a Function of the Samaria Doped Ceria Film Thickness.
Rahul Sanghavi 1 , M. Nandasiri 2 3 , S. Kuchibhatla 2 , P. Nachimuthu 2 , M. Engelhard 2 , V. Shutthanandan 2 , W. Jiang 2 , S. Thevuthasan 2 , A. Kayani 3 , S. Prasad 1 Show Abstract
1 Department of Electrical Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, United States, 2 , EMSL, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, United States, 3 Physics Department, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan, United States
The current demand in the automobile industry is in the control of air-fuel mixture in the combustion engine of automobiles. Oxygen partial pressure can be used as an input quantity for regulating or controlling systems in order to optimize the combustion process. Our goal is to identify and optimize the material system that would potentially function as the active sensing material for such a device that monitors oxygen partial pressure in these systems.We have used thin film samaria doped ceria as the sensing material for the sensor operation, exploiting the fact that at high temperatures, oxygen vacancies generated due to Sm doping act as conducting medium for oxygen ions which hop through the vacancies from one side to the other contributing to an electrical signal. The principle of operation is based on the change in the chemi-impedance of the sensor, defined by a relationship between the oxygen exposure to the active sensing material and the overall conductivity of the sensor at high temperatures.We have recently established that 6 atom % Sm doping in ceria films has optimum conductivity. Based on this observation, we have studied the variation in the overall conductivity of samaria doped ceria thin films as a function of thickness in the range of 50 nm to 300 nm at a fixed bias voltage of 2 volts. We observed saturation in the conductivity for the film thickness of 200 nm up to 300 nm. We have identified that the dynamic response of this oxygen sensor and the hysteresis error measured as the difference in the measured conductivity for different cycles of pressure variations for a constant temperature is generic for the material system and is independent of the sensing film thickness. A direct proportionality in the increase in the overall conductivity is observed with the increase in sensing film thickness. For a range of oxygen pressure values from 1 mTorr to 100 Torr, a tolerable hysteresis error, good dynamic response and a response time of less than 10 seconds was observed.
12:15 PM - P3.8
Nanostructure-Based Sensors and Catalysts.
Jin Luo 1 2 , Lingyan Wang 1 2 , Xiajing Shi 1 2 , Weibing Hao 1 , Susan Lu 2 , Chuan- Jian Zhong 2 Show Abstract
1 , NSC Technology, Vestal, New York, United States, 2 , State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, New York, United States
NSC Technology has been developing advanced nanomaterials, enabling nanotechnology, and commercial products for advancing the research and performance capabilities in areas of environment, energy, and medical devices. In the sensor area, a portable sensor array system with plug-and-play modules has been developed for monitoring air contaminants. The array system features integrated electronic hardware and data processing software. In the catalyst area, supported monometallic, bimewtallic and trimetallic nanoparticle catalysts have been developed, which can be used as electrocatalysts in fuel cell reactions. This presentation will describe recent progress in research and development of nanostructure-based sensors and catalysts.
12:30 PM - P3.9
Synthesis of Zr-containing Compound Nano-particles Using Solution Plasmas.
