Laurene Tetard, University of Central Florida
Oleg Kolosov, Lancaster University
Fabian Menges, University of Colorado Boulder
Michael Molinari, Universite de Reims Champagne Ardenne
CM01.01: Nanoelectrical SPM
Tuesday AM, April 03, 2018
PCC North, 100 Level, Room 131 B
10:30 AM - CM01.01.01
Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy of Molecular Adsorption/Desorption on Nanowires
Jun Liu1,Thomas Thundat1,2
University of Alberta1,University at Buffalo, State University of New York2Show Abstract
Molecular recognition of adsorbates with very high sensitivity and selectivity is critical in chemical sensing. Nanosystems such as nanowires have been envisioned as a sensor platform for the next generation high performance sensors. In general chemical selectivity in miniature sensors is obtained by using immobilized receptors. However, obtaining chemical selectivity is a challenging task because of the lack of highly selective receptor molecules that can be immobilized on sensor surfaces. In addition immobilizing receptors on nanosensors most often results in irreproducible surface coverage. Therefore, developing receptor-free concepts for obtaining selectivity is very attractive. Molecular adsorption-induced variations in work function and its temperature dependence is an attractive approach for receptor-free chemical sensing. Work function of Pt nanowires investigated with Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy show significant changes due to molecular adsorption. Temperature dependent changes in the differential work function shows peaks corresponding to molecular desorption. Because of their high surface to volume ratio and very low thermal mass of nanowires, this approach can provide high selectivity, sensitivity, and fast operation and offers an elegant route to an extremely sensitive and highly selective sensor platform.
11:00 AM - CM01.01.02
The Relationship Between Carbon Nanotube Structure, Dielectric Environment and Physical Properties Revealed by Spectrally-Resolved Photocurrent Microscopy
Mitchell Senger1,Daniel McCulley1,Lee Aspitarte1,Ethan Minot1
Oregon State University1Show Abstract
It is well known that carbon nanotube (CNT) optical resonances and electrical characteristics are strongly dependent on the atomic structure of the CNT. However, the relationship between electrical properties and CNT atomic structure has been challenging to fully resolve due to the complicating factor of dielectric environment. Early studies of CNTs on gold surfaces (strong dielectric screening) reveal only one slice of a bigger relationship. Here we describe a combination of nanoscale spectroscopy and transport measurements to explore the full relationship between CNT structure, electrical properties, and dielectric environment. We use spectrally-resolved scanning photocurrent spectroscopy to determine the chiral index of individual-contacted suspended CNTs. Dielectric environment is controlled by using various dielectric liquids. In semiconducting CNTs we observe band gap renormalization of approximately 30%. In metallic CNTs we observe a transport gap that is consistent with the theoretical predictions of a Mott gap. The gap is independent of chiral angle, inversely proportional to CNT diameter, and scales inversely with the dielectric constant of the environment. Our results emphasize the importance of spectrally-resolved scanning probe techniques in nanometrology, and highlight the important effect of dielectric environment on nanoscale physical properties.
11:15 AM - CM01.01.03
Method for Determining the Electrical Shape of a Scanning Probe Microscope Tip
Joseph Kopanski1,Malcolm Regan1,Jose Corona1,Lin You2,1
National Institute of Standards and Technology1,Theiss Research2Show Abstract
Electrical scanning probe microscopes (eSPMs), such as the scanning capacitance microscope (SCM) and the scanning Kelvin force microscope (SKFM), measure the electrical properties of a virtual device formed between the tip and the sample. Like all electrical measurements, the measured electrical parameters depend on the electrode shapes (the tip and the electrically active part of the sample), and the fundamental electrical properties (dielectric constant, conductivity, etc.) of all the material between the electrodes. In general, the details of the tip electrical shape are not known, and the electrical shape can differ substantially from the physical shape, especially for co-axially shielded probe tips.
The eSPM tip shape effects the measured contact potential difference (CPD) profile of measurements of electrical field gradients with SKFM. A different response is measured depending on the angle that the tip crosses the boundary in potential. We have determined a method of extracting the electrical tip shape from measurements on well-known structures which produce a calculatable electric field gradient. The method was derived using two-dimensional COMSOL simulations of CPD profiles across abrupt boundaries in potential. An estimate of the tip width at the cantilever is obtained from the inflection points of the simulated response. Knowing the tip length, the cantilever tilt angle, and the determined tip width, a “blind” reconstruction of the details of the tip shape can then be obtained from the Δφ/Δx using an analytical expression. The quality of the reconstruction is best near the tip apex. The estimate of the tip shape can be improved by inserting the initial determined tip shape into COMSOL and recalculating the CPD profile. An adjusted tip shape can then be derived using the difference between the initial CPD profile and the recalculated profile.
For real three-dimensional tips, two types of test structures were prepared. The first structure consists of alternating Au and Pt regions with abrupt boundaries formed on an extremely flat mica surface. The second structure consists of pairs of independent microfabricated electrodes separated by a small distance and beneath a thin cover layer of dielectric. A 2D cross-section of the 3D tip at the angle of scan across the test structure can be obtained using the above method. By rotating the sample and scan angle, multiple cross-sections across the tip can be obtained and a three-dimensional tip reconstructed.
Knowledge of the actual electrical tip shape can be used to better understand electric field gradients measured with eSPMs and to determine the suitability of various types of conducting SPM tips for electrical measurements. For co-axially shielded tips, the above technique is the only way to get an estimate of the electrical tip shape. Electrical tip shape may also prove useful in inverse modeling to improve the accuracy and spatial resolution of images of electrical properties with eSPMs.
11:30 AM - CM01.01.04
Molecular Rheology of Gold Nanojunctions
Antoine Lainé1,Jean Comtet1,Antoine Niguès1,Lydéric Bocquet1,Alessandro Siria1
Laboratoire de Physique Statistique, ENS1Show Abstract
Despite extensive documentation of plastic deformation processes in micro-sized samples, there is up to now no clear understanding of the mechanisms governing plastic flow in nanoscale systems. Here, using a quartz-tuning fork based Atomic Force Microscope, we combine electrical and rheological measurements on nanoscale gold junctions, and study the onset of plastic flow in those model atomic-sized systems. By submitting the junction to increasing sub-nanometric deformations, we uncover a transition from an elastic regime to a plastic regime. Increasing deformations even further leads to the complete shear melting/liquefaction of the junction. This typology is reminiscent of the behavior of macroscopic complex fluids, here uncovered for a “molecular foam”. We rationalize and interpret our results in the framework of a harmonically driven Frenkel-Kontorova model. Our measurements allow us to measure the critical yield force governing the onset of plastic flow in the junction, as a function of size. In those molecular systems, plasticity is limited by the direct sliding of atomic planes under shear, as expected for dislocation-free systems.
11:45 AM - CM01.01.05
Spectroscopy Based Mapping of Electrical Properties Using Fast Force Volume
Peter De Wolf1,Zhuangqun Huang1,Bede Pittenger1,Mickael Febvre1,Denis Mariolle2,Nicolas Chevalier2
Bruker Nano Surfaces1,CEA-Leti2Show Abstract
Today, a wide range of AFM-based electrical characterization methods is routinely applied in the study of electronics materials and devices. Methods are available to measure conductivity, charge, surface potential, carrier density, piezo-electric and other electrical properties with nm scale resolution. Typically, these modes are operated in ‘imaging’ or ‘spectroscopic’ mode. In imaging mode, a fixed set of operating conditions (DC & AC sample bias, AC frequency, etc.) are used while the tip is raster-scanning the surface, resulting in high resolution images of height & electrical properties. In spectroscopic mode, the user selects a few points where one of the operating conditions is varied, while the tip is kept stationary. In many studies, both ‘imaging’ and ‘spectroscopic’ experiments complement each other. In this work, the ‘imaging’ and ‘spectroscopic’ modes are combined into a single mode providing an electrical spectrum in every pixel of the image. The tip is moved from pixel to pixel in a fast force volume mapping (FFV) manner, providing a force-distance spectrum in each pixel. During each force-distance cycle, the probe is held on the surface for a pre-defined time at a fixed force or Z position. During this ‘hold segment’, an electrical spectrum is collected by varying one of the electrical operating conditions. This results in a multi-dimensional datacube whereby electrical & mechanical spectra are present for each pixel. Using a force-mapping scan method also overcomes the limitations of contact mode scanning inherent to the conventional implementation of many of the electrical modes: Providing longer tip lifetime and capability to measure soft or fragile samples. Optimization of the force mapping movements, and the electrical measurement hardware & method, allowed us to maintain a relatively high imaging speed (typ. 20-100 ms/pixel). Analysis of the datacubes provides correlation of electrical & mechanical data, and images of a wider range of electrical properties. For example, when collecting an I-V spectrum in every pixel, one can extract a high-resolution map of current barrier properties. This approach is illustrated for Tunneling AFM by ramping the DC sample bias resulting in I-V spectra (FFV-TUNA), for Scanning Capacitance Microscopy by ramping the DC sample bias resulting in dC/dV-V spectra (FFV-SCM), for Scanning Microwave Impedance Microscopy by ramping the DC sample bias resulting in C-V and dC/dV-V spectra (FFV-sMIM), and Piezoforce Microscopy by ramping the DC sample bias (switching loops) or AC frequency (contact resonance spectra) (FFV-PFM), but is also applicable to other electrical modes such as SSRM and electrochemical modes such as SECM. Examples from a variety of materials including semiconductors, ferro-electrics and nanotubes illustrate the capability to reveal sample properties which are not accessible or easily missed in conventional methods where maps at only one or a few discrete settings are acquired.
CM01.02: Subsurface Imaging
Tuesday PM, April 03, 2018
PCC North, 100 Level, Room 131 B
1:30 PM - CM01.02.01
CT-AFM—Nanoscale Tomography of Materials Properties
Bryan Huey1,James Steffes1,Ryan Cordier1,Katherine Atamanuk1,Andrew Levin1,Chiho Kim1,Justin Luria1
University of Connecticut1Show Abstract
CT-AFM is a significant departure from nearly 30 years of scanning probe microscopy. Instead of interrogating surface properties only, up to hundreds of images are acquired for a single location with intervening material removal. In this manner, resolution equivalent to conventional AFM methods is achieved laterally, and uniquely also into the depth of a specimen. Two examples are discussed, demonstrating nanoscale tomography for polycrystalline CdTe solar cells as well as BiFeO3 multiferroic thin films.
