MRS Meetings and Events


EQ06.03.01 2022 MRS Spring Meeting

Are Liquid Metals Bulk Conductors?

When and Where

May 9, 2022
10:30am - 11:00am

Hawai'i Convention Center, Level 3, 314



Rebecca Kramer-Bottiglio1

Yale University1


Rebecca Kramer-Bottiglio1

Yale University1
Stretchable electronics have great potential in wide-reaching areas including wearables, personal health monitoring, and soft robotics. Many recent advances in stretchable electronics leverage liquid metals, particularly eutectic gallium-indium (eGaIn). A wide range of electromechanical (resistance vs strain) behaviors have been reported, ranging from bulk conductor responses all the way to effectively strain-insensitive responses. However, numerous measurement techniques have been used throughout the literature, making it difficult to directly compare the various proposed formulations. In this talk, we will review the relative change in resistance responses of eGaIn found in the literature, then investigate the electromechanical properties of pure eGaIn, which is supposedly a bulk conductor, using multiple electrical resistance measurement techniques. Our results indicate significant differences between different measurement methods, which can largely be accounted for by correcting for a fixed offset corresponding to the resistances of various parts of the measurement circuits. Even accounting for sources of experimental error, we find the average relative change in resistance of pure eGaIn as a function of strain is lower than predicted by commonly used bulk conductor assumptions. We will also discuss our recent biphasic (solid-liquid) gallium-indium mixture (bGaIn) and its relative strain-insensitivity against neat eGaIn. Collectively, our results point to the importance of experimental design and suggest that there is much to be learned about the electromechanical behaviors of liquid metal-derived stretchable circuits.



Symposium Organizers

Santanu Bag, Air Force Research Laboratory
Silvia Armini, IMEC
Mandakini Kanungo, Corning Incorporated
Hong Zhao, Virginia Commonwealth University

Symposium Support

Corning Inc


Publishing Alliance

MRS publishes with Springer Nature