Xiaoyuan (Shawn) Chen, National Institutes of Health
Duan Hongwei, Nanyang Technological University
Zhihong Nie, University of Maryland
Hsian-Rong Tseng, University of California, Los Angeles
C2: Therapeutics II
Monday PM, December 01, 2014
Sheraton, 2nd Floor, Independence East
2:30 AM - *C2.01
Metal Nanoparticles and Transmissible Diseases
Francesco Stellacci 1
1EPFL Lausanne SwitzerlandShow Abstract
Transmissible Diseases are responsible for a large fraction of the illness-related deaths in the world. This fractions is higher in developing countries and for infants and children. Unfortunately, these diseases do not focus an equally large fraction of medical research. Little has been done so far to use novel approaches from the nanomedicine toolbox to create novel strategies to address and counter transmissible diseases. What has been done, though, has been rather promising. In this talk, I will review some of these approaches and present new results recently achieved in my group on this topic. Strategies to develop drugs for major transmissible diseases will be discussed.
3:00 AM - C2.02
Nanoshell Mediated Light-Triggered Delivery of Lapatinib for Treatment of Brain Metastasis
Amanda M. Goodman 1 Carrie Li 1 Oara Neumann 2 Kamilla Norregaard 3 Sandra Bishnoi 2 Mi-Ran Choi 4 Susan Clare 4 Naomi Halas 1 2 5
1Rice University Houston USA2Rice University Houston USA3University of Copenhagen Copenhagen Denmark4Northwestern University Chicago USA5Rice University Houston USAShow Abstract
Treatment of brain metastases from primary breast cancer is a critical clinical challenge. Approximately 30% of all breast cancer patients have central nervous system (CNS) metastases, based on autopsies. This rate is thought to be increasing as a function of the aging population, better treatment of non-CNS disease, and improved imaging techniques. Drug uptake into the brain is limited by numerous factors, such as the blood-brain barrier (BBB). More than 98% of small molecule drugs (< 400-500 Da) and nearly all large-molecule therapeutics do not cross the BBB. Lapatinib is a small molecule therapy targeted at the over-expression of HER2+ in breast cancer. However, lapatinib currently shows low efficacy in the treatment of CNS disease due to inadequate delivery across the BBB.
In this study, we investigate a macrophage-based “Trojan horse” light-triggered delivery of lapatinib to treat brain metastases. Macrophages, originating as blood monocytes, can infiltrate brain metastases through an intact blood brain barrier and can be readily loaded with nanoparticles. Here, nanoshells are functionalized with double stranded DNA, which serves as a protective host carrier for lapatinib delivery. It is important to be able to remotely trigger the release of the therapeutic cargo once the macrophages have relocated to the site of the metastases. Drug release is triggered using low levels (1-2 W/cm2) of continuous wave near-infrared light, which induces the dehybridization of the double helix and subsequently releases lapatinib. The optimal DNA sequence is determined by circular dichroism and loading is confirmed with surface enhanced Raman scattering. Loading capacity and release are quantified with LC-MS. Intracellular drug release will be demonstrated and the effects of near-infrared triggered lapatinib release on neighboring HER2+ brain-seeking breast cancer cells will be investigated.
3:15 AM - C2.03
Triphase Interface Synthesis of Gold Bellflowers with Strong Plasmonic Coupling Effect for Photoactivated Theranostics
Peng Huang 1 Xiaoyuan Chen 1
1National Institutes of Health Bethesda USAShow Abstract
Photoactivated theranostics combining phototherapies (such as photothermal, photodynamic, or photo-triggered chemo/gene therapy) with real-time photodiagnostics (such as bioluminescence, fluorescence, optical or photoacoustic imaging), have been actively pursued due to the spatiotemporal selectivity and specificity for disease destruction, and the advantages of optical imaging including real-time, non-ionizing radiation, high spatial and temporal resolution. Gold nanocrystals (GNCs) with attractive optical properties have been widely employed in photoactivated theranostics.