The novel volumetric maps of photovoltaic performance reveal order-of-magnitude enhancements in the short circuit current for distinct microstructural features such as grains and grain boundaries. These results are effectively independent of grain orientation, and instead mediated by percolation pathways for electrons along grain boundaries and holes along photoactive planar defects. The discovery of such orthogonal channels for carrier transport may provide opportunities to dramatically improve device efficiency and reliability.
With multiferroics, ferroelectric domain contrast is detected down to a critical thickness of less than 10 nm based on the local piezoresponse as a function of milled depth. The 3-dimensionally resolved domain walls also reveal both anticipated as well as unexpected feature geometries and properties. Switching studies as a function of film thickness are especially revealing for spatial and energy scaling investigations with respect to ever-diminishing future device dimensions and power budgets.
CTAFM literally provides a new perspective on nanoscale materials properties throughout the thickness of materials devices. The resulting insight suggests new pathways to improve design, efficiency, and reliability for 3-dimensionally engineered materials systems.
2:00 PM - CM01.02.02
Subsurface Imaging of Biased Structures with Electrostatic Force Microscopy (EFM)
Lin You1,2,Yaw Obeng2,Joseph Kopanski2
Theiss Research1,National Institute of Standards and Technology2Show Abstract
There is a growing need to determine the nanoscale functional and electrical properties of subsurface materials and interfaces for future computing devices and biomedical applications. Characterization and control of these interfaces is the key to improved device performance and reliability. Among a variety of electrical and optical techniques for studying subsurface physical properties, scanning probe microscopy (SPM) based techniques are very promising due to their ability to image conductive, non-conductive, and non-optically-transparent samples. SPMs use an ultra-sharp tip (~10 nm in diameter) that contacts or intermittently contacts the local area to detect electrical and topographical information from the surface as well as subsurface. While resolution decreases with depth into the sample, electric and magnetic fields can penetrate 1000s of nanometers into samples and the resulting interactions can be detected using various electrically sensitive SPM techniques.
We have applied electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) to study voltage-biased subsurface structures. We investigated both traditional EFM, which detects changes in amplitude or phase of the cantilever relative to the mechanical drive frequency of the cantilever and a new approach applying an AC+DC signal to the buried structures instead of the cantilever. An external high frequency lock-in amplifier (LIA) monitors the deflection signal of the cantilever, using the AC signal applied to the buried structure as its reference. Small changes in the phase of the cantilever oscillation can then be detected to map subtle electrostatic force variation between the subsurface metal lines and the EFM tip. To realize these goals, custom-designed 4-metalization microfabricated test structures were used. A printed circuit board (PCB) was utilized to allow external and independent electric access to the various subsurface structures in an SPM environment. The influences of the relative voltage biases on the subsurface metal lines and the substrate, the effect of the ac frequency applied to the subsurface structures, and mechanisms of subsurface contrast and contrast reversal will be presented.
In subsurface imaging applications, contrast in EFM depends on the electrostatic force between the tip and sample. In the related technique, scanning Kelvin force microscopy (SKFM) contrast arises from the force due to capacitance gradient with tip-to-sample distance (dC/dz). These measured quantities arise from variations in sample dielectric constant, any charge accumulated on subsurface structures, and subsurface variations in conductivity. Our technique allows us to independently bias the subsurface structures and thereby, separate the effect of buried charge and capacitance gradient.
2:15 PM - CM01.02.03
Origin of Subsurface Contrast in Ultrasonic AFM—Wave Scattering or Contact Mechanics?
Lancaster University1Show Abstract
Three-dimensional (3D) imaging revealing the structures hidden under the immediate object surface, whether it is an ultrasound baby scan or a 3D image of the living cell is undoubtedly a holy grail for any imaging technique, offering wealth of information on the studied object. While Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) offers spatial resolution down to individual atoms, the contrast originating from the interaction of the nanoscale probe and the surface, restricts AFM to predominantly surface imaging. In order to overcome this, one can use ultrasonic wave that penetrates both transparent and opaque samples carrying 3D information to the sample surface where it is could be picked up by the scanning probe. Whereas such approach was experimentally realised in Ultrasonic Force Microscopy (UFM) , Heterodyne Force Microscopy and Ultrasonic Holography , and Atomic Force Acoustic Microscopy , the fundamental origin of the contrast is far from clear with some publications referring to the scattering of ultrasonic waves and some attributing it to the interaction of elastic field from AFM tip with the subsurface structures. Furtermore, some of the observed subsurface structures are empty voids, and some are stiff regions hidden under soft surface layers. Untangling this requires analysis of the near-field scattering of the ultrasonic waves, and the propagation of the stresses in a generally anisotropic media.
In this paper we show that given that in all cases of nanoscale ultrasonic imaging both the depth and size of subsurface features are orders of magnitude smaller than the ultrasonic wavelength, the ultrasonic wave interaction with the subsurface inclusion has to take into account the phase and amplitude of both the evanescent and radiated wave. We then show that the near-field corrugation of ultrasonic field on the sample surface is of negligible amplitude for the simple elastic discontinuity, but may be observable for the pure void. This strongly suggests that it is the oscillating stress field generated by the SPM tip-surface contact that provides a main source of the contrast in the subsurface ultrasonic imaging.
We further analyse stress propagation in the highly anisotropic material such as graphite, MoS2 or multilayer graphene - a transversely isotropic materials - and find that the stress field propagate as highly “focused” beam elongated according to the ratio of the out-of-plane Young modulus S33 and the in-plane shear modulus S44, explaining unusual experimental observations of “ultrasonic transparency” in  that allows to observe defects and structures deep under immediate surface of such materials.
 Yamanaka K, Ogiso H, Kolosov O, 1994;64(2):178-80; Dinelli F at al, Nanotechnology. 2017;28(8):085706.
 Cuberes MT et al., J Phys D-Appl Phys, 2000;33(19):2347-55; Tetard L at al, Nat Nanotechn. 2008;3(8):501-5; Verbiest GJ, Rost MJ, Nat Commun. 2015;6:6444.
 Hu SQ, Su CM, Arnold W. J. Appl Phys, 2011;109(8).
CM01.03: Nanothermal SPM I
Tuesday PM, April 03, 2018
PCC North, 100 Level, Room 131 B
3:30 PM - CM01.03.01
Recent Experiments with Scanning Thermal and Thermoelectric Microscopy
David Choi1,Mir Mohammad Sadeghi1,Brandon Smith1,Li Shi1
The University of Texas at Austin1Show Abstract
Notable progresses have recently been made in quantitative scanning thermal microscopy (SThM) based on a sub-micron thermocouple junction fabricated on an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip. Here, the underlying theoretical basis for such measurements is re-examined, with a focus on the effects of the temperature and spatial dependences of the interface thermal conductance. The nature of the temperaure being measured is discussed in relationship with the phonon transmission coeffiicient across the tip-sample gap. Comparison is made between the results obtained form the SThM and Raman thermal mapping measurements. The SThM method has recently been employed to study heat dissipation in emerging electronic devices made of various two-dimensional (2D) materials. In addition, a different type of scanning thermal probe with a resistive heater and thermometer near the tip has been used to measure thermal transprot across a point contact, and an attempt is made to use a scanning thermoelectric microscopy method to probe the variation of the local thermoelectric property near the edges of 2D materials.
4:00 PM - CM01.03.02
Scanning Thermal Microscopy—Investigation of Nanostructured Sample
Nathalie Trannoy1,Patricia Al-Alam1,Dheeraj Pratap1,Jaona Randrianalisoa1
University of Reims Champagne-Ardenne1Show Abstract
Scanning thermal microscopy (SThM) based on Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) technique is used in order to investigate thermal properties of materials and mechanism of heat transfer at micro-and /or nanoscale [1-2]. Generally, in all SThM, a temperature sensor (thermocouple, thermoresistive …) is integrated into the probe which can measure simultaneously local temperature or generate local heating. A topographic and thermal image of materials with sub-micrometer spatial resolution can be obtained with this technique. Although various types of SThM probes have been developed so far, the probe selection is of great need. The present study deals with Wollaston resistive probe. The aim is to study the influence of sample structure on the thermal signal of Wollaston probe, to characterize and estimate the effect of probe volume on the thermal conductivity measurements. For that, a buried nanostructure sample is considered. The sample is composed of buried silicon steps under polished CVD SiO2. We develop a well-defined heat transfer numerical model of the probe-sample system for a better interpretation of experimental results obtained by SThM. Numerical simulations were performed using COMSOL Multiphysics which is based on finite element method. A 3D realistic geometry of the Wollaston probe is modelled in contact operation mode in order to obtain probe temperature behavior. The numerical model of probe/sample allows evaluating the flux dissipated by the platinum-rhodium wire and into the sample. The heat flux gives access to the thermal behavior of the probe in contact with the nanostructured sample. This work shows that the thermal signal is sensitive to the internal structures. The thermal signal gives access to a local thermal conductance that corresponds to a probed volume. We present and discuss our latest results.
The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework (EU FP7) Program FP7-NMP-2013-LARGE-7 (project QUANTIHEAT) under grant Agreement 604868, and from the Champagne-Ardenne Region A2101-03-Excellence.
Majumdar, Lai, Chandrachood, Nakabeppu, Wu and Shi, Thermal imaging by atomic force microscopy using thermocouple cantilever probes, 1995
F.A. Guo, N. Trannoy, J. Lu, Analysis of thermal properties by scanning thermal microscopy in nanocrystallized iron surface induced by ultrasonic shot peening, Materials Science and Engineering: A, 2004.
4:15 PM - CM01.03.03
Scanning Thermal Microscopy for Local Thermometry and Thermal Conductance Measurements
Bernd Gotsmann1,Fabian Koenemann1,Fabian Menges1,Nico Mosso1,Siegfried Karg1,Kirsten Moselund1
IBM Research - Zurich1Show Abstract
This talk summarizes recent developments in the use of scanning thermal microscopy (SThM) for local thermometry and thermal conductance measurements. The pros and cons of SThM in comparison with other thermometry methods will be discussed. We further describe techniques to quantify temperature avoiding typical artifacts of SThM . Examples of high-resolution measurements of nano-electronic semiconductor devices [1,2], metal interconnects , phase change devices  and molecular and atomic junctions [3,4]. Finally, we will discuss ongoing strategies to reach resolutions down to and below the 1-nm scale at a sensitivity of Picowatts, and approaches using dynamic operation modes of atomic force microscopy to control SThM scans.