Kazuya Suzuki 1 , Tatsuru Shirafuji 1 , Sung-pyo Cho 1 , Nagahiro Saito 2 3 , Osamu Takai 1 3 Show Abstract
1 , Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya Japan, 2 , EcoTopia Science Reseach Institute, Nagoya University, Nagoya Japan, 3 , CREST, JST, Nagoya Japan
Zirconium compounds are utilized for many applications. Especially the oxide, zirconium dioxide (zirconia), is used in a wide range of fields, for example oxygen sensor, fuel cell, and so on. Nano-particles of the zirconia have further advantages because composite materials with the zirconia nano-particles are expected to add new functionality to host materials. The zirconia-nano-particle synthesis has been performed by using hydrothermal techniques or flame spraying [1, 2]. These conventional methods, however, have some problems that they are complex processes and have difficulty in controling particle size.In this paper, thus, we propose a new synthesis method, a solution plasma, for zirconia nano-particles for overcoming these problems. The solution plasma uses electrical discharges in liquid solution, in which we have realized non-equilibrium plasma, namely low temperature plasma, by using nano-second voltage pulses for igniting the discharges. In the solution plasmas, in contrast to conventional electrochemistry, there are high energy or chemically active species such as radicals, ions, electrons and uv photons. We expect that contribution of these species to the nano-particle synthesis make our process easier and faster than conventional methods.We have used zirconium salts as source materials for zirconia nano-particles. Zr(SO4)2 and Zr(NO3)4 have been used in this work. Electrical discharges are ignited between two W electrodes (1.0 mm diameter, 0.3 mm gap) in liquid solution of the zirconium salt by applying pulsed high voltage (15 kHz, 2 us width) of a few kV. Sodium dodecyl sulfate has been used as a protective agent for avoiding coagulation of the synthesized nano-particles.Synthesis of the zirconia nano-particles has been confirmed through the transmission electron microscopy observation of the products after the electrical discharge in the liquid solution of zirconium salts. We are now performing analysis of the shape and density of the zirconia nano-particles as a function of discharge duration time, and also investigating the effects of liquid properties such as electrical conductivity and pH. Since we have used W electrodes, we are also investigating possibility to produce nano-particles of zirconium tungstate (ZrW2O8), which is known to have a unique properties of negative thermal expansion. Hee-Jin Noha, Dong-Seok Seob, Hwan Kimb, Jong-Kook Leea, Materials Letters 57 (2003) 2425 A.I.Y. Tok, F.Y.C. Boey, S.W. Du, B.K. Wong, Materials Science and Engineering B 130 (2006) 114
P4: Nanotech for Security and Safety of the Citizen
Tuesday PM, December 01, 2009
3:00 PM - **P4.1
Advanced Sciences Convergence for Defense and Security.
Ashok Vaseashta 1 , Jose Alvelo 1 , Eric Braman 1 , Philip Susmann 1 Show Abstract
1 NUARI, Institute for Advanced Sciences Convergence , Nothfield, Vermont, United States
The process of Advanced Sciences Convergence is to understand how different disciplines, focusing on discrete problems and applications, can be coalesced into a system to solve an intractable problem. It requires understanding of far-reaching end goal that is not yet defined but can be described in terms of desired actions or qualities. Institute for Advanced Sciences Convergence (IASC) provides an early monitoring and identification of emerging scientific advances across multiple disciplines that create revolutionary, integrated and cross-cutting technologies to break through existing solution paradigms. The objective of IASC is to support federal agencies by providing cutting-edge, functional, and advanced technological solutions in support of national security by employing emerging areas in nanotechnology, biotechnology, information processing, and cognitive sciences. Our team is supported by professionals with extensive background in academia, military, federal agencies and international organizations. The IASC value proposition is based on assessment derived from data collected from various resources. The IASC business model provides invaluable information in support of national security based on staff experience without the expense of laboratory infrastructure. Due to rapid developments in nanotechnology, IASC seeks to reach out to identify partners through research collaboration as SMEs to support objectives through identifying advances in NBIC areas and develop strategic investments for technology/science roadmap.
3:30 PM - **P4.2
Nanotechnology Best Invisible Ink Marking for Security Applications.
