2020 MRS Spring Meeting Tutorial Sessions
Tutorial S.EL07—New Approaches for Computing from Brain-Inspired Dynamics
The goal of this tutorial is to provide an overview of recent advances in brain-inspired or neuromorphic computing, with an emphasis on the continuing importance of discovery of new and improvement of existing materials to perform the fundamental synaptic and neuronic operations used for computation.
- Historical overview and comparison of the different types of neural networks and computing paradigms that have been proposed and demonstrated based on inspiration from neurophysiology and psychology
- Introduction to nonlinear dynamics and the concepts of local activity and edge of chaos
- Key descriptors of dynamical materials and their application to neuromorphic computing
- Discuss how advances in materials design can be translated to new devices and circuits
Tutorial S.EL09—Phase-Change Memory—Materials Fundamentals and Advanced Applications
Instructors: Matthias Wuttig, RWTH Aachen University; Wolfram Pernice, University of Münster; Riccardo Mazzarello, RWTH Aachen University; Fabio Pellizzer, Micron Technology, Inc.
The rapidly growing demand for data storage and processing, driven by artificial intelligence (AI) and other data-intensive applications, is posing a serious challenge for current computing devices based on the von Neumann architecture. For every calculation, data sets need to be shuffled sequentially between the processor, and multiple memory and storage units through bandwidth-limited and energy-inefficient interconnects, typically causing 40% power wastage. Phase-change materials (PCMs) show great promise to break this bottleneck by enabling nonvolatile memory devices that can optimize the complex memory hierarchy, and neuro-inspired computing devices that can unify computing with storage in memory cells. In this tutorial session, four comprehensive talks are scheduled to highlight recent breakthroughs in the fundamental materials science, as well as electronic and photonic implementations of these novel devices based on PCMs.
Tutorial S.EL02—Mixed Dimensional Heterostructures from Fundamentals to Device Applications
Instructors: Jeehwan Kim, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Abdallah Ougazzaden, Georgia Tech Lorraine; Kunook Chung, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology; Kyusang Lee, University of Virginia
The tutorial focuses on the fundamentals and applications of heterogeneously integrated structures using 1D, 2D, and 3D materials from the growth of 3D materials on 2D materials, and various lift-off technologies to heterogeneous integration of electronic/optoelectronic devices.
Tutorial S.EL12—Imaging and Modeling Ferroic Nanomaterials
Instructors: Massimo Ghidini, University of Parma, Diamond Light Source, University of Cambridge; Jiamian Hu, University of Wisconsin-Madison
In the field of ferroic materials, the synergy between powerful computational methods and high-resolution imaging techniques holds great promise for providing key mechanistic insights, and therefore for becoming more and more influential in establishing new materials functionalities.
This tutorial, comprising two lectures, we will explore the research potential of combining phase-field modeling and high resolution imaging techniques for the study of ferroic materials, with particular emphasis on nanomaterials.
2020 MRS Fall Meeting Tutorial Sessions
Tutorial F.GI01—The Biology and Pathology of COVID-19—An Immunology Primer
Instructors: Bryan Bryson, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has quickly spread throughout the globe in 2020. As such, engineers have applied their knowledge in materials design to approach prevention of infection, testing to diagnose infections, and treatment after an individual has COVID-19. These advancements rely on an understanding of the basic biology of SARS-CoV-2 from virology to immunology. Here, we will focus on a general overview of what is known about SARS-CoV-2 biology, focusing on components that are critical for materials design in prevention, diagnostics, and treatments.
Tutorial F.EL02—Novel Perovskite Compounds as Classical and Quantum Light Sources
Instructors: Bin Hu, University of Tennessee; Gabriele Raino, ETH Zürich
This tutorial will focus on fundamental science involved in emerging light-emitting materials and device-halide perovskites, quantum dots and other nanoscale emitters. Currently, the efforts on materials processing and device engineering have led to significant developments on light-emitting properties in spontaneous and coherent regimes at different length and time scales. However, it is recognized that further advancing the light-emitting properties of hybrid halide perovskites, quantum dots, and nanoscale emitters requires a deeper understanding of the fundamental processes involved in the carrier recombination. Essentially, the fundamental science can provide the critical understanding and experimental approach to effectively control light-emitting properties in these emerging materials under spontaneous and coherent regimes. Therefore, the fundamental science have become a crucial task in the research and development of emerging light-emitting materials. This tutorial will present the latest results on the photophysics involved in emerging light-emitting materials, unveiling their specifics down to the single particle/photon level.