 F. Menges et al., Nature Communications 7(10874), 2016
 F. Menges et al., 2016 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM), 15.8.1-15.8.4, 2016.
 T. Meier et al., Physical Review Letters 113, 060801, 2014.
 N. Mosso et al., Nature Nanotechnology 12, 430-433, 2017.
4:45 PM - CM01.03.04
Nano-Thermal Characterization of Polymers Using Highly Sensitive Thermocouple Based SThM Probes
Laurene Tetard, University of Central Florida
Oleg Kolosov, Lancaster University
Fabian Menges, University of Colorado Boulder
Michael Molinari, Universite de Reims Champagne Ardenne
CM01.04: SPM and 2D Films
Wednesday AM, April 04, 2018
PCC North, 100 Level, Room 131 B
8:00 AM - CM01.04.01
Exploring the Electronic and Optical Properties of Atomically Thin Materials by Scanning Probe Microscopy
National Physical Laboratory1Show Abstract
Graphene and related two-dimensional (2-D) materials have recently emerged as a topical area in which atomic layer control is possible. However, their successful integration into useful applications is heavily reliant on a complete understanding of their physical properties, together with their response when subject to different environments. For graphene-based devices that are processed and operated in ambient, the environmental humidity has an unpredictable influence on the device performance and reliability. In this talk, I will first review our recent scanning Kelvin probe microscopy studies highlighting the impact of relative humidity variation on the electronic properties of graphene and the relevance to chemical sensors applications.
I will then discuss the role of graphene in tuning the electronic and optical properties of other 2-D materials when integrated in vertical heterostructures, giving rise to novel excitonic effects. In particular, I will show that the thickness of the supporting graphene substrate is crucial in modulating the light emission in WS2 on graphene heterostructures, as supported by scanning Kelvin probe microscopy, which proved to be extremely valuable in unravelling the underlying nature of excitonic effects associated with such heterostructures.
8:30 AM - CM01.04.02
Importance of Nanoscale Spectral Imaging of Luminescent Excitons in 2D Semiconductors
Andrey Krayev1,Thomas Darlington2,P James Schuck3,Nicholas Borys2,Deep Jariwala4
Horiba Scientific1,Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab2,Columbia University3,University of Pennsylvania4Show Abstract
The optical properties of Van der Waals semiconductors such as transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDC), black phosphorous, SnS etc. are dominated by excitons which are stable at room temperature owing to decreased Coulomb screening which yields large exciton binding energies (> 0.5 eV). Investigation of the photoluminescence (PL) response is one of the most direct methods for probing excitons in these materials.
Nanoscale spectroscopic imaging, such as Tip Enhanced Photoluminescence (TEPL) and Tip enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (TERS), provides new capabilities to probe nanoscale structural and opto-electronic inhomogeneities in novel 2D semiconductors. Owing to the improved spatial resolution of TEPL and TERS compared to conventional confocal microscopy due to the near-field coupling of photons, nanoscale inhomogeneities in charge carrier concentration in CVD grown flakes of MoS2 and WS2 have been directly detected and characterized [1,2]. More recently, brightening of dark excitons has also been observed in monolayer TMDCs when the samples are confined under the gap-mode of TEPL .
In this work, we report the importance of sample preparation procedures as well as the nanoscale TEPL and TERS imaging of TMDCs for correct characterization and interpretation of observed TEPL spectra. We report that mono-to-few-layer flakes of WS2 and WSe2 transferred to gold via heat-assisted exfoliation feature a large number of nanoscale bubbles ranging from few tens to about a hundred of nanometers across. Depending on the exact location of the optically active SPM probe relative to the bubble, the spectral response can change dramatically, both in terms of the intensity of the TEPL peak, its spectral position, shape and the ratio between the TERS and TEPL signals. We have observed both red and blue-shifted TEPL peaks in WSe2 ( up to 20nm relative to the position of the far-field PL), which implies broader variety of excitonic behavior in gap-mode near field PL of TMDCs compared to what was reported earlier. The TERS/TEPL peak intensity ratio changes as the probe is positioned away from the center of a nanobubble both for WSe2 and WS2, which may be the consequence of varied distance between the layer of TMDC and underlying gold as well as varied mechanical strain in the vicinity of the bubble. Additional signatures of these effects are also observed in the excitonic emission as the relative intensities of different exciton states varies over the bubble.
The observed nano-PL response demonstrates the importance of nanoscale spectroscopic imaging of 2D semiconductors for comprehensive understanding of possible excitonic resonances, and opens the possibility of rational engineering and manipulation of local nanoscale photon emitters in these materials.
Wei Bao et.al. NATURE COMMUNICATIONS | 6:7993
Christoph Kastl et.al. 2D Mater. 4 (2017) 021024
Kyoung-Duck Park et.al., arXiv:1706.09085v1
8:45 AM - CM01.04.03
Direct Quantification of Defect Density in Monolayer WS2 and the Impact of Defect Density of Photoluminescence
Matthew Rosenberger1,Hsun-Jen Chuang1,Kathleen McCreary1,Connie Li1,Berend Jonker1
U.S. Naval Research Laboratory1Show Abstract
Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are an exciting class of 2D materials that exhibit many promising electronic and optoelectronic properties with potential for future device applications. The properties of TMDs are expected to be strongly influenced by a variety of defects which result from growth procedures and/or fabrication. Despite the importance of understanding defect-related phenomena, there remains a need for quantitative nanometer-scale characterization of defects over large areas in order to understand the relationship between defects and observed properties, such as photoluminescence (PL) and electrical conductivity. We report direct observation of defects in monolayer WS2 with nanometer-scale precision over large length scales (up to 20 µm distances) using conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM) at room temperature in ambient laboratory conditions. The measurements were made possible by several advances in sample preparation. The observed defects are highly conductive when probed out-of-plane with CAFM, which enables precise identification of defect locations and direct quantification of areal defect density. The defect density ranged from 2.3 x 1010 cm-2 to 4.5 x 1011 cm-2 in our samples. We correlate the measured defect density with spatial variations in PL, and observe a pronounced inverse relationship between PL intensity and defect density. Importantly, we observed the same inverse relationship on multiple different WS2 grains, which indicates that the relationship is generally true. Finally, we propose a model in which the observed electronically active defects serve as non-radiative recombination centers, and obtain good agreement with the experimental data. Performing PL measurements on both PDMS (before mechanical transfer) and on graphite (after mechanical transfer) allowed us to decouple the effect of defect-related non-radiative recombination and substrate-related non-radiative recombination. This decoupling has not been possible in previous studies because the defect density of monolayer TMDs in other studies was unknown. Our results provide important information for understanding the cause of spatial variations in TMD properties, and are a critical demonstration of a technique for mapping defect density over length scales relevant for observed TMD behaviors.
9:00 AM - CM01.04.04
Microwave Near-Field Imaging of 2D Semiconductor Devices
Samuel Berweger1,Thomas Wallis1,Pavel Kabos1
National Institute of Standards and Technology1Show Abstract
In order to develop a new generation of electronic and optoelectronic devices based on the novel properties of nanoscale and low-dimensional materials, there remains a strong need for techniques capable of measuring electronic properties non-destructively and with high spatial resolution. In scanning microwave microscopy (SMM) the near-field impedance between a scanning probe tip and a sample of interest is measured at GHz frequencies, enabling local measurement of the free carrier density and the associated nanometer-resolved imaging of conductivity variations.
Here we use SMM to study the electronic properties in field-effect transistors of the 2D transition metal dichalcogenides MoS2, WSe2, and MoTe2. We identify significant differences in carrier density across the individual devices arising from interactions with the oxide substrate, Schottky barriers at the source and drain electrodes, as well as evidence of interlayer interaction in multilayer devices. We develop a new method combining conventional backgate control of carrier density with a high-frequency backgate bias modulation to perform SMM-based differential capacitance measurements that allow us to directly address and image the spatial inhomogeneity in the gating response. We find preferential carrier accumulation in response to gating near the source and drain electrodes while the interior of the device shows an inhomogeneous response dominated by crystal-substrate interactions.
9:15 AM - CM01.04.05
Defect Engineering in 2D Materials and Characterization of Hydrophilic Properties Using Functionalized AFM Cantilevers
Yi Ding1,Laurene Tetard1
University of Central Florida1Show Abstract
The properties of 2D materials can be affected by doping or defect engineering. However the creation of selected defects and their role in changing surface properties such as hydrophilicity remain unclear, mostly due to the paucity of tolls to probe materials properties at the sub-micrometer scale. This limitation can be surpassed by exploiting the functional modes of atomic force microscopy, including force spectroscopy, electrostatic force microscopy and nanoscale infrared spectroscopy.
In this study, we discuss several means of controllably introducing defects in 2D materials, including using heat treatment and high energy bombardment. We show that the defect created affect the structural, mechanical and electrical properties. In turn, we present some evidence that the defects can become sites for selected chemical reaction. Finally, we monitor the changes in hydrophilic properties and explore the affinity of selected molecules with defect-laden 2D materials using functionalized AFM cantilevers. The study constitutes a new approach to understanding the mechanisms of catalysis at the nanoscale, with implications for large scale catalysts production and reactions.
9:30 AM - CM01.04.06
The Convergence of Nano-Optics and Surface Chemistry
Terefe Habteyes1,Bijesh Kafle1,Tefera Tesema1,Meron Tadesse1,Marisa Poveda1
University of New Mexico1Show Abstract
Recent advances show that localized surface plasmon resonances can be utilized to drive important photochemical reactions at low incident photon flux at room temperature. Central to this application is a localized surface plasmon near-field that drives the surface photochemical reactions and enables us to detect the reactant and product species in situ with high sensitivity using for example surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. The presentation will start with a brief discussion of plasmon near-field localization based on experimental results recently obtained in our lab using super-resolution near-field scanning optical microscopy. Plasmon-driven photochemical reactions will be discussed based on our recent exciting experimental observations, where the remarkable effect of surface ligands is demonstrated. We show that the same plasmonic optical nanoantennas can lead to different reaction pathways depending on the surface ligands. We propose that the surface ligands are influencing the reaction pathways through their interaction with the charge carriers (electrons and holes), thereby changing the concentration of reactive intermediates. The results provide important insight into the mechanism of plasmon-driven surface photochemistry, and at the same time, indicate the hidden chemistry on metal surfaces, where looking at molecules based on their fluorescence is no longer a possibility.
