MRS Meetings and Events


NM07.09.04 2022 MRS Fall Meeting

Low-Temperature Growth of 3D Semiconductors with Improved-Quality Using Remote Epitaxy

When and Where

Dec 1, 2022
9:00am - 9:15am

Hynes, Level 2, Room 203



Guanyu Zhou1,Rehan Younas1,Tian Sun1,Galen Harden1,Yansong Li1,Anthony Hoffman1,Christopher Hinkle1

University of Notre Dame1


Guanyu Zhou1,Rehan Younas1,Tian Sun1,Galen Harden1,Yansong Li1,Anthony Hoffman1,Christopher Hinkle1

University of Notre Dame1
Advanced semiconductor technologies such as three-dimensional (3D) monolithic integration and flexible electronics require low-temperature growth of materials that support high-performance devices. However, a big challenge of low-temperature growth is that insufficient atomic diffusion directly leads to poor film quality and consequently poor device performance. Conventional methods to improve growth quality, such as using surfactants, introduce unwanted impurities. Here, using remote epitaxy<sup>1</sup>, we show that the quality of low-temperature grown 3D semiconductors are significantly improved on atomically-thin two-dimensional (2D) materials. This is because, from a growth kinetics point of view, atomic diffusion <i>D</i>, which significantly affects film growth quality<sup>2</sup>, is exponentially dependent on substrate temperature <i>T</i> and potential-energy barrier for adatom diffusion <i>V<sub>s</sub></i>: <i>D</i> ∝ <i>exp</i>(–<i>V<sub>s</sub></i>/<i>k</i><sub>B</sub><i>T</i>). Using remote epitaxy methods, the adatom-substrate interactions are actually attenuated due to the spatial separation by the 2D interlayer, decreasing <i>V<sub>s</sub></i> and improving the growth quality at low temperatures<sup>3</sup>. Moreover, the surfaces of 2D materials are relatively dangling bond free, providing greatly enhanced adatom diffusion and offering a new route toward improving overlayer growth quality at low-temperature. We demonstrate that, as model systems, GaN and ZnSe grown using WSe<sub>2</sub> and graphene exhibit superior quality with temperatures lower by &gt;200 °C compared to direct growth as characterized by X-ray diffraction and Hall measurements. We also study the growth quality of GaN and ZnSe through tuning the adatom-substrate ionic interactions and the atomic diffusion by changing the thickness and the grain size of the WSe<sub>2</sub> layers, respectively, and find that the growth quality maximizes at an optimized thickness of WSe<sub>2</sub>, whereas monotonously increases with larger WSe<sub>2</sub> grain size.<br/>In addition to growth improvement, we further demonstrate an improved method to precisely obtain the band alignment of the ZnSe/WSe<sub>2</sub> heterostructure using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, taking advantage of the easy exfoliation of the grown 2D/3D heterostructure off of the substrates. This method eliminates any concern from electronic structure changes due to quantum confinement caused by needing to use thin overlayers to remain photoelectron transparent in the conventional method.<br/>Our results reveal the <i>benefits</i> of a reduced potential field through remote epitaxy, showing significant promise for reducing the growth temperature of 3D semiconductors and other materials as a solution to severe thermal budget constraints. The realization of low-temperature grown, high-performance materials through remote epitaxy can enable transformative new technologies that are greatly limited by severe thermal budget restrictions. Moreover, the 2D/3D heterostructures could also enable promising new heterostructures for novel device designs.<br/>This work was supported in part by NEWLIMITS, a center in nCORE, a Semiconductor Research Corporation (SRC) program sponsored by NIST through award number 70NANB17H041. This work was also supported in part by the SRC through the Global Research Consortium (GRC) program.<br/>1. Kim, Y. <i>et al.</i> <i>Nature</i> <b>544</b>, 340–343 (2017).<br/>2. Zhang, Z. & Lagally, M. G. <i>Science</i> <b>276</b>, 377–383 (1997).<br/>3. Brenner, D. W. <i>Phys. status solidi</i> <b>217</b>, 23–40 (2000).


crystallization | epitaxy | nucleation & growth

Symposium Organizers

Jeehwan Kim, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Sanghoon Bae, Washington University in Saint Louis
Deep Jariwala, University of Pennsylvania
Kyusang Lee, University of Virginia

Publishing Alliance

MRS publishes with Springer Nature