Tutorial F.EL04—2D Layered Materials for Quantum—From Growth to Quantum Properties and Applications
Instructors: ChunNing (Jeanie) Lau, The Ohio State University; Nai-Chang Yeh, California Institute of Technology; Anthony Richardella, The Pennsylvania State University
While the first quantum revolution brought us the transistor and the integrated circuit, the second quantum revolution promises to take advantage of newly discovered quantum phenomena to develop completely new technologies. Two-dimensional (2D) layered materials – with thicknesses confined to a single atom or molecule—are emerging as leading contenders due to the discovery of exotic, and highly tunable, quantum phenomena. This tutorial will provide the 2D community with an opportunity to learn about (1) the basics of quantum phenomena in 2D materials, (2) the latest exotic quantum phenomena that are being explored and the tools to access them, and (3) potential applications of 2D in the area of quantum information science.
Tutorial F.EL06—Research Methods and Best Practices to Study and Optimize Contacts and Interfaces
Instructors: Robert Hoye, Imperial College London; Sebstian Siol, Swiss Federal Institute of Materials Science and Technology; Thomas Kirchartz, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, IEK-5 Photovoltaics
The goal of this tutorial is to provide basic concepts, research methods and best practices to study and optimize interfaces in optoelectronic devices, focused on three pillars: synthesis of contact materials and thin films, characterization methods for materials and interfaces, and fundamentals of devices with focus on the role of the interfaces.
Tutorial F.EL08—Fundamentals of Halide Perovskite Semiconductors
Instructors: Nitin P. Padture, Brown University; Matthew Beard, National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Su-Huai Wei, Beijing Computation Science Research Center; Laura Schelhas, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
This tutorial will feature the most fundamental topics of halide perovskite semiconductors including microstructure, photophysics, crystal theory, and characterization. It is expected to provide a clear landscape on the field of halide perovskite semiconductors, and give instructions to scientists and engineers from the broad materials research community who are interested in performing related research. For each fundamental topic, the instructor will first discuss the similarity between halide perovskites and other well-studied inorganic-based material systems, and then present unique features of halide perovskites that differ them from conventional materials. The most typical halide perovskite materials will be focused as model material systems to demonstrate the sciences in general.
Tutorial F.EN09—Learning about In Situ and Operando Methods
Instructors: Matt Newville, The University of Chicago; Lue Lie, Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Peter Crozier, Arizona State University; Chi Chen, University of California, San Diego
New developments in experimental instrumentation have made it possible to observe time dependent processes in materials during synthesis, processing and application for example in devices in situ and operando. Fundamental understanding of such dynamic processes requires quantitative data analysis which greatly benefits from modern software developments and ever increasing computing power. Especially, AI and machine learning provide solutions to handle corresponding large number of data obtained and promise to cope with underlying complex information content.
This tutorial provides an overview in this field for novices and experts and information about contemporary and rapidly developing experimental and theoretical methodology.
Tutorial F.FL02—Materials Advances for Neural Interfaces—Materials Meet the Mind
Instructors: Guosong Hong, Stanford University
The dichotomy between the materials world and the mental world has driven the curiosity of scientists to explore the wonders of the brain, as well as motivated the continued innovations of novel technologies based on advances in materials science and engineering to understand the brain. This tutorial introduces the basic principles of materials design and fabrication for probing the inner workings of the brain, discusses the fundamental challenges of state-of-the-art neurotechnologies, and explores the latest breakthroughs in materials-assisted neural interfaces. The tutorial will cover the following topics: understanding of the nervous system from a materials science perspective, physical, chemical and biological requirements of neural interfacing materials, materials for electrical/magnetic/optical/biochemical/thermal/acoustic neural interfaces and other materials as contrast agents for neuroimaging. After the tutorial, the attendees should be able to obtain a broad overview on how materials advances have been and will continue to be a main driving force to address pressing neuroscience challenges.