CM01.05: Nanothermal SPM II
Wednesday AM, April 04, 2018
PCC North, 100 Level, Room 131 B
10:30 AM - CM01.05.01
Nanophotonic AFM Transducers Revolutionize Chemical Composition and Thermal Conductivity Measurements at the Nanoscale
Andrea Centrone1,Georg Ramer1,Jungseok Chae1,Vladimir Aksyuk1
National Institute of Standards and Technology1Show Abstract
The photothermal induced resonance (PTIR) is a scanning probe technique that combines AFM with IR (or visible) absorption spectroscopy, enabling material identification, molecular conformational analysis, mapping of composition and electronic bandgap at the nanoscale. In PTIR, the absorption of a laser pulse induces a rapid thermal expansion of the sample. Conventional cantilevers are too slow to track the sample thermal expansion dynamics; however, the fast sample expansion kicks the cantilever in oscillation (like a struck tuning fork), with amplitude proportional to the absorbed energy.
After a brief introduction, I will leverage PTIR to provide direct proof of ion electron migration and ferroelasticity (but not ferroelectricity) in organic-inorganic perovskites solar cells. As second example, I will show that the PTIR near-field mechanical detection enable the observation of dark-polaritonic modes in hexagonal boron-nitride nanostructures (hBN), for the first time.
Later, I will discuss how we revolutionize AFM (and PTIR) signal transduction by integrating cavity-optomechanics for sensing the motion of fast, nanosized/picogram scale AFM probes with unprecedented precision and bandwidth, thereby breaking the trade-off between AFM measurement precision and ability to capture transient events. Applied in PTIR, the probe near-field ultralow detection noise and wide bandwidth improves the time resolution, signal-to-noise ratio and throughput by a few orders of magnitude each. Remarkably, this synergy enables a new PTIR measurement modality: capturing the previously inaccessible fast thermal-expansion response of the sample to nanosecond laser pulses, thus allowing concurrent measurement of the chemical composition and thermal conductivity, at the nanoscale.
We validate these new capabilities using polymer films and measure the intrinsic thermal conductivity (η) of metal-organic framework (MOF) individual microcrystals, a property not measurable by conventional techniques. MOFs are a class of nanoporous materials promising for catalysis, gas storage, sensing and thermoelectric applications where accurate knowledge of η is critically important. Additionally, the improved sensitivity enable measurement of nanoscale IR spectra of monolayer this sample with high signal to noise ratio (≈ 170).
We strongly believe that the radical AFM innovation enabled by nanofabrication and cavity-optomechanics is broadly-applicable and will benefit a wide range of AFM-based dynamic observations in nanoscience and biology and it greatly improve the impact of the PTIR technique in those fields.
1. Centrone, A. Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 2015, 8, (1), 101-126.
2. Yuan, Y., et al. J. Adv. Energy Mater. 2015, 5, (15), 1500615.
3. Strelcov, E., at al. Sci Adv 2017, 3, (4), e1602165.
4. Chae, J.; An, S.; Ramer, G.; Stavila, V.; Holland, G.; Yoon, Y.; Talin, A. A.; Allendorf, M.; Aksyuk, V. A.; Centrone, A. Nano Lett. 2017, 17, (9), 5587-5594.
11:00 AM - CM01.05.02
Measurement of Nanoscale Thermal Transport in Air and Vacuum Between a Tip and Local Nano-Hotspot Under Temperature Feedback Control
Amun Jarzembski1,Jeonghoon Yun2,Sina Hamian3,Jacob Crossley1,Inkyu Park2,Mathieu Francoeur1,Keunhan Park1
University of Utah1,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology2,University of California, Irvine3Show Abstract
Nanoscale thermometry is vital for the experimental characterization of sub-continuum thermal transport, such as nanoscale solid conduction [Park et al., Journal of Heat Transfer (2008)], near-field thermal radiation [Kim et al., Nature (2015)], and heat transfer in atomic junctions [Mosso et al., Nat. Nanotech. (2016)]. At such small scales, thermal transport greatly deviates from macroscale observations. Therefore, to understand the underlying physics of sub-continuum thermal transport, nanoscale thermometry should be implemented to quantify both the temperature gradient and heat transfer rate for geometric constrictions typically much smaller than 1 μm. While advancements in nanothermometry have enabled groundbreaking experimental research in sub-continuum thermal transport, no work has combined temperature feedback control with nanothermometry to actively control the local temperature of a nano-hotspot.
There are two major challenges when conducting experiments without local temperature feedback control: (1) undesirable variations in the background heat transfer to the surrounding environment during an experiment and (2) temperature varying discrepancies in the nanoscale thermal resistance. To address these challenges, we report the active control of a local nano-hotspot temperature for accurate nanoscale thermal transport measurement. To this end, we have fabricated resistive on-substrate nanoheater/thermometer (NH/T) devices that have a sensing area of ~350 nm × 300 nm, which forms a local nano-hotspot upon Joule heating. The NH/T devices operate with a 4-probe detection scheme: an electric current flows through the outer electrical leads to Joule heat the nano-patterned platinum (Pt) wire, the local electrical resistance is computed by measuring the voltage drop between the inner electrical leads. The key advantage of using resistive nanoscale thermometry is its simultaneous use of the sensing area as both a heater and thermometer.
To examine the controller’s integration with the NH/T device, feedback-controlled temporal heating and cooling experiments of the nano-hotspot reveal that the integral gain plays a dominant role in the device's response time for various temperature setpoints. The NH/T device with temperature feedback control is then applied to a local tip-induced cooling experiment, where a silicon atomic force microscope (AFM) tip is scanned over the NH/T’s nano-hotspot. The tip-induced solid conduction local cooling experiments are performed in both air and vacuum with optimized experimental parameters to separately identify the dominant modes of heat transfer: solid conduction, air conduction, water meniscus, and near-field thermal radiation. The obtained results demonstrate the precision controllability of a local nano-hotspot temperature and its application towards characterization of nanoscale thermal transport, which will provide insight to sub-contiuum heat transfer.
11:15 AM - CM01.05.03
Material Dependence of the Heat Transfer at the Transition Between Conduction and Radiation
Achim Kittel1,Konstantin Kloppstech1,Nils Könne1,Ludwig Worbes1,Till Ziehm1,David Hellmann1
Univ of Oldenburg1Show Abstract
With a STM based near field scanning thermal microscope (NSThM)  we investigate the heat transfer at ultimate short distance 0.2 nm - 7 nm. At these separations the observed heat transfer is five orders of magnitudes larger than than black body radiation and three orders of magnitudes larger than predictions by conventional theory of fluctuational electrodynamics [2 - 9]. After an accurate calibration procedure we are able to measure the local heat transfer in a quantitative way. We have investigated the influence of thin films of metals and dielectric material on the near-field mediated heat transfer at the fundamental limit of single monolayer islands on a metallic substrate. Spatially resolved measurements by NSThM are presented which are showing a distinct enhancement in heat transfer above NaCl islands compared to the bare Au(111) film . Experiments at this sub-nanometer scale call for a microscopic theory beyond the macroscopic fluctuational electrodynamics used to describe near-field heat transfer today. The method facilitates the possibility to develop designs of nanostructured surfaces with respect to specific requirements in heat transfer down to a single atomic layer. These findings open up the possibility for a local surface modification by means of local heating, e.g. chemical modification and heat assisted magnetic recording, on a scale of a few nanometers.
 U. Fleischmann-Wischnath, J. Welker, and A. Kittel, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 073708 (2008).
 S. M. Rytov, Y. A. Kravtsov, and V. I. Tatarskii, Principles of Statistical Radiophyics (Springer, New York, 1989).
 S.-A. Biehs, O. Huth, and F. Rüting, Phys. Rev. B 78, 085414 (2008).
 A. Kittel, U. F. Wischnath, J. Welker, O. Huth, F. Rüting, and S.-A. Biehs, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 193109 (2008).
 S.-A.Biehs and J.-J. Greffet, Phys. Rev. B 81, 245414 (2010).
 S.-A. Biehs and J.-J. Greffet, Phys. Rev. B 82, 245410 (2010).
 A. W. Rodriguez, M. T. Homer Reid, and S. G. Johnson, Phys. Rev. B 86, 220302(R) (2012).
 A. W. Rodriguez, M. T. Homer Reid, and S. G. Johnson, Phys. Rev. B 88, 054305 (2013).
 K. Kloppstech, N. Könne, S.-A. Biehs, L. Worbes, D. Hellmann und A. Kittel, Nature Communications 8:14475 DOI: 10.1038/ncomms14475 (2017).
 K. Kloppstech, N. Könne, L. Worbes, D. Hellmann, and A. Kittel, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 114902 (2015).
 L. Worbes, D. Hellmann, and A. Kittel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 134302 (2013).
11:45 AM - CM01.05.05
Spectral Redshift of the Thermal Near-Field Scattered by a Probe
Sheila Edalatpour1,Mathieu Francoeur2
University of Maine1,The University of Utah2Show Abstract
The interaction of a probe with the thermal near field emitted by a surface is of importance in near-field thermal spectroscopy (De Wilde et al., Nature 444, 740, 2006), tip-based manufacturing (Hawes et al., Opt. Lett. 33, 1383, 2008) and localized radiative cooling (Guha et al., Nano Lett. 12, 4546, 2012). Experimental studies (Jones and Raschke, Nano Lett. 12, 1475, 2012; Babuty et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 146103, 2013; O’Callahan, et al., Phys. Rev. B 89, 245446, 2014; O’Callahan and Raschke, APL Photonics 2, 021301, 2017) reported that the resonance frequency of the far-field scattered signal is spectrally redshifted compared to the near-field spectrum of the surface as predicted via fluctuational electrodynamics. It is not clear if the resonance redshift is due to near-field coupling between the probe and the surface or if it is an experimental artifact. Simplified models are inadequate for explaining the resonance redshift. In this study, the thermal discrete dipole approximation (T-DDA) with surface interaction (Edalatpour and Francoeur, Phys. Rev. B 94, 045406, 2016) is applied for modeling probe-surface interactions. The heat rate between the probe and the surface as well as the scattered far-field signal is calculated and analyzed. The results reveal that the resonance redshift is a physical phenomenon caused by the multiple reflections of the thermally generated waves between the probe and the surface. The magnitude of the resonance redshift is greatly affected by the shape and material properties of the probe. The possibility of designing a probe which does not introduce a resonance redshift in the scattered signal is discussed. This work will pave the way to the development of spectroscopy techniques enabling measurements of the near-field thermal spectrum.