GNCs with various sizes, shapes, and geometries (such as nanoshells, nanorods, nanocages, nanostars, etc.) have shown great potential to tune their localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) to the near-infrared (NIR) region. For example, the LSPR of gold nanoshells and nanocages can be red-shifted by tuning the core/cavity diameter and shell thickness. Gold nanorods, nanoprisms, and nanoplates have red-shifted LSPR as a result of increased length or edge size. Many uniquely shaped GNCs have thus been used as contrast agents for photoacoustic imaging (PAI) and as photothermal conversion agents (PTCAs) for photothermal therapy (PTT).
Plasmonic coupling effect is very helpful to improve the performance of GNCs in PAI and PTT. Recently, we designed and prepared a novel gold bellflower (GBF) platform with multiple-branched petals in a liquid/liquid/gas triphase interface system for PAI guided PTT. Upon NIR laser irradiation, the GBFs, with strong NIR absorption, showed very strong PA response and ultrahigh photothermal conversion efficiency (eta;, ~74%). The excellent performance in PAI and PTT is mainly attributed to the unique features of the GBFs: i) multiple-branched petals with enhanced local electromagnetic field; ii) long narrow gaps between adjacent petals that induce strong plasmonic coupling effect; and iii) bell-shaped nanostructure that can effectively amplify the acoustic signals during the acoustic propagation. Besides notable PTT and excellent PAI effect, the NIR-absorbing GBFs may also find applications in NIR light-triggered drug delivery, catalysis, surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), stealth, antireflection, IR sensor, telecommunications, and the like.
This study provides a novel concept of a multiphase interface reaction that can potentially be applied to investigate other chemical reactions existing at multiphase interfaces and guide facile preparation of hierarchical micro- and nano-structures.
3:30 AM - C2.04
Multifunctional Bio-Enabled Gold Superstructures for Image-Guided Photothermal Therapy
Limei Tian 1 Saide Nergiz 1 Sirimuvva Tadepalli 1 Keng-Ku Liu 1 Srikanth Singamaneni 1
1Washington University in St. Louis St. Louis USAShow Abstract
Multifunctional plasmonic nanostructures that serve as exogenous image contrast and therapeutic agents are highly attractive for locoregional cancer therapy with minimal systemic toxicity due to intense surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and their photothermal efficiency. It has been demonstrated that core-satellite nanostructures can serve as ultra-bright SERS probes for bioimaging applications due to their remarkable SERS activity considering the electromagnetic hotspots formed between the core and satellites and between the satellites. However, most of the reported core-satellites nanostructures involve complex synthesis procedures such as self-assembly using bifunctional molecular linkers or biomolecules such as DNA. Such procedures either severely limit the stability of the assemblies in physiological fluids or make them prohibitively complex for their translation into pre-clinical and clinical applications. In this work, we introduce a novel class of plasmonic superstructures comprised of a shape-controlled Au nanostructure such as a nanorod or nanosphere as core and spherical Au nanosatellites, synthesized using a biopolymer (poly-L-histidine) coating as a nanoreactor. The optical properties of plasmonic superstructures such as LSPR wavelength, SERS activity and photothermal efficiency could be finely tuned by controlling the shape of the core and size and density of the Au nanosatellites decorating the core. Therefore, the photothermal effect and SERS performance of the superstructures could be integrated or decoupled by a rational choice of the size and shape of the core. This precise control over the properties enables the superstructures to serve as multifunctional (imaging+therapy) theranostic agents or non-invasive SERS contrast agents.
4:15 AM - *C2.05
External Energy Activated Drug Delivery and Thermal Ablation Using Targeted Hollow Gold Nanospheres
Chun Li 1
1The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center Houston USAShow Abstract
Photothermal ablation (PTA) is an emerging technique that uses near-infrared (NIR) laser light-generated heat to destroy tumor cells. Multifunctional hollow gold nanospheres (HAuNS) have been developed to mediate simultaneous PTA and local delivery of chemoterapeutic agents and siRNA, resulting in enhanced antitumor activity. Various targeting ligands including peptides, apatamers, and antibodies have been conjugated to HAuNS to achieve increased tumor delivery of HAuNS. Successful active targeting of HAuNS to the tumors requires overcoming many biological barriers, including extravazation from tumor vasculature and dispersion of nanoparticles from perivascular area. I will discuss different approaches that we have used to enhance tumor delivery of gold nanoparticles. I will also present our studies towards the application of HAuNS in image-guided antitumor therapy using photoacoustic imaging, MRI, and nuclear imaging techniques.
