Many debilitating and deadly diseases (e.g., Alzheimer, AIDS, cancer, H1N1, etc.) affect tens of millions of people worldwide every year. The need for breakthrough materials and technologies, which have the potential to significantly impact conventional treatment and contribute to improved methodologies toward prevention, diagnostics, imaging, and therapies, is challenging. In order to address this challenge, scientists, engineers, and medical researchers have looked to nanotechnology as a possible disruptive paradigm, offering hope for those afflicted with one of these diseases. A multifunctional nanodevice capable of detecting disease at its earliest stages, pinpointing its location within the body, and delivering therapeutics, is one long-term vision shared by many for in-vivo application. Consequently, research in this field brings together synthesis of nanofunctional materials, surface chemistry/coatings, identification of targeting agents, and physical/chemical transduction mechanisms, to name a few. In the case of in-vitro diagnostics and drug discovery, on-chip agent processing (e.g., preconcentration, sifting and separation), nanostructural fabrication, and overall systems integration are additional considerations. However, as with all new technologies, leveraging the unique behavior of nanomaterials, structures, and devices also introduces the potential for unique and unforeseen toxicological impact to patients. Nanomaterials also demand new nanoscale visualization and characterization methods at extremely high spatial and temporal resolution (especially under physiologically relevant conditions such as fluidic environment); as well as concomitant “big data” handling, management and analysis. This symposium aims at providing opportunities for intensive discussion and exchange of ideas by bringing together researchers in various disciplines to advance medicine using nanotechnology.