Acknowledgment: This work is supported by the US Army Research Office under Grant No. W911NF-14-1-0210.
CM01.06: Liquid SPM—Biology and Soft Matter
Wednesday PM, April 04, 2018
PCC North, 100 Level, Room 131 B
2:00 PM - CM01.06.02
Bacterial Extracellular Polymeric Substances—Electrical and Mechanical Signatures in Biofilm Formation
Monica Cotta3,Richard Janissen1,Prasana Sahoo2,Duber Murillo3,Moniellen Monteiro3,Alessandro Cavalli4,Joao Hermes Clerici3,Hernandes Carvalho3,Carlos Cesar3,Alessandra Souza5,Erik Bakkers4
Delft University of Technology1,University of South Florida2,UNICAMP3,Eindhoven University of Technology4,Instituto Agronômico de Campinas5Show Abstract
Microorganism pathogenicity strongly relies on the generation of multicellular assemblies, called biofilms. Surface attachment of a planktonic bacteria, mediated by adhesins and hydrated extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), is a crucial step for biofilm formation. Indeed, some pathogens can modulate cell adhesiveness, impacting host colonization and virulence. However, identification of changes in EPS composition during biofilm life cycle, as well as their trigger mechanisms, are still challenging, particularly in early stages. In this work, we analyzed the entire biofilm formation process of the economically important phytopathogen Xylella fastidiosa at single-cell resolution, using several nanometer-resolution spectro-microscopy techniques. Our Scanning Probe Microscopy results reveal electrical and elastic signatures for spatial and temporal EPS distribution at different stages of the bacterial life cycle. Ex-vivo single-cell adhesion forces mediated by EPS were probed using a different approach, based on nanowire arrays. Larger adhesion forces at the cell poles and additional mechanical support from secreted EPS layers were shown for X.fastidiosa. Significant adhesion force enhancements were observed for single cells anchoring a biofilm and particularly on XadA1 adhesin-coated surfaces, evidencing molecular mechanisms developed by bacterial pathogens to create a stronger holdfast to specific host tissues.
2:15 PM - CM01.06.03
Mechanical Properties of Surfactant Films at Hydrophilic/Hydrophobic Interfaces
Benjamin Micklavzina1,Marjorie Longo1
University of California, Davis1Show Abstract
Surfactants dissolved in water will self assemble into micellar structures when exposed to a hydrophobic surface. Our work focuses primarily on the study of these films via AFM, where they can be directly probed and their mechanical properties examined. In our earlier studies, we focused on the effect of salt additions upon the breakthrough force of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and dodecylamine HCl (DAH) films. It was found that the addition of around 1.5 mM of NaCl, MgCl2, and Na2SO4 all produced significant increases (~40-70%) in the average breakthrough force at a surfactant concentration of 10 mM. A model was developed in an effort to explain the cause of this strengthening, which predicted that the breakthrough force was tied to a free energy of micellar formation. Experiments were performed using spectrofluorometry to determine how addition of salt affected the CMC and, consequently, the free energy of formation. Our model showed excellent fits for most added salts, but struggled specifically in the case of MgCl2 added to 10 mM SDS. We theorized that the mismatch between our theory and data was the result of strong ion binding at the surface, which might have changed the activation volume at breakthrough. More recent work has focused on analyzing the force curves near these micellar surfaces. Force curves contain a wealth of information about potential surface structures, and can be used to determine mechanical moduli for thin films. We found that, although our film was only 1-2 nm thick, we observed strong repulsive forces at tip-film separations of ~15-20 nm. The decay length of these forces, as well as their magnitude, increased with added salts, implying that they were not the result of electrostatic repulsion. At low salt concentrations (<1 mM), observed trends were well explained by theory for steric repulsion. The large decay lengths of 2-3 nm for SDS and DAH at these concentrations implied that the forces were the result of collective movement of micelles, rather than protrusions of individual molecules. At high concentrations of salt (>1 mM), a change in behavior was observed for SDS: A second region with a different force decay length appeared near the surface. To explain this, we applied a model for charged polymer brushes in the osmotic regime to our surface, and found good agreement between the model and our results. DAH films did not display this decay length splitting, which we hypothesized was the result of lower surface charge and ion concentration. Using force curves for SDS, we were able to extract a value for the Young's modulus of 80+/-40 MPa, which is comparable to results from literature for lipid bilayers. The DAH film was too fragile to acquire accurate information about mechanical moduli from our trials. Current work focuses on using micropipette aspiration to compare information about nanomechanical strength to a more practically sized system.
3:30 PM - CM01.06.04
Cell Microrheology Probed by High-Speed Atomic Force Microscopy
Felix Rico1,Annafrancesca Rigato1
U1006 Inserm & Aix-Marseille Université1Show Abstract
The mechanical properties of living cells provide structural stability and mechanical flexibility, crucial for their function. Thus, molecular understanding of the mechanics of the cell is relevant to understand biological function. High-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) is a unique technology that combines nanometric-imaging capabilities at video rate (1). We have recently adapted a HS-AFM system to develop high-frequency microrheology to probe the viscoelastic response of living cells from 1 Hz to 100 kHz (2). We report the viscoelasticity of different cell types under cytoskeletal drug treatments. At high frequencies, cells exhibit rich viscoelastic responses that reflect the state of the cytoskeleton filaments. The comparison of benign and malignant cancer cells revealed remarkably different scaling laws at short timescales. Microrheology over a wide dynamic range provides mechanistic understanding of cell mechanics and a univocal fingerprint, applicable for diagnosis or prognosis of disease.
1. T. Ando et al., A high-speed atomic force microscope for studying biological macromolecules. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 98, 12468 (2001).
2. A. Rigato, A. Miyagi, S. Scheuring, F. Rico, High-frequency microrheology reveals cytoskeleton dynamics in living cells. Nat Phys 13, 771 (2017).
4:00 PM - CM01.06.05
Elucidate Entropy-Driven Effect to the Self-Assembly of Protein at Solid-Liquid Interface via High-Speed Atomic Force Microscopy
Shuai Zhang1,Harley Pyles2,David Baker2,James De Yoreo1
Pacific Northwest National Lab1,University of Washington2Show Abstract
In nature, protein molecules can self-assembly into 2D crystalline arrays on templates like, cell wall and membrane. The created protein matrixes, like bacterial S-layer and purple membrane, can have unique structure and biological function. Protein self-assembly structures have also been synthesized artificially on solid-liquid interface to fulfill certain applications, like energy conversion. However the general model to describe the self-assembly process of protein at solid-liquid crystal is still missing. It can be the potential obstacle for designing and applications of protein 2D matrix in future.
In this project, we used the designed helical repeat protein (DHR10-micaX)  as the model to elucidate entropy-driven effect to the dynamic and final self-assembly structure of protein at solid-liquid interface of mica via high-speed atomic force microscopy (AFM). After carefully selection of cations and subsequent changes of the amount at interface, DHR10-micaX with size in nanometer can form 2D crystal across area of million times of their length with unique orientation. This class of protein can also form nanowire arrays with uniform orientation, if the protein-protein interaction is tuned. Combining in-situ data of high-speed AFM and simulation, we elucidated the role of entropy in the whole process, and we also discussed the effect of hydration layer to protein dynamics at solid-liquid interface.
1. Brunette, T.J., et al., Exploring the repeat protein universe through computational protein design. Nature, 2015. 528(7583): p. 580-584.
4:15 PM - CM01.06.06
Automated Force Spectroscopy Analysis for the Investigation of Cell Nanomechanics Using Atomic Force Microscopy
Spyridon Sovatzoglou1,Andrew Fleming1,Jamie Hobbs1
The University of Sheffield1Show Abstract
Nano-indentation experiments and their subsequent analysis can provide useful insights into materials' mechanical properties. Moreover, in living cells, knowledge of mechanical properties can lead to improved understanding of function. Despite impressive progress in the field, it is not always possible to acquire adequate information for the characterization of complex biological systems. Real biological samples are often highly heterogeneous and dynamic, and thus nanoindentation experiments must be interpreted carefully under contact mechanics theory1. Here we use the plant leaf as a model complex biological material structure. Plant cells have a thick wall that maintains shape, prevents cell disruption under the action of high osmotic pressure, and plays a vital role in the varied functions of different plant tissues. We focus on the leaf surface and particularly stomata, specialized cells involved in gas and moisture exchange, which are designed to open or close under varying internal pressure.
Beginning from the observation that not all the force curves of a “force-volume” map can be treated universally under the same theoretical model, an automated approach was generated for the analysis of multiple force curves. In the approach presented here, apart from the calculation of Young’s modulus for the whole map, we present three important features for an improved insight into the complexity of cell mechanics. Firstly, a “contact mechanics model” map suggests the appropriate model to be used for the calculation of modulus of each force curve of the map (depending on adhesion, hysteresis cycle and fitting constants α,β and in P=α*hβ). Secondly, a “yield point” map shows the points of the scan where the elastic limit has been exceeded along the indentation depth. Thirdly, a “modulus tomography” movie is generated, from which a possible change of modulus value along fractions of indentation depth, for a non-yield-point force curve, can reveal bad fitting of the experimental data under the current theoretical models (β=3/2 & 2) for non-adhesive/non-plastic contact. Finally, a map of the fitting residuals is presented to provide an immediate insight into the areas of the data that cannot be treated with confidence.
We have applied this approach to the spatial variation of Young’s modulus over the surface of the plant cell wall, and how this feature couples to the structure and the biological function of the cell. We have observed an unexpected stiffening of the polar regions of the cell2, in-line with the mechanical role of this region during the opening and closing of stomata, providing new insights into the mechanics of the cell’s function.
