Plasma-based synthesis and processing is well established as an important technique for fabricating and modifying technologically-useful materials at different length scales. Plasmas enable reactions and interactions in the gas phase and near interfaces that are otherwise impossible to achieve with conventional methods (e.g. thermal) because of unique energy coupling. However, with the diverse chemistries and materials accessible by plasma-based processes comes complexity. There are many different plasma sources, ranging from those operated at low pressures (vacuum) to high pressures (atmospheric), degrees of equilibrium, from non-thermal and non-equilibrium to thermal equilibrium, and many types of plasma-material interactions, from physical sputtering to reactive etching to nucleation. Despite such vast differences from one plasma-based process to another and the complexity of sciences that are encompassed, there are basic fundamentals underlying the plasma physics and chemistry and the synthesis of materials. This symposium intends to serve as a special forum to bring together experts working in different fields that encompass and overlap in the area of plasma synthesis and processing of materials. Specifically, the symposium will cover topics related to new frontiers in materials design such as nanoscale materials and their applications, and attempt to identify and address current challenges.