Symposium SM09—Advances in 3D Printing for Medical Applications
3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing and solid freeform fabrication, involves additive layer-by-layer fabrication of a three-dimensional structure through selective joining of material; processing of the structure is directed by a computer-aided design model. In recent years, fused deposition modeling,stereolithography apparatus, selective laser sintering, laser induced forward transfer, and bioprinting technologies have been used to create patient-specific prostheses, medical devices, and artificial tissues. For example, data obtained from computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, or other medical imaging modalities may be used as input data for 3D printers to prepare prostheses, orthoses, or artificial tissues with patient- specific geometries or other patient-specific features. Appropriate chemical and physical features incorporated within 3D printed structures or bioprinted structures to modulate biological activity are inherent advances that could be provided by additive manufacturing approaches. Current challenges associated with the use of 3D printing include (a) the development of novel materials that can be processed rapidly, reproducibly, and with high resolution, (b) the development of novel materials with appropriate biocompatibility over the anticipated lifetime of the medical device, (c) the development of novel materials with appropriate mechanical, chemical, corrosion, and/or tribological properties over the over the anticipated lifetime of the medical device, (d) the development of low cost materials and technologies for 3D printing, (e) development of diverse bio-inks for live cell deposition and tissue printing, and (f) generation of three dimensional human tissue mimics with cellular and material heterogeneity. This symposium will consider the development of new types of materials for 3D printing of medical devices as well as applications of 3D printed medical devices.