Ratnakar Vispute 1 , J. Feldman 1 , Geun Lee 1 , Andrew Seiser 1 , Jaurette Dozier 1 , Lance Robinson 1 , Sejal Vispute 1 Show Abstract
1 , Blue Wave Semiconductors, Columbia, Maryland, United States
UV sources with precise output wavelengths are very important for anti-terrorism. We are investigating innovative and compositionally tuned oxide based nanomaterials for bright ultra violet light emission at is tunable in UV region. Nanowires of wide band gap materials showed strong excitonic UV emission with greater optical efficiency than any other compound know. Due to this opportunity, this novel material technology has the potential of being used in the fabrication of cost effective UV luminescent nanostructures that can be optically pumped to create a strong UV luminescence. We have fabricated thin film heterostructures and nanostructures of high optical quality using low cost physical vapor growth technique. In order to fabricate efficient UV emitting products, crystalline quality of light emitting source needs to be as superior as possible like a single crystal. Usually, it’s not possible to have such single crystalline material grown directly on usable substrates such as glass, plastic, polymers, clothes, wood, and steel. Thus, growing single-crystal nanowires and then applying or printing them onto the products seems to be a practical approach. In this way, single crystalline materials will be available for efficient optical processes on the products. In this context, we will discuss optical processes emerged in nanomaterials by absorption and emission through band gap engineered meta-stable but high quantum efficiency nanocrystalline, highly directed wires and nanocrystalline epitaxial films. We will also present the optimization studies of nanostructural optical materials with high UV light emission efficiencies and proto-type device integrated with UV lamps. We will demonstrate further applications including invisible UV ink for security applications, ultraviolet-based secure communications, and space sensors which have market potentials in security and space applications. Our nanotechnology based ink has characteristics such that it is invisible to human eye, heat-proof up to 1000°C, and its easy to apply by ink-jet printing, and it contains spectral fingerprint, and copy-proof. We will highlight the next generation UV light printable sources that will enhance UV applications in national security.
4:30 PM - **P4.3
Nanotechnology: Risks, Regulations and Lawsuits.
Brian Davis 1 Show Abstract
1 , Choate, Hall & Stewart LLP, Boston, Massachusetts, United States
Nanotechnology is a burgeoning field that holds tremendous promise, but also poses considerable risk. Industrialists, scientists and government officials still are attempting to understand how nanomaterials operate, how they can be used and controlled, and what ramifications their use may have for human health and the environment. As the list of actual and potential applications for nanotechnology grows, so does concern about the hazards - known and unknown - potentially posed by such products. Just as nanoparticles may expose workers and consumers to new health risks, they eventually may expose manufacturers and distributors to new waves of litigation and liability. Some members of the scientific community and the legal bar believe that nanoparticles may represent the next asbestos, and are gearing up accordingly. While there have not yet been any reported suits for personal injuries allegedly caused by the presence of nanotechnology in consumer products, the potential for such litigation exists. The unknowns of nanotechnology make regulation all the more difficult. Since nanotechnology covers so many disciplines, and is present in so many types of products, it cannot be controlled by a single agency or set of rules. Yet many existing products that incorporate nanotechnology already are subject to various forms of regulation. At present, the lack of regulations specific to nanotechnology means that producers of nanotechnology only have to comply with the existing regulations specific to the type of industry or product. However, that may soon change. Mounting concern about the potential health and environmental effects of nanomaterials is focusing attention on new ways to measure and control the use of nanotechnology. Evidence of this heightened awareness can be found in the fact that research of the toxicity of nanomaterials has increased nearly 600 percent since 2000. The new administration is likely to be a proactive supporter of nano-regulatory reform. The President is expected to sign into law the National Nanotechnology Initiative Amendments Act of 2009, which provides, in part, for the appointment of a federal coordinator to oversee research on the health, safety and environmental risks of nanomaterials, and to help advise on potential new regulations focused on nanotechnology. The creation and implementation of a cohesive regulatory scheme for nanotechnology will not take place overnight, however. One thing is certain, however. As with all other emerging technologies, there undoubtedly will be some form of regulatory response to nanotechnology eventually. And just as likely, lawsuits. This program will address government regulation, manufacturers’ and distributors’ liability, potential litigation, and how these issues will affect the future of nanotechnology.
5:00 PM - P4.4
Nanotechnologies for Microbicidal Applications – Prospective Analysis of Risks.
