Lorenz Holzer EMPA Materials Science and Technology
Michael D. Uchic Air Force Research Laboratory
Cynthia Volkert Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe
Andrew Minor Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
Y1: Nanolithography and Nanostructuring with Focused Ion Beam (Optical Devices and Membranes)
Wednesday PM, March 26, 2008
Room 3011 (Moscone West)
3:00 PM - **Y1.1
Prototyping Research with a DualBeam FIB/SEM: Cut-&-Paste, See-&-Do, and Presto Picostructures.
Warren MoberlyChan 1 Show Abstract
1 Dept. of Materials Technology, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California, United States
The advent of the DualBeam FIB/SEM nearly a decade ago has dramatically expanded the utility of Focused Ion Beams beyond their historic roots as tools for semiconductor circuit-edit and TEM sample preparation. When using a focused beam or even trying to focus a beam, having a 2nd beam (such as SEM) of higher resolution to see what is being done with the first beam is invaluable; having an internal metrology tool provides the ultimate control to the processing capability of the tool. Furthermore, this in situ metrology results in on-the-fly decisions such that the DualBeam becomes the definitive prototyping tool for nanoscience; not just to micromachine a prototype part, but to prototype research itself; the ideal See-&-Do tool, not just do-&-see. Add on direct-write deposition systems, chemicals for enhanced etching, hot-&-cold stage, micromanipulators, electrical-&-optical contact/sensors, detectors for other analytical techniques, and the FIB results become bountiful. Several wide-ranging applications illustrate the function of this cut-&-paste, see-&-do tool: from lift-out extractions, to serial sectioning of biological microstructures, to modifying AFM tips, to nanoscale optical devices. "Slice-&-View" provides 3D microstructural evaluation ranging from laser machining damage to reacting multilayers, but especially provides overwhelming statistical context for an end-slice 2D TEM view. Sometimes, however, the do-&-see of slice-&-view can become (at least in part) the doing as a result only due to the seeing. Yet even the artifacts of this 2nd impinging beam can be turned around to invent 2-beam direct-write deposition from zeptoliter sources. Part 2 will focus on ion beam processing to produce self-organized nanostructures, and to study "reverse reactions". In minutes the FIB/SEM produces a movie of the evolution of ripple topographies; with doses that typically require days in other ion-beam systems. Erosion at the nanoscale has enabled us to observe and control deposition during erosion, thereby producing picostructures. Conversely, we have also controlled erosion during deposition to "grow" ripples. The site-specific nature of the FIB achieves nano-wonders; still there are limits to what a FIB can make. The geometrical limits of aspect ratio and redeposition become critical rate-limiting parameters for many applications; and as we learn to understand and control these artifacts, we can begin to optimize their use.This work was performed under the auspices of the United States Department of Energy by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories under contract of No. DE-AC52-07NA27344. (UCRL-ABS-236128)
3:30 PM - Y1.2
Nanometer Accuracy Grating Fabrication using Focused Ion Beam Etching Method.
Wei Zhou 1 , Kevin Roberts 2 , James Leger 1 Show Abstract
1 Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States, 2 Nanofabrication Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States
3:45 PM - Y1.3
Surface Plasmon Components on Single-crystal Au Fabricated using Focused Ion Beam.
Ernst Jan Vesseur 1 , Rene de Waele 1 , Henri Lezec 2 3 , Harry Atwater 2 , F. Garcia de Abajo 4 , Albert Polman 1 Show Abstract
1 , FOM Institute AMOLF, Amsterdam Netherlands, 2 , California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, United States, 3 Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, NIST, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States, 4 , Instituto de Optica - CSIC, Madrid Spain
4:00 PM - Y1.4
Controlled Fabrication of Nanopores using a Direct Focused Ion Beam Approach.
David Adams 1 , Nick Patterson 1 , Carter Hodges 1 , Michael Vasile 1 , Joseph Michael 1 , Paul Kotula 1 Show Abstract
1 Thin Film, Sandia National Labs, Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States
We report on the controlled fabrication of nanopores in various membrane materials without the need for subsequent broad area ion beam exposure (i.e., sculpting). Using a focused 30 keV Ga+ ion beam column combined with an in-situ, backside, multi-channelplate particle detector, nanopores are fabricated by sputtering in low stress Si3N4,W/Si3N4, Au, Al and Ni membranes to have diameters as small as 12 nm. By monitoring the detector signal during ion exposure, the drilled hole width can be minimized such that the exit-side diameter is smaller than the full-width-at-half-maximum of the nominally Gaussian shaped incident beam. Cross section transmission electron microscopy has been used to probe pore shape evolution with increased ion dose. In general, TEM shows that focused ion beam-drilled holes are tapered with the diameter decreasing from entry to exit side. Evidence for forward sputtering effects on pore shape is included. The nanopore direct-drilling technique enables high aspect ratio features, with 18 nm diameter holes achieved in 500 nm thick nitride membranes. Moreover, the approach enables breakthrough and minimization of hole diameter despite the dynamical effects of varying membrane thickness, re-deposition, ion reflection, ion channeling in polycrystalline grain structures and slight ion beam current fluctuations. Prospects for further reducing pore diameter (with a direct ion drilling approach) are described in the context of evolving focused ion beam technology.
4:15 PM - Y1:FIB-nanolitho