Tutorial F.MT01—Advanced In Situ Characterization of Materials Kinetics (TEM and Synchrotron X-Ray)
Instructors: Huolin Xin, University of California, Irvine; Chengjun Sun, Argonne National Laboratory; Hua Zhou, Argonne National Laboratory
Tutorial F.MT06—Strain Generation and Characterization in van der Waals Materials
Instructors: Yong Zhu, North Carolina State University; Jung-Fu Lin, The University of Texas at Austin; James Hone, Columbia University in the City of New York
This tutorial will demonstrate various techniques to generate strain in van der Waals materials. These techniques will include: mechanical stretching/bending, pressure blisters and high pressure diamond anvil cell. The speakers will introduce the principles behind each technique, demonstrate the actual devices (including the fabrication of specific devices) to induce strain, the operation procedure, and other important information. Calibration of strain across different techniques will be an emphasis for this tutorial. With the information delivered during this tutorial session, the researchers could not only overview the most popular techniques on strain generation in van der Waals materials, but also have the opportunities to interact with the experts in this field, both will help them to determine which technique would be most suitable for their own research.
Tutorial F.NM01—Emergent Nanophotonic Platforms and Functions
Instructors: Andrea Alù, City University of New York; Jennifer A. Dionne, Stanford University; Nader Engheta, University of Pennsylvania; Din Ping Tsai , The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
This tutorial session covers emerging topics in nanophotonics. The four select tutorials cover different aspects of the rapidly growing and promising field from symmetry breaking at the subwavelength scale to emergent phenomena in collective systems to novel and enabling applications.
Tutorial F.NM02—Optical Metasurfaces—Materials, Designs and Advanced Applications
Instructors: Mark Brongersma, Stanford University; Igal Brener, Sandia National Laboratories; Harry Atwater, California Institute of Technology; Jonathan Fan, Stanford University
Metasurfaces are arrays of subwavelength anisotropic light scatters (optical antennas) that can produce abrupt changes in the phase, amplitude or polarization of light. Within the last few years, there has been significant progress on the design of metasurfaces that refract and focus light, enabling many unique properties and applications such as holograms, optical vortex generation/detection, ultrathin focusing lens, perfect absorber, etc.
This tutorial will cover the fundamental principles, advanced designs and technological applications of optical metasurfaces, particularly focusing on the topics of (I) Creating Metasurfaces and Metadevices with Mie Resonators, (II) Nonlinear Metasurfaces: New Frontiers in Nonlinear Optics, (III) Electrically Tunable Metasurfaces for Control of Absorption, Emission and Scattering, and (IV) Optimization and Machine Learning for Metasurface Design.
Tutorial F.NM06—Spin Dynamics in Materials for Quantum Technologies—Experiment and Theory
Instructors: Mikhail Glazov, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, RAS; Michael Flatté, The University of Iowa; Bernhard Urbaszek, CNRS – Toulouse University; Anaïs Dreau, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb, University of Montpellier
Over the past decades the research focused on materials with controllable spin and valley polarization dynamics has moved from the realm of fundamental research towards applications. This progress is due to the development of new techniques and tools in experiment and theory and access to new material systems. Examples include magnetometry with NV centers sensitive to a single spin or to magnetic domains in a single atomic layer. Another example is confocal microscopy coupled to single photon detectors analyzing the recombination of a single electron hole pair. These experimental insights are closely linked to progress in our theoretical understanding. For example, the crystal structure of the functional materials and the polarization states of the electrons and photons coupled in these systems can be precisely accessed and their evolution can be predicted by theory. These experimental and theoretical tools are now widely used to uncover the properties of new classes of materials such as ferromagnetic van der Waals materials and single defects implanted in crystals. This tutorial aims to give an introduction on how we access spin dynamics in materials for quantum technologies in both experiment and theory. We introduce the main concepts and tools and outline the interesting challenges in material research that lie ahead in order to harness the spin degree of freedom for potential applications.