Nathan Swami 1 , Michael Gorman 2 , Emma Fauss 1 Show Abstract
1 Electrical & Computer Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, United States, 2 Science, Technology & Society, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, United States
Recent product surveys  estimate that close to a third of the total available nanotechnology products are composed of formulations containing Ag or TiO2 nanoparticles (nps) for microbicidal applications. These nanotechnology-enabled product formulations allow for extended release of Ag+ to disrupt bacterial metabolism, mediation of reactive oxygen species to disrupt bacterial cell membranes, and for controlled release, selectivity and enhanced functionality. However, the potentially adverse environmental implications of desorbed free nps such as microbicidal effects on non-pathogenic bacteria; the increased resistance of microbes to silver due to greater bio-availability of Ag-nps; and effects of nanoparticle run-off into fresh water need to be characterized. We present here a framework to aid in the identification of substantive risks , to enable risk-based, rather than list-based regulation of nanotechnology , by accounting for the entire life-cycle of the nanotechnology product .The current literature on toxic effects involves a small number of studies that do not yet yield conclusive results for quantitative risk assessment that is necessary for regulation. Whereas risk assessment methodology requires that harm be proved, the precautionary principle requires that safety be proved. This is impossible for emerging technologies; hence, methodologies to block potential risks without blocking potential benefits remain a challenge. Hence, instead of risk assessment, we aim to develop methods for the early identification and prioritization of potential risks, relative to an exhaustive but undifferentiated list. In this work, focusing on the identification of environmental risks from silver nanotechnology products through an expert elicitation methodology, we explore the intersection of pre-identified exposure scenarios with inherent nanoscale material properties called hazard factors and exposure factors that enhance the risk potential. In this manner, the expert elicitation framework aims to judge the relative likelihood of occurrence and severity of particular risks versus benefits. The methodology also allowed for a mapping of the risk “hotspots”, identification of the knowledge and regulatory gaps, identification of impacts from the risks, and could aid in the formulation of dose metrics that need to be monitored to mitigate the risks. This can provide the basis for anticipatory governance involving a form of adaptive management, in which particular risks can be identified and methods can be adjusted as the technological frontier advances. Fauss E. Silver Nanotechnology Commercial Inventory Analysis (2008), Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars Wardak, A. et al. Journal of Industrial Ecology 2008, 12, 1-14. Wardak, A. at al. IEEE Technology and Society Magazine, Summer 2007, 2, 48-56. Wardak A. et al. Nanotechnology Law & Business 2006, 3, 507-519.
5:15 PM - P4.5
Environmental, Health, and Safety Monitoring at a CNT Production Facility.
Mark Banash 1 Show Abstract
1 , Nanocomp Technologies, Inc., Concord, New Hampshire, United States
The demand for the CNT sheets and yarns made by Nanocomp Technologies (NCTI) requires the company to scale up its production. Part of any scale-up plan includes a proper monitoring plan for CNTs in a manufacturing environment. As CNTs represent state-of-the-art materials, existing monitoring equipment and techniques can be produce inaccurate or misleading results. Yet compliance with good manufacturing practices and the law demand accurate results today if the industry is to grow.In this presentation we present the results of our assessment of existing and modified analytical techniques, sampling plans, and equipment and how we have subsequently created a working monitoring plan applicable to a CNT production facility. This plan has been developed in collaboration with academic and government researchers as well as with knowledge of regulatory compliance issues. We present a data-based, objective approach that we believe represents a Best Practice for the industry.
Lhadi Merhari CERAMEC R&D
Samuel S. Mao Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
and University of California-Berkeley
Jeroen van Schijndel TNO Science and Industry-Materials Technology
Loucas Tsakalakos General Electric Global Research Center
P5: Nanotech Transition from Lab to Market
Wednesday AM, December 02, 2009
9:00 AM - **P5.0
Industrial Applications of Polymer-metal Oxide Core-shell Nanoparticles.
