Maikel F.A.M. van Hest, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Patrick J. Smith, The University of Sheffield
Hugh W. Hillhouse, University of Washington
Monday PM, December 02, 2013
Hynes, Level 2, Room 207
2:30 AM - *O2.01
Inkjet Printing, Printed Electronics and Organic-Inorganic Hybrids
Ulrich S. Schubert 1 2 Sebastian Wuenscher 1 2 Anke Teichler 1 2 Jolke Perelaer 1 2
1Friedrich Schiller University Jena Jena Germany2Friedrich Schiller University Jena Jena GermanyShow Abstract
In recent years, inkjet printing is increasingly used as a flexible and digital patterning technique in order to deposit functional materials for the manufacturing of microelectronic devices including organic light emitting diodes (OLED), organic photovoltaics (OPV), radio frequency identification tags (RFID) and organic radical batteries (ORB). Due to its minimal waste generation, its efficient handling of expensive materials and its mask-less processing, inkjet printing represents a widely accepted alternative to conventional patterning methods, such as spin-coating, vapor deposition and photolithography.
In the manufacturing process of flexible electronics, inkjet printing can be used for thin film deposition of active materials like conjugated polymers, metal ion containing small molecules as well as composites of redox active polymers and carbon nanoparticles.
Apart from the active layer materials, metal precursors, such as silver nanoparticle inks, are printed onto flexible substrates in order to provide electrical conductive antennas, electrodes, contacts and interconnects. However, silver nanoparticle inks are not conductive after printing, which is due to the presence of organic stabilizers that surround the single particles in order to prevent agglomeration in the ink and ensure processability. Therefore, a post-printing procedure is required to remove the organic material from the particle surfaces, merge the particles to a continuous network, hence yielding electrical conductive structures. This procedure is called sintering. The conventional thermal sintering requires temperatures above 200 °C and is therefore not compatible with the thermo-sensitive foils used as substrate materials. Therefore, alternative approaches, like exposure to a non-thermal plasma, are used to successfully sinter inkjet-printed silver nanoparticle inks without affecting the substrate materials. This approach allows the production of electrically conductive components on flexible substrates via inkjet-printing.
 J. Perelaer, P. J. Smith, D. Mager, D. Soltman, S. K. Volkman, V. Subramanian, J. G. Korvink, U. S. Schubert, J. Mater. Chem. 2010, 20, 8446-8453.
 A. Teichler, J. Perelaer, U. S. Schubert, J. Mater. Chem. C 2013, 1, 1910-1925.
 A. Teichler, R. Eckardt, S. Hoeppener, C. Friebe, J. Perelaer, A. Senes, M. Morana, C. J. Brabec, U. S. Schubert, Adv. Energy Mater. 2011, 1, 105-114.
 V. Subramanian, P. C. Chang, J. B. Lee, S. E. Molesa, S. K. Volkman, IEEE. T. Compon. Pack. T. 2005, 28, 742-747.
 T. Janoschka, M. D. Hager, U. S. Schubert, Adv. Mater. 2012, 24, 6397-6409.
 S. Magdassi, A. Bassa, Y. Vinetsky, A. Kamyshny, Chem. Mater. 2003, 15, 2208-2217.
 S. Wünscher, S. Stumpf, A. Teichler, O. Pabst, J. Perelaer, E. Beckert, U. S. Schubert, J. Mater. Chem. 2012, 22, 24569-24576.
3:00 AM - O2.02
Conductive Lines by Plasma-Mediated Reduction of Inkjet Printed Silver Nitrate
Vadim Bromberg 1 Siyuan Ma 1 Frank D Egitto 2 Timothy J Singler 1
1SUNY Binghamton Binghamton USA2Endicott Interconnect Technologies Endicott USAShow Abstract
Current and future flexible electronics applications require material deposition, patterning, and post-deposition processes that are rapid, low-cost, and compatible with heat-sensitive plastic substrates. We present a simple technique to deposit lines of high electrical conductivity without any thermal treatment during or post-deposition. We inkjet printed a water-based silver salt (AgNO3) solution followed by short exposure to the argon plasma generated by a reactive ion etcher. A skin-like layer of silver forms on the surface of a printed line with an average thickness and composition dictated by plasma treatment conditions. This layer exhibits optimum electrical resistivity twice that of bulk silver. The technique holds the potential for simple patterned metallization of electronic components on flexible substrates.