 Kuznetsova et al. Micron, Volume 38, Issue 8, 2007, 824-833
 Carter, Ross et al. Current Biology, Volume 27, Issue 19, 2017, 2974 - 2983.e2
4:30 PM - CM01.06.07
Recent Advances in Atomic Force Microscopy—Focus on Quantitative Nanomechanical Measurements on Biological Samples
A. Berquand1,Michael Molinari1
Universite de Reims Champagne Ardenne1Show Abstract
Since its development in the eighties, atomic force microscopy (AFM) has proved itself to be the perfect tool to image a wide range of samples and characterize their mechanical properties with an unprecedented accuracy. Force spectroscopy emerged in the nineties as an ideal technique to extract the sample’s stiffness or elasticity, and, to date, is the most commonly used AFM technique in biology. But over the last decade, other quantitative modes have offered benefits in terms of resolution and information. Recently an oscillating technique called PeakForce Tapping (PFT) has been released. Whereas the cantilever is oscillated far below its resonance frequency (typically 1 kHz), a force/distance curve is recorded each time the tip contacts with the surface. From each of those force curves, mechanical information can be extracted in real time. If the tip is calibrated prior to the experiment, all information is displayed in a quantitative manner. This technique has proven suitable for a wide variety of samples ranging from stiff biopolymers to live cells.
In this presentation, we will be focusing on a few examples where PFT has been successfully used on biological samples in near-physiological conditions to address issues of medical or pathological order. More in particular, via the use of PFT, we’ll be reviewing how AFM can be considered as a nanotool to distinguish cancer cells from their normal counterparts by extracting the cell’s mechanical properties or measuring their migration speed; or to investigate the effects of diabetes or atherosclerosis on tissue sections with a submicrometer resolution. The interest of the technique also lies in the possibility to combine it in real time to other more traditional microscopy techniques, thus providing complementary information.
CM01.07: Poster Session I
Wednesday PM, April 04, 2018
PCC North, 300 Level, Exhibit Hall C-E
5:00 PM - CM01.07.01
Probing Adhesion of Metallic Nanoparticles on Polymeric Fibrous and Flat Architectures Using Nano-Indentation
Temitope Aminu1,David Bahr1
Purdue University1Show Abstract
Polymers and metals have been fashioned into functional composites utilized in electronics, product packaging and decorative films despite their disparate mechanical, thermal, and bonding properties. Metallic nanoparticles on polymeric architectures hold potential for catalysis, antimicrobial filtration membranes and solar cells. However, adhesion between polymers and metallic particles is notoriously weak due to the differences in atomic and molecular configuration of these materials; as a result, their functional application can be undermined. Furthermore, the process of delamination of metallic particles on polymeric substrate is exacerbated by the differences in compliance; delamination and has been shown to be dependent on adhered metal particle size. This work explores the adhesion characteristics of electrolessly deposited copper particles on two distinct polymer architectures: thin films and fibers. Polyacrylonitrile was spun-coat into a thin film of a few microns as well as electrospun into a non-woven fiber mat, with fiber diameters on the order of 1000 nm. Catalytic palladium nanocrystals on these structures was achieved via a classical pretreatment processes. Electron microscopy was used to characterize the time evolution of copper particle size as well as distribution. The chemistry as well as crystallography of the fabricated structures were assessed using FT-Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray Diffraction. Adhesion was measured using a scanning probe nanoindentation tool to perform scratch testing on the metal particle on thin film structure in a constant load scratch test. The adhesion performance as a function of particle size and specific pretreatment is then compared to the delamination of metal particles deposited on the non-woven fiber mats using tensile stretching (by flat punch nanoindentation and mechanical tensile straining). The similarity in the local probe versus the macroscopic behavior allows future adhesion improvements to be quantified using the local probe prior to the more complex non-woven fiber geometry.
5:00 PM - CM01.07.02
Combining Fast Imaging and Variable Temperature Studies in Atomic Force Microscopy
Sergei Magonov1,Shijie Wu2
SPM Labs LLC1,Keysight Technologies2Show Abstract
A development of fast imaging for most atomic force microscopy (AFM) applications is a current trend of this technique. We illustrate the potential of combining fast imaging and variable temperature studies, which were performed on samples of mesomorphic polymer – poly(diethylsiloxane) – PDES, of semicrystalline polyethylenes of different type and bitumen. Quick Scan in scanning probe microscopes of Keysight Technologies is based on use of the fast-response piezo nose-cone embedded into a regular scanner and high-frequency probes with 1st flexural resonance around 1.5 MHz. In variable temperature experiments the imaging of surfaces at scales from hundreds of nanometers to a hundred of mm with scanning rates up to 50 Hz allows fast recording of morphological transformations and nanoscale structures in a time of milliseconds. Quick Scan provides not only the substantial time savings in experiments, but also enables recording of structural changes at heating rates of 5-10 degrees/min, which are common for other characterization techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic mechanical analysis, etc. Structural changes can be visualized practically at every temperature degree, and this capability empowers comprehensive material characterization. The data, which were recorded on PDES samples prepared in different ways, have confirmed a coexistence of several crystalline, mesomorphic and isotropic states of this polymer. Crystallization from different mesomorphic states proceeds in different path for samples with various thermal histories. Transition from crystalline to mesomorphic order took place in a broad temperature range compared to crystallization. In rubbed sample mesomorphic order has originated from isotropic state at oriented strips of material serving as the nuclei. Newly grown lamellar aggregates are more extended compared to those formed by rubbing. In variable temperature experiments on polyethylene samples we have obtained novel results regarding crystallization, melting and related structural transformations in samples with different crystallinity and chain order. Particularly, we have monitored crystallization process and recorded kinetic data in study of polyethylene based on ethylene/octene copolymer. These results can be obtained with high time efficiency that is invaluable in industrial research environment. Other technologically important material – bitumen has been examined in the temperature range from +90C to -20C with Quick Scan. These studies have revealed specifics of wax crystallization and a formation of surface wrinkling in different shapes depending on thermal history and cooling rate from melt. This technique has a strong potential for a more thorough examination of composition and thermal behavior of bitumen. The demonstrated successful use of Quick Scan at different temperatures is only one of many areas of AFM applications that strongly benefit from this advanced technique.
5:00 PM - CM01.07.03
Properties of Individual Electrospun Fibers Aligned Using Parallel Plate Collectors
Christine Helms1,Christopher Fryer1,Brittney D'Oleo1,Meghan Scharnagl1
University of Richmond1Show Abstract
Electrospun fibers have the potential to play an important role in fields including filtration, tissue engineering and drug delivery. Applications often require precise fiber mechanical properties and orientations. For example, in tissue engineering cells sense and respond to the stiffness, orientation and size of elements in their environment. Researchers can control the orientation of electrospun fibers by altering the electric field in the region of the collector. By placing two collector parallel to one another, aligned fibers are produced in the region between the collectors. Here we hypothesize that electric field alignment of electrospun nanofibers will cause changes in mechanical properties of the fibers.
Fibers were electrospun from 8% polyethylene oxide (PEO) solution under electric field conditions for alignment and nonalignment. Individual fibers were manipulated by AFM in combination with an inverted microscope to determine mechanical properties such as Young’s modulus and extensibility. The force required to stretch the fiber was found using the Sader method to calculate the torsional constant of the cantilever. The diameters of fibers were determined through AFM and SEM imaging.
We found aligned fibers formed under the same working distance, voltage and polymer solution to be significantly smaller in diameters than nonaligned fibers. Fibers aligned using a parallel plate collector had a diameter of 182 +/- 10 nm (average ± standard deviation of the mean) while nonaligned fibers had a diameter of 262 +/- 14 nm. Consistent with previously published data, the smaller aligned fibers had a higher initial modulus on average than nonaligned fibers, 130 ± 10 MPa and 40 ± 10 MPa, respectively. Previous data showed aligned fibers to be less extensible, with an average strain of 1.4 ± 0.2, than nonaligned fibers, with an average strain of 3.2 ± 0.3.
These results indicate a significant effect on electrospun fiber properties due to changes to the electric field and lead to further questions about the effect of the collector and therefore the electric field on electrospun fiber mechanical and physical properties.
5:00 PM - CM01.07.05
Giant Shape-Memory Effects in van-der-Waals Crystal with Incipient Ionic Conductivity
Petro Maksymovych1,Sabine Neumayer2,Michael Susner3,Alexander Tselev4,Brian Rodriguez2,Stephen Jesse1,Sergei Kalinin1,Michael McGuire1,Nina Balke1
Oak Ridge National Laboratory1,University College Dublin2,Air Force Research Laboratory3,University of Aveiro4Show Abstract
Layered metal thiophosphates have recently been considered in the context of quasi-2D non-linear dielectric and ferroelectric materials, with properties distinct from a more common dichalcogenide family. A specific representative, CuInP2S6 (CIPS), exhibits order-disorder ferroelectric transition with Tc around room temperature. Although mobility of Cu+1 ions in CIPS has been inferred from previous measurements, the mechanism of the ionic transport and the accompanying change in material properties are presently unknown.
Here we employed scanning probe microscopy (SPM) to investigate ionic motion in paraelectric CIPS . Above critical electric field, we observe surface expansion well beyond what is expected of dielectric tunability. However, the expansion is almost completely reversible, indicating lack of permanent lattice damage. At 473K, the surface expansion can reach a giant 100 nm, nominally corresponding to over 30% strain, while still remaining reversible. All the measurements were carried out under strictly controlled environmental conditions, ruling out trivial artefacts.
We propose a hierarchical model where surface deformation in applied field proceeds through a sequence of piezoelectric deformation where Cu+1 maintains its intralayer position, Cu+1 hopping into the van-der-Waals gap and finally nucleation and growth of Cu on the surface. The reversibility of this process is tied to the resilience of the CuInP2S6 to cationic vacancies, which has been remotely hinted on by the prior studies of intentionally Cu-deficient phases, as well as the existence of a stable Cu-free In4/3P2S6 phase .
Within the model, we further developed the technique of electrochemical strain microscopy, an almost decade-old proposal to study ionic motion in solids via the associated strain deformation. Specifically, we directly measured the frequency and temperature dependence of surface expansion, and extracted both activation barrier and diffusivity coefficient for ionic motion.