Nicolaas Viets 1 Show Abstract
1 , Royal DSM N.V., Heerlen Netherlands
In the past few years, the number of patents and scientific papers on the synthesis and use of polymer-metal oxide core-shell nanoparticles increased exponentially. A wide range of application areas has been suggested including catalysis, drug delivery, cosmetics and diagnostics. Notwithstanding the promise of these application areas, one of the first genuine commercial products has been realized in optical coatings. In this contribution, we describe the design, synthesis and use of such core-shell nanoparticles in two product lines of DSM: anti-reflective coatings for picture glass, claryl®, and anti-reflective coatings for solar cover cells. (KhepriCoatTM)
9:30 AM - **P5.1
From Start To Finish: A Nuts and Bolts Snapshot of a Nanotechnology Business.
Brent Segal 1 Show Abstract
1 , Lockheed Martin Nanosystems, Billerica, Massachusetts, United States
Nanotechnology businesses unlike many other startup has complex challenged and extreme opportunities. The cost of equipment and the level of technical expertise necessary require solid networking and access to the best of breed. The presentation will discuss some lessons learned in areas such as fundraising, management, ip, business development and exits.
10:00 AM - **P5.2
Industrial Development and High Volume Synthesis of CNT Yarns and Sheets.
Peter Antoinette 1 , David Lashmore 1 , John Dorr 1 Show Abstract
1 R&D, Nanocomp, Concord, New Hampshire, United States
This presentation will describe the challenges in growing a high technology company from a very small start-up to prototype stage focused on high quality large CNT sheets and yarns. These two net shaped products have resulted in a number of derivative products such as: (1) Composites, (2) EMI shields, (3) Conductors, (4) Thermal management materials and (5) Thermoelectric devices. The goal for development has always been large scale industrial production for composites and electronic applications. Early funding from the government was leveraged with cash from business plan competitions and personal funds. Investor funds together and strong customer sponsorship has in a very short time resulted in a strong 33 person company. This presentation will discuss considerations of safety, intellectual property, and the key characteristics of the material that have driven the company's growth.
10:30 AM - **P5.3
Moving Nanotechnology Toward the Market: Business Strategy and IP Management in the Value Chain.
Sara Giordani 1 Show Abstract
1 , TTP Lab, Technology Transfer Program & Laboratory, Vicenza Italy
The idea that nanotechnologies have the potential to transform different industry sectors and impact on various market segments is receiving large support and contributions from international economic organisations’ reports, research institutions’ newsletters, academics’ and management scholars’ papers and consulting firms’ articles.The patent landscape, with its burgeoning number of patent filings, and the patent offices worldwide reporting on the increasing number of patent applications in the nanotechnology field, appear as complementary indicators of this trend. As nanosciences research and engineering efforts made feasible the attractive promise of closing the gap between research and industrialization, research outcomes and applications were protected for exclusive exploitation via patent filing and patent portfolio building.The challenges and strategic choices, which are presented to the management and companies’ leaders in terms of intellectual property management and exploitation strategy, have raised the interest of several authors; management scholars are interested in gaining evidence of the strategic decisions that align intellectual property management and business strategy, especially when emerging and pervasive technologies are involved and when new and adolescent small and medium enterprises act as key players.Within the research project this paper describes, intellectual property management practices have been examined as they have been adopted by a group of European enterprises, all small and medium sized enterprises, which operate in the nanotechnology sector. The study aimed at recognizing and identifying one or more paradigmatic approaches from which models could be derived for the management of patents and technologies, in the form of consistent sets of decisions about strategy, management, organization, inter-organizational behaviours, applied by the enterprises as they operate and interact in one or more nanotechnology-added or nanotechnology-enabled value chains.The model implemented for the examination and interpretation of the data builds upon three key elements, which also underlie the empirical analysis, and which are, in the end, the building blocks of the model: the intellectual property; the nanotech firm, the inter-organizational relationships, collaborations and partnerships.Three potentially influential external elements are further considered and included in the model above: how patents are created, obtained and transferred; the impact of the funding and investment decisions; the positioning and evolving pattern within the supply chain, and the management of the relationships, which are formed in the market and through alliances.Four relevant configurations for the chosen variables have been identified: four profiles could be significantly placed and integrated in the proposed interpretative model, taking into account the correlations between and among the building blocks and the influential external elements.