3:15 AM - O2.03
Preparation of Invisible Metal-Grid Transparent Electrodes by Electrohydrodynamic Printing and Its Application to Optoelectronic Devices
Kumar V. Sujaya 1 Jihoon Kim 1
1Kongju National University Chungnam Republic of KoreaShow Abstract
Invisible Ag-grid transparent electrodes (TEs) have been prepared by Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) jet printing using Ag nano-particle inks. Ag-grid width less than 10 mu;m was achieved by the EHD jet printing, which was invisible to the naked eye. Ag-grid line-to-line distance (pitch) was modulated in order to investigate the electrical and optical properties of the EHD jet-printed Ag-grid TEs. The decrease in the sheet resistance at the expense of the transmittance was observed as the Ag-grid pitch decreased. The figure of merit of Ag-grid TEs with various Ag-grid pitches was investigated in order to determine the optimum pitch condition for both electrical and optical properties. With 150 mu;m Ag-grid pitch, the EHD jet-printed Ag-grid TE has the sheet resistance of 4.87 #8486;/sq and the transmittance of 81.75 % after annealing at 200 oC under near-infrared (NIR). Ag filling factor (FF) was defined to predict the electrical and optical properties of Ag-grid TEs. It was found that the measured electrical and optical properties were well simulated by the theoretical equations incorporating FF. The EHD jet-printed invisible Ag-grid transparent electrode with good electrical and optical properties implies its promising application to the printed optoelectronic devices. The optimized Ag-grid transparent electrode is employed to the fabrication of optoelectronic devices and EMI (electromigration interference) sheilding layer.
3:30 AM - O2.04
Ink-Jet Printed Module Interconnects
Jeremy D Fields 1 2 Matthew S. Dabney 1 David S. Ginley 1 Maikel F.A.M. van Hest 1
1National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden USA2Colorado School of Mines Golden USAShow Abstract
Monolithic interconnects in photovoltaic modules connect adjacent cells in series, enabling their optimal power output by providing voltage addition, while also controlling current density to minimize ohmic loss. These interconnects are typically formed sequentially, involving multiple deposition & scribing steps, and widths of about 300 to 500 mu;m are common. The collective impact of shading & dead-zone area comprised by the interconnects in modules results in a reduction of power output by about 5 to 10 %. Thus, as one reduces the interconnect width, more power can be obtained. This work introduces an alternative interconnect formation method employing ink-jet printed metal and dielectric features, which we demonstrate on copper indium gallium diselenide solar cells. Ink-jet printed poly-vinyl-phenol (PVP) and silver (Ag) serve as the interconnect dielectric and metal in exemplary structures, respectively. A variety of other, more abundant, economical, selections can also be used. We demonstrate voltage addition with printed PVP/Ag interconnects, and aspects affecting fill factor and current density are discussed. We also show that printed interconnects can be made significantly narrower than those made by conventional practice. Furthermore, an apparatus that integrates scribing with interconnect material deposition allows the structures to be made in a single pass - after all large area solar cell material deposition steps; streamlining the process to make interconnects can reduce solar panel manufacturing costs substantially.
4:15 AM - O2.05
Inkjet Printing of Functional Materials: Fluid Property Requirements and Printing Performance
Yang Guo 1 Anson W.K. Ma 1 2
1University of Connecticut Storrs USA2University of Connecticut Storrs USAShow Abstract
Inkjet printing has evolved from a graphic printing technology into a fabrication technology for creating complex structural and functional materials. Compared with photolithography, inkjet printing is an additive process, requiring no photomask preparation or etching steps and thus offers advantages in terms of flexibility, scalability, speed, and costs. To date, inkjet printing is capable of depositing a wide range of materials (e.g., metals, conducting polymers, and ceramics) onto substrates, such as paper and plastics, to produce flexible electronics and even 3-D objects. The challenge to achieve better resolution and consistency, however, remains in controlling the formation and precise deposition of the ink droplets carrying the functional materials (e.g., nanoparticles and pre-polymer). To overcome this challenge, we must first understand the fluid properties of the ink and corresponding drop breakup induced by surface tension, or Plateau-Rayleigh instability. In this presentation, we will present our research in (i) establishing relationships between the fluid properties of silver ink and the printing performance and (ii) exploring the minimum feature size attainable with inkjet printing.
4:30 AM - O2.06
Sequenced Flash Sintering of Conductive Inks - A Method to Optimise R2R Processing Conditions for Printed Electronics
Rob Hendriks 1 Eric Rubingh 1 Tim van Lammeren 1 Erica W. C. Coenen 2 Robert Abbel 1 Pim Groen 1 3
1Holst Centre - TNO Eindhoven Netherlands2TNO High Tech Systems and Materials Eindhoven Netherlands3Delft University of Technology Delft NetherlandsShow Abstract
Printing of metal based inks on plastic substrates is a promising approach towards the mass production of highly conductive structures for electronic devices using roll-to-roll manufacturing techniques. In order for the entire process to occur at high speed, however, also fast and efficient post-deposition treatment technologies for drying and sintering are required. Recently, the exposure of the wet ink deposits to short, but intense pulses of visible light (photonic flash sintering), has been presented as a highly interesting alternative to more conventional approaches like hot air treatment (thermal sintering). The advantages of photonic flash sintering are the localised heating of only the ink deposits, and the much higher processing speeds which can be attained. In addition, process parameters like light intensity and spectral distribution, pulse length and flashing frequency can be specifically adapted for the absorption and thermal properties of each individual ink-substrate combination. This approach allows to apply this technology on a R2R basis, enabling inexpensive and highly efficient high-throughput production.