4:45 AM - C2.06
Monodisperse, Degradable Gold Nanoparticle Aggregates for Selective Tumor Targeting
Desiree F Van Haute 1 Jacob M Berlin 1
1Irell amp; Manella Graduate School of Biological Sciences, Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope Duarte USAShow Abstract
Gold nanoaggregates assembled from individual gold nanoparticles have been studied in ex vivo materials applications for their plasmonic properties, including surface enhanced Raman scattering. These properties of nanoaggregates could be useful in vivo for diagnostic, therapeutic or imaging modalities, but current synthetic methods generally lead to ill-defined nanoaggregates or required sophisticated polymer additives. Additionally current methods rely heavily on organic solvents to produce aggregates, rendering them poorly biocompatible, and the aggregates are difficult to handle due to reactive surfaces. We have developed a straightforward and modular synthetic method to create and cap gold nanoaggregates to enable their use in aqueous, organic and biological environments. Individual nanoparticles 5-20 nm in size can be controllably assembled to produce aggregates ranging in size from 15 - 100 nm. The properties of the nanoparticles aggregates are controlled by selection of capping agent. Capping with a phenyl or PEG layer renders the resulting stable aggregates organically soluble or biocompatible, respectively. Fluorescent labels are also readily introduced using this strategy and efficient and non-toxic uptake into cells was observed. These aggregates hold great promise for in vivo imaging and potentially drug delivery.
5:00 AM - C2.07
Targeted Cancer Therapy Using Non-Nanotoxic PGCS(Proteinticle/Gold Core/Shell) Nanoparticles
Koo Chul Kwon 1 Jeewon Lee 1
1Korea university Seoul Korea (the Republic of)Show Abstract
We developed non-nanotoxic proteinticle/gold core/shell nanoparticle (PGCS-NP) for targeted cancer therapy. Unlike synthetic nanoparticles, proteinticles are biological nanoparticles, i.e. nano-scale protein particles (e.g. viral capsid) that are self-assembled inside cells with constant structure and surface topology. Proteinticles can be engineered to present cancer targeting peptides on their surface through genetic modification of the N- or C-terminus region of the protein constituent. Both hexa-tyrosine with high reduction potential and affibody peptides with specific affinity for human epidermal growth factor receptor I (EGFR) were presented on the surface of hepatitis B virus capsid, and the Au-ion reduction formed PGCS-NP (40 nm) that is dotted with many small gold NPs (1-3 nm). PGCS-NP shows great photothermal activity and excellent affinity for EGFR-expressing tumor cells. When IV-injected into tumor-bearing mice, PGCS-NP effectively reached the EGFR-expressing tumor cells and caused severe tumor cell necrosis and significant reduction in tumor size upon NIR laser irradiation. Unlike gold NPs causing in vivo toxicity problems, PGCS-NP don't caused any histological lesions in major organs of mice, indicating that it is a safe and potent agent for photothermal therapy of cancer.
5:15 AM - C2.08
Towards Accumulation of Drug-Loaded Magnetic Nanoparticles in the Pores between Tumor Cells
Rasam Soheilian 1 Randall Morgan Erb 2
1Northeastern University Boton USA2Northeastern University Boston USAShow Abstract
It has been proven that magnetic concentration of drug laden magnetic nanoparticles increases the efficiency of treatment by 2 fold. In these techniques, particles can be concentrated by the presence of a magnetic source that delivers a very high magnetic field and a strong magnetic field gradient. Such a source causes even 150 nm nanoparticles to form chains and aggregations in low Reynold&’s number conditions, which exceeds the diameter of the tumor pores and prevents particles from entering cancer cells.