Altogether, ionic mobility in CuInP2S6, when probed by local electric field, translates into giant shape-memory type of response, involving almost completely reversible extraction and reinsertion of Cu atoms in and out of the parent van-der-Waals crystal. CIPS has therefore provided the best yet model system for electrochemical strain microscopy, enabling further insight into how to utilize this technique for nanoscale studies of energy materials.
Research conducted at the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, which is a DOE Office of Science User Facility. Research was sponsored by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U. S. Department of Energy. Research partly supported by a research grant from Science Foundation (SFI) under the US-Ireland R&D Partnership Programme Grant Number SFI/14/US/I3113.
 Balke et al., submitted (2017)
 Susner et al., ACS Nano, 11, (2017), 7060
5:00 PM - CM01.07.06
Interaction Potential in Nanoscale Friction of 2D Materials
Rodrigo Prioli1,Felipe Ptak Lemos1,Clara Almeida2
Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro1,Inmetro2Show Abstract
Despite being one of the oldest phenomena known to mankind and its vast use, there still are open questions about the frictional process between two surfaces. At the nanometer scale for instance, the energy dissipations mechanisms, the influence of the crystalline orientation and the correlation between macroscopic and microscopic scales are still under debate.
Recently, development of 2D materials such as graphene has been widely studied due to its prominent properties and potential applications. Therefore, it is necessary to understand how such materials behave when in contact. Their tribological behavior at the nanoscale may present novel and unexpected features as compared to their bulk counterparts.
In this work we study the interaction between silicon tips and graphene by friction force microscopy. A giant anisotropy according to the crystallographic direction is observed, which is counterinuitive due to the isotropic behavior of its elastic properties. This behavior is associated with a nonlinear mechanism for energy disspation during scanning.
The velocity dependence of friction was also measured. The effective interaction potential between the tip and the surface was observed to vary linearly with the normal force, ranging from ~ 0.5 to ~0.6 eV. A critical velocity related to thermally activated dynamics of the contact atoms have also been determined to vary linearly with the applied load in the range of 1.5 to 2.0 µm/s.
5:00 PM - CM01.07.07
Characterization of Lead-Free Ceramics on the Base of Sodium-Bismuth Titanate and Sodium-Potassium Niobate via PFM Local Probes
Karpov Institute of Physical Chemistry1Show Abstract
Characterization of lead-free ceramics on the base of sodium-bismuth titanate and sodium-potassium niobate via PFM local probes
E.D. Politova1, G.M. Kaleva1, N.V. Golubko1, A.V. Mosunov1, N.V. Sadovskaya1, D.A. Kiselev2, A.M. Kislyuk2, S. Yu. Stefanovich1,3, P.K. Panda4
1L.Ya.Karpov Institute of Physical Chemistry, Vorontsovo pole str. 10, Moscow 105064 Russia,
2National University of Science and Technology “MISiS”, Leninskii pr. 4, Moscow 119991 Russia,
3Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie gory 1, Moscow 119992 Russia,
4National Aerospace Laboratories, Kodihalli, Bangalore-560017 India
Lead-free piezoelectric oxide materials are being intensively studied in order to replace widely used Pb-based ones during last ten years. We studied influence of cation substitutions on stoichiometry, structure parameters, dielectric, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric properties of ceramics based on (Na0..5Bi0.5)TiO3 (NBT) and (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 (KNN) perovskites.
The samples were characterized using the X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Second Harmonic Generation (SHG), Dielectric Spectroscopy, and Atomic Force Microscopy in Piezorespone Force Microscopy mode (PFM) methods.
Ceramic samples in systems (Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3 - BaTiO3 (NBT-BT) and (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 – BaTiO3 (KNN-BT) with compositions close to Morphotropic Phase Boundaries (MPB) were prepared by the two-step solid-state reaction method at temperatures of 900 – 1500 K. The samples were additionally modified by small amounts of Li2O, MnO2, Ni2O3, and Fe2O3 (1-5 mol.%) oxides.
Changes in the unit cell volume of the KNN- and NBT-based ceramics observed correlate with cation substitutions. Ferroelectric phase transitions near ~ 400 K and ~ 550 K (NBT) and at ~700 K (KNN) were revealed in the dielectric permittivity versus temperature curves of ceramics studied. Ferroelectric phase transitions near ~ 400 K (NBT) revealed typical relaxor-type behavior confirming presence of polar nanoregions in a nonpolar matrix.
Remnant hysteresis loops were received for separate grains in the samples using switching spectroscopy PFM method. In PFM nucleation of a single domain occurs under a sharp tip, and the PFM signal follows the development of domains at a single location. Local PFM hysteresis loops for the samples studied were observed indicating ferroelectric polarization switching at nanoscale. Increase in the spontaneous polarization value was proved for modified ceramics using the SHG method.
Finally, non monotonous changes of the dielectric parameters εrt, tanδrt and maximum effective local d33 values were observed in modified BNT- and KNN-based compositions, thus confirming their prospects for new lead-free materials development.
The work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Project 16-53-48009).
5:00 PM - CM01.07.08
Electric Field Induced Breakdown—Monolayer Behaviour Under Duress
Nhlakanipho Mkhize1,Harish Bhaskaran1
University of Oxford1Show Abstract
Electrohydrodynamic jet printing (EHD) has emerged as a competitive technique in the field of additive nanomanufacturing 1. With the wide range of materials it can accommodate, it has been shown to produce printed features of up to 50 nm in resolution 2. Whilst this is remarkable, the printing speed used to achieve this is not. One way to improve this important parameter (for upscaling purposes) is to better control the wetting properties of the substrate being printed on. Their modification is a key step in the quest for high resolution printing. A reliable technique to achieve this is by using self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) to modify the surface energy.
It has been shown that the presence of a SAM can increase the resolution obtained during EHD printing 3. However, there has been insufficient analysis into whether this monolayer survives the printing process. With electric fields of the order of MV/m passing through several nanometres of soft matter, does the dielectric SAM experience breakdown? Previous studies suggest that the monolayer does suffer breakdown 4, but this has not been demonstrated with a scanning probe microscopy technique.
In this study, we present our findings to these questions. We use conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) to probe the electrical characteristics of four different SAM layers grown on an indium tin oxide (ITO) surface to determine properties such as conductivity and breakdown threshold. We do this by studying I-V plots over a certain potential window and assessing any deviations from normal Ohmic behaviour of the ITO. We relate the observed results to the physical properties of the SAMs such as chain length and terminal groups. We also use Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (KPFM) to study the surface potential of SAM coated substrates which have been exposed to high electric fields using EHD. We find that there is a difference in contrast between E-field exposed regions and those not exposed, suggesting that field effects do influence the monolayer. Finally, we suggest ways to preserve the monolayer integrity during the printing process.
1. Porter, B. F., Mkhize, N. & Bhaskaran, H. Nanoparticle assembly enabled by EHD-printed monolayers. Microsystems Nanoeng. 3, 17054 (2017).
2. Galliker, P. et al. Direct printing of nanostructures by electrostatic autofocussing of ink nanodroplets. Nat. Commun. 3, 890 (2012).
3. Jeong, Y. J. et al. Directly drawn poly(3-hexylthiophene) field-effect transistors by electrohydrodynamic jet printing: Improving performance with surface modification. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6, 10736–10743 (2014).
4. Haag, R., Rampi, M. A., Holmlin, R. E. & Whitesides, G. M. Electrical Breakdown of Aliphatic and Aromatic Self-Assembled Monolayers Used as Nanometer-Thick Organic Dielectrics Electrical Breakdown of Aliphatic and Aromatic Self-Assembled Monolayers Used as Nanometer-Thick Organic Dielectrics. 7895–7906 (1999).
5:00 PM - CM01.07.09
Sharp-Tip Silver Nanowires for High Resolution Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Imaging and Tip-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy
Qiushi Liu1,Xuezhi Ma1,Sanggon Kim1,Yangzhi Zhu1,Da Xu1,Ming Liu1
University of California, Riverside1Show Abstract
Exploring both topographical and chemical information down to nanoscale has intrigued broad research attention. Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) imaging, which combines both the high spatial resolution of Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) and the enhanced signal sensitivity of surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy, has been demonstrated as a promising technique for the near-field Raman imaging research. The quality of TERS heavily relies on the Raman signals Enhancement Factor (EF) using the metallic tip. Here, we have developed a reliable and low-cost fabrication method to prepare STM-TERS tip. Using a Sharp-Tip Silver Nanowire (ST-AgNW) introduced in our previous work, both high spatial resolution and high EF can be achieved. By putting the ST-AgNW on the platinum-iridium wire with a micromanipulator, the protruding length of ST-AgNW can be precisely controlled and reduced to less than 5 µm, which results in the minimized thermal vibration. Utilizing conical shape at the ST-AgNW apex, atomic scale resolution (~0.1 nm) STM image of Highly Ordered Pyrolytic Graphite (HOPG) has been achieved and multi-channel tunneling current can be avoided. Moreover, TERS performances of the ST-AgNW have been evaluated by approaching the ST-AgNW to monolayer graphene on the 30nm gold substrate. Owing to the small tip radius of our ST-AgNW (~5 nm), a gap mode with small mode volume between the ST-AgNW and the gold substrate can be supported when the incident laser was tightly focused into the tip-substrate gap. Comparing with the regular AgNW tips in other TERS tip preparation methods, a much higher enhancement factor (EF) from our STAgNW tip has been demonstrated by both Raman spectroscopy measurement and finite element analysis simulation.