During the sintering process, however, the ink properties can change drastically, as the solvents evaporate, the ink layer shrinks, and its reflectivity and thermal conductivity increase. As a consequence, optimal photonic sintering conditions are expected to vary as a function of the sintering degree. Using a single setting of flashing parameters during the entire process might therefore not be the most ideal strategy in terms of manufacturing speed, energy efficiency and final performance of the product. Instead, process optimisation should take into account these effects by adjusting the flashing parameters accordingly. Using a combination of experimental measurements (e. g. in situ temperature monitoring of an ink line exposed to light flashes) and theoretical calculations, we have been able to develop sintering protocols which vary the applied conditions in a well-considered manner. As a simple example, controlled solvent evaporation can be achieved by applying a number of rather gentle drying flashes, followed by very few high power pulses to achieve sintering of the dried ink. This approach has the advantage of limiting high peak temperatures to a minimum, circumventing foil damage, while at the same time avoiding sudden and uncontrolled boiling of the solvent, which would otherwise lead to ink splashing.
A similar approach is also possible using a R2R setup, where the flashing parameters of different lamps in a sequential arrangement can be individually optimised considering the sintering degree of the ink passing underneath them.
4:45 AM - *O2.07
Metal Nanowires-Metal Oxide Hybrid Transparent Electrodes for Thin-Film Solar Cells
Yulim Won 1 Areum Kim 1 Jooho Moon 1
1Yonsei University Seoul Republic of KoreaShow Abstract
To fabricate cost-effective solar cells, it is imperative to develop a low cost transparent electrode with low resistivity and high transparency. Although crystalline indium tin oxide (ITO) has been widely adopted as a transparent electrode in solar cells, it is an undesirable material for use in low cost solar cells because of the scarcity of indium and its high deposition cost. Silver nanowires (AgNWs) network films have recently attracted substantial interest as a transparent conducting material. Transparent electrodes composed of random AgNW networks can be readily achieved by simple and scalable solution. However, the AgNWs film is easy to undergo local oxidation and melting on a heated substrate in the atmosphere, which adversely affects the conductivity of the AgNWs film. In addition, the low carrier collecting efficiency of AgNW films could pose another hurdle. The limited contact area of AgNWs with n-type or buffer layers is incapable of effectively collecting the charge carrier generated at the p-n junction. Here, we propose a sandwich composite electrode structure of Al doped ZnO (AZO)/AgNWs/AZO fabricated. The AZO/AgNW/AZO composite structure is suitable for cost-effective large area fabrication, because it involves relatively low-cost materials, and it is prepared by scalable solution processes. We also demonstrated the similar approach involving copper nanowire (CuNW) in form of AZO/CuNW/AZO. Copper nanowires (CuNWs)-network film is a promising alternative to the conventional indium tin oxide as a transparent conductor. However, thermal instability and easy oxidation tendency poses a hurdle for the practical applications of CuNWs films. We present highly oxidation-resistive copper nanowire based transparent composite electrodes with high transparency and conductivity as well as flexibility. Chemical treatment effectively removes both the organic capping molecule and the surface oxide/hydroxide from the CuNWs, allowing direct contact between the nanowires. This chemical approach enables us to fabricate the transparent electrodes with unprecedented properties (19.8 Omega;/sq and 88.7 % at 550 nm) at room temperature without any atmospheric control. Furthermore, the embedded structure of CuNWs with Al-doped ZnO (AZO) dramatically improves the thermal stability (up to ~140oC) and the oxidation resistance of CuNWs. Our AZO/CuNWs/AZO composite electrodes exhibit high transparency (83.9 % at 550 nm) and low sheet resistance (35.9 Omega;/sq), maintaining the properties even with the bending number of 1,300 under a bending radius of 2.5 mm. By being implemented in Cu(In1-x,Gax)(S,Se)2 thin film solar cell, this composite electrode demonstrate the substantial potential as a low-cost (Ag, In-free), high performance transparent electrode, showing the power conversion efficiency comparable to the conventional sputtered ITO based solar cell.
5:15 AM - *O2.08
Solution-Processed 2D and 3D Mesoscale Scaffolds for Electronics and Optoelectronics
Yi Cui 1 2
1Stanford University Stanford USA2SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory Stanford USAShow Abstract
Advanced nanomaterials dispersed in solution offers opportunities to generate 2D and 3D mesoscale scaffolds with designed properties. Here I will present two areas of research to demonstrate the exciting applications. In one example, I will show novel metal nanowire networks as transparent conducting electrodes to replace the existing indium tin oxides. Metal nanowires with diameters smaller than and with separations larger than the wavelength of the light can allow the sunlight pass through without significant reflection or scattering back. I show that these metal nanowire networks provide high optical transmittance at very low sheet resistance and have extreme mechanical flexibility. In another example, I show how we integrate various nanomaterials into 3D scaffolds including paper, textile and sponge.