In this work, we have developed theoretical, numerical and experimental frameworks to apply dynamic magnetic fields to the concentration and de-agglomeration of drug-laden magnetic nanoparticles. We have added the effect of Brownian motion to the dynamic model to be able to accurately describe particle suspensions less than 1um in size. As proof of principle, collagen hydrogels with porosities consistent with tumor cells are fabricated and used as matrices to test the diffusion of magnetic nanoparticles with and without advanced field functions. This work enables the magnetic nanoparticles to both be concentrated at the tumor site and remain non-aggregated allowing them to diffuse into the intercellular matrix and deliver drug throughout the site of the tumor.
5:30 AM - C2.09
Metallosomes Formed by Supramolecular Assembly of Block Copolymer-Metal Complexation for Multi-Functional Bioactive Polymersomes
Kensuke Osada 3 2 Kazunori Kataoka 4 1
1The University of Tokyo Tokyo Japan2JST-PRESTO Tokyo Japan3The University of Tokyo Tokyo Japan4The University of Tokyo Tokyo JapanShow Abstract
Supramolecular architectures constructed through a self-assembly of block copolymers receive much interest due to their various morphologies. Among them, polymersomes have recently highlighted as a focused material because of interests in the study of their formation mechanisms, morphology tuning and also their potential applications as delivery carriers of bioactive materials. Among various interactions utilized in constructing polymersomes, a metal coordination bond is attractive because the ligand exchange reaction can make the membrane properties of polymersomes change within water, which allows controlled release of loaded materials in the polymersomes. Here we would like to report spontaneous polymersome formation triggered by metal coordination bond in aqueous medium.
The supramolecular assembly was formed through the reaction of an anticancer agent, DACHPt, with a Y-shaped block copolymer of w-cholesteroyl-poly(L-glutamic acid) and two-armed poly(ethylene glycol) (PEGasus-PLGA-Chole) via coordination bond between platinum of the DACHPt and carboxylic acid groups of the PLGA segment. The analysis of TEM images and the loading capacity of hydrophilic polymers within the assembly affirmed the assembly to be vesicle with size of 100 nm, thus named Metallosomes. Circular dichroism spectrum measurements revealed that the PLGA segment forms an a-helix structure within the Metallosomes, which suggested a secondary-structure formation of metallo-complexed PLGA segment may drive the self-assembly to form vesicular structure. The Metallosomes can load water-soluble fluorescent macromolecules into their inner aqueous space. Responding to chloride ion corresponding to the physiological NaCl concentration, the DACHPt was released in continuous manner from the metallosomes by the ligand exchange reaction, followed by release of the loaded macromolecules. The Metallosomes showed a prolonged blood circulation property and eventually selectively accumulated into tumor tissues in mice through the EPR effect due to the 100 nm size. Ultimately, fluorescent imaging of the tumor was successfully demonstrated along with an appreciable antitumor activity by DACHPt retained in the vesicular wall of the metallosomes.
The simple construction of the Metallosomes in water without use of organic solvents allows encapsulation of fragile bioactive compounds, which positions the Metallosomes as a promising platform for novel nanodevices capable of simultaneous diagnosis and treatment.