5:00 PM - CM01.07.10
Experimental Reconstruction of the Contact Resonance Shape Factor for Quantitative AC Strain Measurements
Lawrence Robins1,Jason Killgore1,Akshay Deolia2,Todd Murray2
National Institute of Standards and Technology1,University of Colorado Boulder2Show Abstract
In bias induced strain measurements such as piezoresponse force microscopy and electrochemical strain microscopy, the contact resonance (CR) of the surface-coupled cantilever-sample system can serve as an amplifier of cantilever motion, providing orders of magnitude improvement in strain sensitivity compared to off-resonance measurements. However, use of the CR can significantly complicate relative and absolute quantification of AC strain because the optical lever sensitivity of the CR differs dramatically from the quasistatic bending shape typically used for optical calibration. Furthermore, the CR optical lever sensitivity varies with the CR frequency, which itself is a function of sample modulus, sample curvature, and contact area, all of which can vary spatially over a scan area. The net result is that a response that appears as contrast in AC strain amplitude can be predominantly associated with a change in the mechanical boundary conditions of the probe, rather than actual electromechanical function. Recently, the concept of a shape factor to relate the CR amplitude to the actual tip motion has been developed by Balke et al. through use of an Euler-Bernoulli beam model. However, epistemic uncertainties between the beam model and the experiment may still result in unacceptable errors. Here, we introduce an experimental method with a calibrated reference artifact to calculate the shape factor across the range of relevant boundary conditions that the unknown sample may exhibit. The reference artifact is a high-frequency (fundamental resonance >2 MHz) ultrafast cantilever affixed to an ultrasound transducer. The base motion of the cantilever is quantitatively calibrated using a Michelson interferometer while the transducer is driven at frequencies encompassing the CR frequencies of the unknown cantilever-sample system. When an unknown cantilever with precisely placed detection-laser is brought into contact with the reference cantilever, the resultant contact resonance is monotonically related to the position of the unknown cantilever’s tip on the reference cantilever beam (i.e. positions closer to the free-end result in lower stiffness and lower CR frequency, closer to the base result in higher stiffness and higher frequency). Here, we show that the relation between a known sample-motion drive-force and the CR-amplitude (i.e. the CR shape factor) can be continuously measured. We then apply the calibrated cantilever to measure quantitative surface strain on a piezoelectric material.
5:00 PM - CM01.07.11
Chemical Phenomena of Atomic Force Microscopy Scanning
Anton Ievlev1,Chance Brown1,Petro Maksymovych1,Sergei Kalinin1,Olga Ovchinnikova1
Oak Ridge National Laboratory1Show Abstract
Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is widely used for nanoscale characterization of materials by scientists worldwide. The long held believe of AFM, is that the tip is generally chemically inert but can be functionalized in respect to the studied sample. This implies that basic imaging and scanning procedures do not affect surface and bulk chemistry of the studied sample. However, an in-depth study of the confined chemical processes taking place at the tip surface junction, and the associated chemical changes to the material surface have as of now been missing.
Here, we used a hybrid system that combines Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) with an AFM to investigate the chemical interactions that take place at the tip-surface junction. Investigations showed that even basic contact mode AFM scanning is able to modify the surface of the studied sample. In particular, we found that AFM tips are heavily contaminated by the silicone oils, which were determined to come from standard gel-boxes used for the storage and handling of the tips. These oils were deposited from the AFM tip into the scanned regions during the scanning process, which modifies surface state of the studied sample and can significantly affect results of the surface investigations performed by the AFM. Furthermore, we found that silicone oils can be spread to distances exceeding 15 microns from the static tip.
These results demonstrate that chemical phenomena have to be taken into the consideration for interpreting and understanding results of AFM mechanical and electrical studies relying on state of the tip-surface junction.
This work was conducted at the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, which is a Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science User Facility.
5:00 PM - CM01.07.12
Nanomechanical Visualisation of Subsurface Defects in WS2/WSe2 CVD Flakes via Ultrasonic Force Microscopies
Marta Mucientes1,Melinda Shearer2,Yuzhou Zhao2,Robert J. Hamers2,Jin Song2,Oleg Kolosov1
Lancaster University1,University of Wisconsin-Madison2Show Abstract
The two-dimensional (2D) materials have multiple applications in optoelectronics, energy storage, gas- and bio-sensors, and photocatalysis and solar energy conversion, to mention a few. In particular, the atomically layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), such as WS2 and WSe2 are promising candidates due to their unique electronic and optical properties, ease of manufacturing,
mechanical robustness, low toxicity, as well as composed of relatively abundant elements on Earth . For this research, we study WSe2 and WS2 samples growth individually or simultaneously by the Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) on the Si or SiOx surfaces. These materials form complex trigonal and hexagonal faceted structures formed by the individual layers of material, typically with a screw dislocation in the centre of the crystallites defining the growth process .
To identify dislocations and faults between several stacked WSe2 and WS2 layers we have used nanomechanical mapping in SPM by combining the Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) with the ultrasonic vibration – namely, the Ultrasonic Force (UFM) and the Heterodyne Force (HFM) Microscopies. In UFM/HFM amplitude modulated ultrasonic vibrations at frequency up to 10 MHz are applied to the sample resulting in its displacement of few nm normal to its surface. The AFM tip contacting the sample then produces dynamic force at the oscillation frequency that propagates to the inner layers of the 2D materials. The hidden subsurface features such as dislocations and stacking faults have a compressibility that differs from one of the perfect sample that, in turn, modifies the dynamic mechanical impedance sensed by the AFM tip. This is detected as cantilever deflection at the modulation frequency, thanks to the nonlinearity of the tip-surface interaction reflecting the hidden structure of the 2D material . If both tip and sample are vibrated at the adjacent frequencies without amplitude modulation (as in the HFM setup ), the amplitude of the nonlinear response reflects the subsurface nanomechanical elastic moduli modulation, whereas the phase detects the dynamic relaxation processes in nanometre volumes with a time-sensitivity of few nanoseconds.
The UFM and HFM study of WS2 and WSe2 materials revealed a clear contrast in areas, some of these linked with the topographical features, and some likely to reflect subsurface dislocations and stacking faults. Alternative reasons for the nanomechanical contrast of hidden features such as the misorientation of the crystallographic axis of layers and crystal-surface interaction and the demonstrated link between the screw and misfit dislocations are discussed.
 Eftekhari A, J. Mater. Chem. A, 5 (2017) 18299-18325.
 Shearer MJ et al., Journal of the American Chemical Society, 139 (2017) 3496-3504.
 Dinelli F et al., Nanotechnology, 2017, 28(8):085706.
 Cuberes MT et al., Journal of Physics D-Applied Physics, 33 (2000) 2347-2355.
5:00 PM - CM01.07.13
Comparison of Local Dynamic Response of MEMS Nanostructures Using Ultrasonic Force Microscopy and Laser Doppler Vibrometry
Marta Mucientes1,Oleg Kolosov1,2
Lancaster University1,Materials Science Institute, Lancaster University2Show Abstract
Development of novel high frequency Si, Si3N4, and graphene based micro-and nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS and NEMS) requires suitable characterization methods with nanoscale spatial resolution, high frequency (HF) response and high sensitivity. As spatial resolution of existing methods such as Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV) is limited by the light wavelength to the micrometre scale , it is tempting to use atomic force microscope (AFM) techniques offering nanoscale resolution. Here we use AFM to analyse the vibrations of nanoscale thin membranes over the frequency range from kHz to several MHz using both linear and nonlinear mechanisms for their excitation and detection.
Our model system is a Si3N4 membrane (200 nm thickness, 500x500 um2, Agar Scientific) on a Si substrate. The AFM (Multimode, Nanoscope 8, Bruker) was modified with a piezoceramic transducer driven by the function generator to excite sample vibrations from kHz to about 10 MHz, with the resulting cantilever deflection detected by a standard lock-in-amplifier. The reference optical vibrometry (OFV-2670 and UHF-120, Polytec) found the membrane fundamental vibrational mode at ~250 KHz suggesting it to be under high tensile stress.
The core idea of our study was to explore the possibility of detection HF membrane vibrations via AFM and effect of the probing tip contact on the resonance frequency. We used three AFM modes: 1) Force Modulation Microscopy (FMM) with tip vibrations detected at the excitation frequency, 2) nonlinear off-resonance regime where HF sample vibration is modulated at low frequency, and cantilever response measured at the modulation frequency (Ultrasonic Force Microscopy, UFM ), 3) UFM resonance regime, where the modulation frequency was around the membrane resonance (M-UFM).
While the edge of a membrane was not detectable via topography, it was clearly visible in all ultrasonic modes. FMM mapping at swept excitation frequency showed that the cantilever-tip loading of the membrane increasingly shifted the resonance frequency down as the tip moved towards the centre, with the maximum response reached at a certain distance from the edge, suggesting an optimum position for the detection of vibrations. In M-UFM mode we found that the membrane resonance was also detectable, even though there was no resonance frequency component in the driving oscillation spectrum. We attributed this to the nonlinear nature of the tip-membrane interaction that produced the localised force at the resonance modulation frequency. This study shows that ultrasonic AFM modes will allow the exploration of the vibration of MEMS/NEMS structures of sub-um dimensions including 2D materials based NEMS.
 Gates RS, Pratt JR, Nanotechnology, 2012, 23(37).
 Bosse JL et al., Journal of Applied Physics, 2014, 115(14):144304.
5:00 PM - CM01.07.14
DLVO and Hydrodynamic Interactions at the Nano Rough Surfaces—The Shift of the Isoelectric Point of Nanostructured Zirconia
Francesca Borghi1,Bianca Scaparra1,Costanza Paternoster1,Paolo Milani1,Alessandro Podestà1
University of Milano1Show Abstract
We report on the systematic investigation by Atomic Force Microscopy of the role of surface nanoscale roughness and morphology on the charging behaviour of nanostructured zirconium dioxide (ZrOx, x≤2) surfaces in aqueous solutions, and in particular on the influence of nanoscale morphology on the isoelectric point of these surfaces. By using supersonic cluster beam deposition to fabricate nanostructured zirconia films, we achieved a quantitative control over the surface morphological properties of ns-ZrOx films, and in particular we were able to control the root-mean square roughness across a wide range of values matching those of other characteristic lengths of electrostatic double-layer interactions in electrolytic solutions, such as the Debye length, and the typical size of nano-colloids (proteins, enzymes, nano-catalysts). We have characterized by direct AFM measurements the interaction forces between rough zirconia surfaces and a micrometer-sized spherical silica probe in NaCl aqueous electrolyte. A method of incorporating surface roughness into theoretical calculations of hydrodynamic and DLVO forces is presented, where the surface roughness is modeled by a Gaussian distribution of surface heights. We performed a systematic exploration of the electrical double layer properties in different interaction regimes characterized by different ratios of characteristic nanoscale lengths of the system: the surface rms roughness Rq, the correlation length ξ and the Debye length λD. We observed a remarkable reduction by more than one pH unit of the Isoelectric Point (IEP) on very rough nanostructured surfaces (Rq∼26nm), with respect to the flat amorphous ZrOx. A possible explanation for the behavior of IEP, previously characterized also for titanium dioxide nanostructured thin films1, is the rou