5:45 AM - O2.09
Silver Nanowire Networks for Polymer Light Emitting Diode Electrodes
Sahin Coskun 1 Elif Selen Ates 1 Husnu Emrah Unalan 1
1Middle East Technical University Ankara TurkeyShow Abstract
Silver nanowire (Ag NW) networks are promising candidates for replacement of indium tin oxide (ITO). However, transparent conductors based on single walled carbon nanotube and Ag nanowire networks often suffer from “haziness” resulting from surface roughness. Thus, in addition to achieving suitable transparency and conductivity, surface roughness must be minimized if realistic implementation of Ag NW networks as transparent conductors is to be realized. In this work, we have reduced the surface roughness of the Ag NW networks to below 5 nm as compared to 54 nm for as-deposited Ag NWs through optimization of low temperature annealing treatment and planarization by poly (3,4 ethylenedioxythiophene) - poly(styrenesulfanate) (PEDOT:PSS). Using this method, we have been able to produce Ag NW networks with transmittance and sheet resistance of 87% and 11 Omega;/sq, respectively. These are some of the best values reported for non-oxide based transparent conductors. Incorporation of these smooth Ag networks into polymer light emitting diodes fabricated in our laboratory yield device characteristics that are comparable to or better than those with commercially available ITO .
 S. Coskun, E.S. Ates, H.E. Unalan, Nanotechnology 24 (2013) 125202.
O3: Poster Session: Solution Processing I
Monday PM, December 02, 2013
Hynes, Level 1, Hall B
9:00 AM - O3.01
Post Annealing Effect on Electrical Properties of Low Temperature Solution-Processed ZnO TFT
Jaeeun Hwang 1 Hongdoo Kim 1
1Kyung Hee University Yongin Republic of KoreaShow Abstract
The application to zinc oxide (ZnO) thin-film transistor (TFT) has been recently attracting great attention due to its good electrical properties and excellent ambient stability in the fabrication of thin film at low temperature. In this work, zinc hydroxide (Zn(OH)2 ) was synthesized from zinc nitrate and NaOH and Zn(OH)2/NH4OH solution can be prepared up to 5wt% for spin-coating. As the solution concentration increased, thermal treated ZnO film thickness increased linearly. In order to check the performance of solution-processed ZnO TFT, p-doped Si substrate was used as gate electrode with 100nm SiO2 insulator layer. 2 and 4 wt % solutions gave 30 and 50 nm ZnO layer thickness, respectively after 150oC thermal treatment on Si substrate. With 2 wt % solution, mobility of bottom gated ZnO TFT was 0.6 while 1.17 cm2/V.s with 4 wt % solution. Furthermore, a mobility of 2.91 cm2/V.s was recorded after a different post annealing treatment. The mobility of ZnO TFT device without any passivation layer has been tested over 1 month period and showed the stable behavior. Conversion process to ZnO from Zn(OH)2 with low annealing temperature or/and a different post annealing treatment may open new future oxide TFT applications.
9:00 AM - O3.02
Barium Titanate Nanocube-P(VDF-TrFE) Nanocomposite Films for Flexible Applications
Saman Salemizadeh 1 4 H. Renee Sully 3 Catherine Vogel 1 Gabriel Caruntu 1 2 4
1University of New Orleans New Orleans USA2University of New Orleans New Orleans USA3San Jose State University San Jose USA4Central Michigan University Mount Pleasant USAShow Abstract
Among organic piezoelectric polymers, poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) promises a variety of applicability for flexible piezoelectric devices due to its piezoelectric activity, flexibility and also highly ordered piezoelectric crystalline structure. However, because of the much lower piezoelectric coefficient of P(VDF-TrFE) compared to piezoelectric ceramic materials, the practical application of this material has been restricted to sensors and actuators. An ultra-thin composite of piezoelectric nanocrystals and P(VDF-TrFE) can potentially enhance the piezoelectric properties for energy harvesting applications which has yet to be fully developed.
In this work we propose the development of a composite structure consisting of barium titanate (BTO) nanocrystals embedded into a P(VDF-TrFE) matrix which can be spin cast onto a flexible substrate. To obtain uniformly disperse nano crystals in the polymer matrix we have recently developed a new approach for the surface modification of aggregate-free, monodisperse hydrophobic BaTiO3 nanocubes which enables their stabilization in polar solutions of P(VDF-TrFE). The polymer solutions with and without BTO nanocubes were successfully spin-coated on Kapton flexible substrates to produce ultra-thin uniform films. These structures were interfaced with metal electrodes for piezoresponse characterization using photo-lithography. Piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) was used to locally delineate polarization distribution, and piezoelectric coefficient. Moreover, piezoelectric properties and switching behavior of whole structure were investigated by integrating atomic force microcopy with ferroelectric tester. Results show higher value of piezoelectric coefficient and faster switching for composite sample.
