Nanomaterials, nanoparticles and nanostructures have great potential for use in numerous applications including nanophotonics, catalysis and the interaction of materials with biological systems, to cite a few. Multiple chemical and physical approaches have been employed to produce nanometer-sized objects and nano-features at the surface of materials, but many challenges must still be overcome in order to optimize specific functional properties. In particular, precise control over the feature/particle size, self-organization, chemical purity, crystalline quality, doping and phase are critical factors to be addressed in the future. The interaction of plasmas with surfaces can be employed to functionalize and engineer materials at the nanoscale. On the other hand, nanoparticles, nanowires and other nanostructures of a large variety of materials can be produced by plasma-based synthesis approaches. Our understanding of the influence of plasma processing on materials at the nanoscale and related functional properties has burgeoned recently and plasmas will surely play and key role in meeting the challenges listed above. The aim of this symposium is to review and stimulate new advances in the use of plasmas for nanomaterial, nanostructure and nanoparticle processing and synthesis as well as to highlight strategies to control their functional properties.