Diamond possesses a variety of unique and extreme properties which make it highly attractive for application in various fields of multidisciplinary research. Substantial improvement in the processes used to produce high quality single crystal diamond substrates, nanodiamond films, diamond particles, and closely related cubic boron nitride (c-BN) has continued to catalyze the expansive field of diamond technology. This last year has seen several companies in the USA, Singapore and India begin operations making CVD diamond gemstones on a commercial basis. This has been made possible due to the advances in CVD technology and a better understanding of the growth processes discussed at previous meetings like this, and promises to the first step towards large-area single-crystal diamond substrates. In the field of diamond electronics, recent breakthroughs in surface-doping techniques have demonstrated new strategies for the development of high performance diamond-based electronic components. In particular, the negative electron affinity of diamond surfaces has enabled a new generation of electronic devices, ultra high voltage switches and energy conversion approaches. Hybrid electronic systems that combine diamond’s excellent thermal properties with materials such as GaN have also recently demonstrated record breaking device performance. Beyond monocrystalline diamond, applications of functionalized nanodiamonds have emerged as biomarkers and for drug delivery and cancer diagnosis and therapy. Substantial developments have also been made using diamond for biocompatible neuro--interfaces and innovative cell monitoring devices. For example the growth and culturing of various types of human cells (bone cells, blood cells, neurons and stem cells) on diamond substrates, and the use of conducting diamond electrodes for in vivo nerve stimulation and recording. Previous symposia have successfully brought together researchers from academia and industry from the largely diverse international diamond research community. These symposia also serve as a focal point which continues to attract researchers involved with new and emerging diamond and parallel carbon-based technology research.