9:00 AM - O3.04
Oxidation-Free Bimetallic Nanoplates for Printable Electronics
Dong Qin 1 Yin Yang 1 Qiang Zhang 1 Graham Parkinson 1
1Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta USAShow Abstract
In this talk, we will discuss silver nanoplates as potential candidates to replace nanowires as metallic inks for printed electronics. Ag nanoplates represent good examples of 2-D nanostructures with an extreme degree of anisotropy in their shape and unique features in their localized surface plasmon resonances properties. When compared with nanowires, plates have larger surface area with a strong tendency to form large, ultrathin sheets. We will introduce a new approach with the capability to produce Ag nanoplates with edge length of 40-500 nm in high yield using solvothermal and hydrothermal reactions. Most importantly, we will report a new strategy for the production of Ag-Au bimetallic nanoplates with oxide-free surfaces in high yield and large quantities. Specifically, we leverage the reduction of gold ions by a mild reducing agent to coat Ag nanoplates with an ultrathin layer of gold while preserving the plate shape and minimizing the etching of Ag by gold ions via galvanic replacement. Conceptually, the success of this reaction relies on the fact that reduction of Au precursors only occurs on the surface of Ag nanoplates and self-nucleation of Au nanoparticles can be effectively eliminated. Additionally, we demonstrated that reaction temperature can maneuver the deposition rate of atoms and the surface diffusion of atoms to promote the migration of Au atoms from corners to the top and bottom facets and the interatomic diffusion between Au, Ag to generate an alloy structure. Ultimately, we aim to minimize the amount of Au needed to decorate Ag nanoplates for an enhanced chemical stability and optimal conductivity.
9:00 AM - O3.06
Preliminary Studies of the Formation of a Photovoltaic Using Electrochemical Atomic Layer Deposition
Brian Perdue 1 John Stickney 1
1University of Georgia Athens USAShow Abstract
Current progress in the formation of a CdTe/CdS photovoltaic by Electrochemical Atomic Layer Deposition (E-ALD) will be presented. E-ALD is a condensed phase equivalent of atomic layer deposition (ALD). In ALD the deposition of a compound is achieved by means of sequential surface limited reactions in which the components are deposited one atomic layer at a time. In E-ALD the individual atomic layers are formed using underpotential deposition (UPD), an electrochemical surface limited reaction. XRD results show that the CdTe layer has a strong preferred (111) orientation as deposited. EPMA results show stoichiometric CdTe, with a Cd/Te ratio of 1.02. Photoelectrochemical results indicated a band gap of 1.5 eV, with p-type conductivity achieved without annealing. Different CdS deposition methods were also investigated. CdS was deposited by chemical bath deposition (CBD), successive ionic layer absorption and reaction (SILAR) and E-ALD. Results showed that the average Cd/S ratio, determined using EPMA, was 1.07, 1.10, and 1.05 for CBD, SILAR and ALD respectively. Photoelectrochemical results show that the photoresponse for E-ALD grown CdS was the highest while CBD was the least photoactive. As exciton creation in the CdS layer is parasitic to the photovoltaic, CBD CdS was used in first attempts at PV construction. Solar cells were fabricated in the substrate configuration with Au on glass serving as the back contact, 200 nm (~600cycles) of E-ALD grown CdTe, 80 nm of CBD grown CdS, and 100 nm magnetron sputtered ITO to serve as to front contact. Cells achieve a maximum current density of 0.65 mA/cm2 when exposed to light; however appear to suffer from shunts. Work on these defects is underway.
9:00 AM - O3.07
Substrate Dependence of Cantilever Stress Tests for Electroless and Galvanic Copper Deposits
Ralf Bruening 1 Tanu Sharma 1 Delilah A Brown 1 Allison Sibley 1 Tobias Bernhard 2 Frank Bruening 2
1Mount Allison University Sackville Canada2Atotech Deutschland GmbH Berlin GermanyShow Abstract
Electroless and galvanic copper deposition are steps in manufacturing printed circuit boards. Excessive deposit stress may lead to contact failures and, for flexible circuit substrates, excessive warping. In industry, deposit stress is usually determined by observing bending of metal test strips that are varnished on one side for unilateral deposition. However, electroless processes are typically applied for insulating substrates. Differences are expected from the higher the thermal expansion of most non-conducting substrates, and the redox reaction in electroless plating may be affected by the presence of a metal substrate. Therefore results obtained with metal test strips cannot be generalized to non-conducting substrates. In the present study, time-resolved dual-leg cantilever tests were carried out with standard metal and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) test strips for a range of electroless and galvanic plating baths. The results are compared with in-situ XRD-based strain measurements of copper films plated onto ABS.
9:00 AM - O3.08
Efficient On-Chip Light Source Using High-Refractive-Index Sol-Gel Processed Er-TiO2 Micro-Ring Resonators
Pao Lin 1 Dohyun Bae 1 Neil Patel 1 Yan Cai 1 L. Kimerling 1 A. Agarwal 1
1Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge USAShow Abstract
Micro-ring resonators are designed, and a sol-gel solution process is used to fabricate them on rare-earth doped thin films. A high refractive-index titanium dioxide (nTiO2=2.45) is chosen as the waveguide matrix because it can efficiently confine the pump lightwave within the optical gain medium. Unlike a matrix with a low refractive-index that requires air-cladding underneath, our Er-TiO2 platform can be directly implemented on a silica-on-Si wafer without the need for an under-cutting process. In parallel, the concentrations of Er dopant are modified from 0.1% to 5 % to maximize the emission intensity. In addition, an Er-TiO2 micro-ring resonator with a high Q factor of 10^6 is utilized to enhance the photoluminescence efficiency by forming a whispering-gallery mode. We use finite difference time domain (FDTD) method to optimize the structures of our light emitting sol-gel resonator. Optical emission spectra and enhancement factors are characterized by confocal microscopy, and waveguide edge emission is measured between lambda; = 1.45 µm -1.65 µm. A successful sol-gel resonator can provide a light source for board level optical interconnect and three dimensional integrated photonic circuits.
9:00 AM - O3.09
Facile Synthesis and Electrical Properties of PEDOT: PSS Wrapped Three Dimensional MWCNT/Graphene/Ag Polycarbonate Nanocomposites
Archana Khute 1
1KAUST Thuwal Saudi ArabiaShow Abstract
3D polycarbonate (PC) nanocomposites reinforced with 1D multiwalled carbon nanotube and 2D graphene hybrid fillers covered with silver nanoparticles followed by wrapping uniform layer of PEDOT:PSS has been developed. In first stage, Graphene/MWCNT/Ag nanofiller has been assembled by acylation, amination and Ag decoration reactions before incorpoarating into PC matrix. The reaction confirmation and the effect of functionalization on the structural properties of hybrid nanofillers were studied by FTIR, TGA, Raman and UV visible spectroscopy. In order to observe the morphology of the nanofillers, SEM and TEM analysis have been carried out. In later stage Graphene/MWCNT/Ag nanofillers decorated with PEDOT:PSS and without PEDOT:PSS have been incorporated into PC matrix to study the influence of PEDOT:PSS on the electrical properties of the PC nanocomposites. It is noteworthy to mention that the PEDOT:PSS enhanced the conductivity of PC nanocomposites with increasing the concentration of Graphene/MWCNT/Ag nanofillers. The novelty of this work lies in the synergy arising from the combination of two conducting fillers with unique geometric shapes and aspect ratios as well as contribution of coating PEDOT:PSS, which have not been specifically considered previously.
9:00 AM - O3.10
A Universal High-k Dielectric for Solution Processing and Thermal Evaporation Organic Transistors by Storage Environment
Zongrong Wang 1 Congcheng Fan 2 Xiaochen Ren 3 Erica Chang 3 Hanying Li 2 Shien Ping Feng 3 Sanqiang Shi 1 Kwok Leung Chan 3
1The HongKong Polytechnic University HongKong Hong Kong2Zhejiang University Hangzhou China3The University of Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong KongShow Abstract
The surface energy of UV-ozone treated Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3(BST) thin film derived by sol gel technology was modified by the storage environment. The variation of the surface energy and thus the contact angle allows the high-k dielectric materials to be used in both OFETs fabricated by solution processed 6,13-Bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene (TIPs-pentacene) as well as thermal evaporated dinaphtho[2,3-b:2prime;,3prime;-f]thieno [3,2-b]thiophene (DNTT). The TIPs-pentacene ribbons are grown by drop casting on fresh BST with a small pinner and OFET shows mobility of 0.3cm2 V-1s-1. By loading the samples into the evaporation chamber for 5 hours, the surface energy of the BST dielectric drops from 77.03 mJ/m2 to 46.25 mJ/m2. The work of adhesion between the BST and DNTT is around 86mJ/m2 and results in island mode growth of the DNTT molecule. The tighter packing of the DNTT layer results in an averaged mobility of 1.73cm2 V-1s-1. The in-plane and out of plane XRD results suggest the polycrystalline structure in the DNTT film and they are comparable with the recent findings in the single crystal devices. We also fabricated saturated load and depleted load inverters based on the DNTT OFETs with different W/L ratio. The saturated load one shows full-swing performance and shows a high gain as 25.
9:00 AM - O3.12
Switching Phase Separation Mode by Varying the Hydrophobicity of Polymer Additives in Solution-Processed Semiconducting Small-Molecule/Polymer Blends
Zhengran He 1 Jihua Chen 2 Dale K Hensley 2 Adam J Rondinone 2 Dawen Li 1
1The University of Alabama Tuscaloosa USA2Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge USAShow Abstract
Lateral and vertical phase separation plays critical roles in the performance of the next-generation organic and hybrid electronic devices. A novel method is demonstrated here to switch between lateral and vertical phase separation in semiconducting 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene (TIPSE pentacene, or TP)/polymer blend films by simply varying the alkyl length of the polyacrylate polymer component. A series of polyacrylate polymers is used in this study: poly(ethyl acrylate) (PEA), poly(butylacrylate) (PBA), and poly(2-ethylhexyl acrylate) (P2EHA). The phase separation modes depend on intermolecular interactions between small molecule TIPSE pentancene and polymer additives. The blend film with a dominant vertical phase separation exhibits a significant enhancement in average mobility and performance consistency of organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs).
9:00 AM - O3.14
Solution-Processible Polymer Nanocomposite Dielectrics for Organic Thin Film Transistors
Young-Jae Kim 1 Joohee Kim 2 Youn Sang Kim 2 Jin-Kyu Lee 1
1Seoul National University Seoul Republic of Korea2Seoul National University Seoul Republic of KoreaShow Abstract
We have fabricated high-k dielectric films by the simple solution process incorporating TiO2 nanoparticles into poly-4-vinyl phenol (PVP) for organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). The compatibility between polymer and nanoparticles was enhanced by introducing ligand to the surface of nanoparticles, which has a similar structure of repeating units in the polymer. No significant aggregation, even at a concentration of 31 wt %, was found in the nanocomposites, as observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). As a result, the nanocomposite exhibited a low leakage current density (~10-8 A/cm2). With an increase in the concentration of TiO2 nanoparticles added, the dielectric constant of the nanocomposites also increased proportionately as compared to that of pristine PVP. The performance of the OTFTs in terms of the charge carrier mobility, on/off ratio, threshold voltages, and hysteresis was evaluated. The relationship between the concentration of TiO2 nanoparticles and the device performance will be discussed in detail.
9:00 AM - O3.15
Semiconductor Nanocrystals for Tunable Plasmonics
Su-Wen Hsu 1
1UCSD La Jolla USAShow Abstract
Semiconductor nanostructures are ideal candidates for non-metallic plasmonic materials that operate in near-to mid-infrared (IR) range. In contrast to metal nanostructures, semiconductor nanomaterials have the advantage of possessing tunable carrier concentrations by engineering dopants, charge injection, or field effects. Here, we demonstrate that colloidal copper sulfide nanocrystals can serve as tunable plamonic building blocks. We characterize the surface plasmon response of anisotropic copper sulfide (Cu2-xS) nanodisks and triangles. We find that the surface plasmon modes of these semiconductor nanocrystals are strongly dependent on nanostructure shape and crystallographic orientation, particularly for highly anisotropic structures that possess direction-dependent carrier mobilities. We also demonstrate that these semiconductor nanocrystals can undergo strong plasmonic coupling upon assembly into superlattices. We use self-assembly to fabricate large-scale films and arrays of semiconductor nanocrystals that operate in the IR range andcan be extended to more sophisticated metamaterials and plasmonic devices.
9:00 AM - O3.17
High Performance of Y-Doped Sn-Zn-O Films Fabricated by Solution Process for Amorphous Thin Film Transistors
Yunxuan Yu 1 Xian Gong 1 Dong Liu 1 Yan Wang 1 2 Dedong Han 1 2 Xiaoyan Liu 1 Jinfeng Kang 1
1Institute of Microelectronics, Peking University Beijing China2Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School Shenzhen ChinaShow Abstract
Amorphous oxide-based semiconductor (AOS) thin-film transistors (TFTs) have attracted significant attention due to their excellent uniformity, high mobility and high transparency. Particularly, TFTs using indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) as an active channel have been studied intensively for their superior electrical properties and environment stability. However, Indium as the key element in the IGZO system is rare and expensive, which may be a limited factor for the AOS application. Therefore, it is required to search for a more abundant and economical candidate for the InZnO system. It was reported that Sn-Zn-O (ZTO) is promising to achieve high mobility but suffers from low on/off ratio . It has been demonstrated that some proper dopants incorporated into ZTO are effective to suppress the carriers generation and to achieve high on/off ratio .
In this study, we investigated the effect of various metallic dopants such as Ce, Al and Y into ZTO system by using sol-gel process. The results show that Y doped ZTO present both high film quality and the improved TFT performances using Y-ZTO as the active channel layer of TFTs. Furthermore, the effect of different ratio of Y in Y-ZTO system (i.e., the mole ratios of Y-ZTO were Y:Sn:Zn=x:2:2, where x=0.1-0.8) was investigated. We prepared the Y-ZTO solution by mixing proportional yttrium nitrate hexahydrate, tin chloride dihydrate and zinc nitrate dihydrate in 2-methoxyethanol solvent. The results showed that the increasing Y ratio can cause the reduced saturation current of Y-ZTO based TFTs and the increased crystallization temperature of Y-ZTO films. The optimized Y-ZTO films without crystallization were fabricated at the mole ratio of 0.5:2:2 and at the 450 °C annealing temperature. The fabricated Y-ZTO based TFTs show the excellent devices performance such as the channel mobility of 0.23 cm^2/v.s,, subthreshold swing of 2.8V/decade, and on/off ratio of ~10^6.
Myung-Gil Kim, Mercouri G. Kanatzidis, Antonio Facchetti , Tobin J. Marks, “Low-temperature fabrication of high-performance metal oxide thin-film electronics via combustion processing”, Nature Material 10, 382-388 (2011)
 Seok-Jun.Seo, Hyuck Jeon.Jun , Hwan Hwang.Young, Byeong-Soo.Bae “Improved negative bias illumination instability of sol-gel gallium zinc tin oxide thin film transistors”,Applied Physics Letter,volume:99,Issue:15,pages: 152102 - 152102-3,Oct 2011
9:00 AM - O3.18
Magnetic Field-Directed Assembly of ZnO Nanowires in Polythiophene Films for Solution-Processed Ordered Bulk Heterojunction Photovoltaics
Candice I. Pelligra 1 Jonathan P. Singer 1 Pawel W. Majewski 1 Chinedum O. Osuji 1
1Yale University New Haven USAShow Abstract
Ordered bulk heterojunction (OBHJ) hybrid photovoltaics promise high-efficiencies by ensuring alternating donor-acceptor domains at length scales commensurate with transfer-limiting dimensions. However, achieving such highly ordered nanostructures is challenging, especially in the context of large-area, low-cost fabrication. Solution-based roll-to-roll processing of polymer photovoltaics has been shown to address these issues but can not, as of yet, be applied for ordered systems in which inorganic nanocrystals serve as the superior electron-accepting material. Here, we demonstrate the achievement of solution-processed composite films of ZnO nanowires vertically arrayed in polythiophene, suitable for OBHJ photovoltaic active layers, using magnetic field-directed assembly. Cobalt-doped ZnO nanowires are synthesized in the bulk and surface modified with 1-dodecanethiol to allow dispersion in dichlorobenzene. The nanowire dispersions are added to solutions of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) to form hybrid organic-inorganic composite blends. Room-temperature paramagnetic properties of the Co-doped nanowires provide a handle for alignment under a 6T magnetic field. In our case, a sample rotation process, deemed rotational annealing, is required during alignment to effectively break the degeneracy associated with the negative magnetic anisotropy of the nanowires. Finally, the desired vertically-oriented configuration is locked in place as the composite film dries under controlled evaporation in the presence of the magnetic field.
9:00 AM - O3.19
Advances in the Processing of Lead Zirconate Titanate Functional Thin Films towards Flexible Electronics
Paula Vilarinho 1 Inigo Bretos 2 Ricardo Jimenez 2 Aiying Wu 1 Angus Kingon 3 Lourdes Calzada 2
1University of Aveiro Aveiro Portugal2CSIC Madrid Madrid Spain3Brown University Providence USA Minor Outlying IslandsShow Abstract
This talk is about an alternative strategy to prepare functional oxide thin films by solution processing at very low temperatures (< 350 degree C) compatible with integration with polymeric substrates for flexible electronics. The method is based on the combination of Seeded Diphasic Sol Gel (SDSG) precursors with Photo Chemical Solution Deposition (PCSD) methodology.
There is a current demand for cost-efficient, portable, high-tech electronic devices that is pushing the integration of active oxide thin layers with flexible substrates. However, the crystallization temperature is a key parameter in the preparation of these functional oxide thin layers. For example many of the perovskite thin films crystallize at temperatures well above 600 degree C, which degrade underlying electronics, semiconductor substrate or their metallization layers. This constitutes a major drawback for integration of functional oxide films with polymeric substrates. Low temperature synthesis of these functional oxide films, such as ferroelectrics is then of paramount importance.
In this work we report our solution base alternative method of fabrication of ferroelectric crystalline metal oxide thin films, namely lead zirconate titanate (PZT) with well-defined properties at crystallization temperatures lower than 350 degree C. The combination of the nucleation of the crystalline phase in the films at low temperatures, by the photo-activation of the precursors chemistry, in addition to the simultaneous promotion of the crystallization, by introducing nanocrystalline nucleus, allows the preparation of crystalline PZT films at temperatures <350 degree C with well-defined dielectric and ferroelectric response. In this talk we demonstrate the concept on the most important multifunctional oxide, PZT, but this methodoly is in fact a processing platform that can be used for many other functional oxide layers.
9:00 AM - O3.20
Conductivity and Microstructure of Inkjet-Printed Silver Tracks Depending on the Digital Pattern, Sintering Process, Substrate and Ink
Dana Weise 1 Andrea Grimm 1 Uwe Weiss 1 Kalyan Yoti Mitra 1 Enrico Sowade 1 Reinhard R. Baumann 1 2
1Chemnitz University of Technology Chemnitz Germany2Fraunhofer Institute for Electronic Nano Systems ENAS Chemnitz Germany