C3: Poster Session: Medical Applications of Noble Metal Nanoparticles
Monday PM, December 01, 2014
Hynes, Level 1, Hall B
9:00 AM - C3.01
Physically Synthesized Gold Nanodisks as Brand-New Contrast Agents for Biological Imaging
Jung-Sub Wi 1 Sang-Won Lee 1 2 Joo Hyun Park 1 2 Tae Geol Lee 1 2
1Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science Deajeon Korea (the Republic of)2University of Science and Technology Daejeon Korea (the Republic of)Show Abstract
Particulate Au nanostructures such as one dimensional nanorods (1D NRs) and three dimensional nanospheres (3D NSs) have shown impressive potential as contrast agents for biological imaging due to their highly effective plasmonic interaction with light. However, there are some points to consider for each Au nanostructure. Although 1D NRs show a broad optical window of resonant wavelength across the near-infrared region, an alignment of light direction and polarization are necessary due to the anisotropic shape of the 1D NRs. The opposite is the case with 3D NSs. In order to achieve complementary optical properties of both 1D NRs and 3D NSs, we propose two-dimensional nanodisks (2D NDs) and top-down physical synthesis, in which Au is vacuum deposited onto a nanoimprinted polymer template. Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) used to define the diameter of the 2D NDs offered distinct benefits of nanoscale resolution, reliable pattern generation, and high throughput. In addition, by using Si nanocone array as a NIL mold and adjusting the time of O2 plasma etch following the NIL, it was possible to vary the diameters of 20-nm-thick Au NDs from 65 nm to 165 nm to match their dimensional resonances for excitation wavelengths from visible to near-infrared. As well as the resonant wavelength, electromagnetic simulations demonstrated that the relative ratio of optical absorption and scattering in a total extinction of the Au ND could be also controlled by adjusting its diameter and thickness. More efficient light absorption and scattering by the 2D NDs compared to the 1D NRs and 3D NSs were successfully demonstrated by imaging the three kinds of Au nanostructures with two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy and optical coherence tomography. Considering the present results, we expect the proposed 2D NDs to be used as highly sensitive and reliable contrast agents for in-vivo and in-vitro imaging.
9:00 AM - C3.02
Highly Uniform Gadolinium Oxide Nanoparticles as Remarkedly Enhanced MRI Contrast Agents for Cellular MR Imaging
Nasim Taheri 1 Vicki Colvin 1 Gary Stinnett 2 Paolo Decuzzi 3 Robia Pautler 2
1Rice University Houston USA2Baylor College of Medicine Houston USA3The Methodist Hospital Research Institute Houston USAShow Abstract
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is of one the most powerful imaging techniques in medical diagnostics. It can offer high spatial resolution while having unique soft tissue contrast. Unlike any other imaging tools such as X-ray imaging, MRI does not provide radiation and damage to the tissues. However, without the use of contrast agent, there is a lack of sensitivity and MRI cannot provide all the crucial details for accurate diagnosis. To overcome this challenge, contrast agents play an important role by changing the longitudinal (T1) and the transverse (T2) relaxation times of water protons.
Based on potential applications of gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) nanoparticles, here we report synthesis of anisotropic, monodisperse and size-tunable gadolinium oxide nanostructures, capable of being applied in-vivo as enhanced T1 MRI contrast agents. Synthetic parameters, such as surfactant ratio and reaction time can be tailored to attain monodispersed nanocrystals with narrow size distribution. Additionally, as synthesized nanosized nanoparticles must undergo a surface modification in order to render the material water soluble and functional for any biological application. In this work, transferring organic phase nanoparticles into aqueous phase was done using three different polymers.
The MRI properties studies were fulfilled by varying different parameters, such as polymer molecular weight, hydrophilic surface coating and nanoparticle core size. The longitudinal relaxivity of PAMPS_LA coated gadolinium (Gd) nanoparticles resulted approximately 20 times higher than clinically approved Gd contrast agents. The polymer-coated gadolinium oxide nanoparticles are biocompatible based on our in vitro cytotoxicity study in which showed no significant effect on cell viability up to a concentration of 600 ?M of gadolinium. Owing to the large enhancement in relaxivity, we were able to use the nanoparticles as in vitro cellular MR labels; these showed high cellular uptake while increasing the signal intensity on the T1-weighted image which is very promising for cellular labelling. This study demonstrates that water-soluble biocompatible gadolinium oxide nanostructures are potential candidates as enhanced MRI contrast agents suitable for non-specific cell labeling, which makes the visualization of labeled cells in-vivo possible.
9:00 AM - C3.03
Emergence of Super-Chiral Hot Spots in a Chiral Cluster of Achiral Plasmonic Antennas
Mohammadhossein Alizadeh 1 2 Bjoern Reinhard 2
1Boston University Boston USA2Boston University Boston USAShow Abstract
Since Tang and Cohen proposed the possibility of creating Electromagnetic fields with chirality larger than that of circularly polarized light much effort has been done to understand and utilize this phenomenon. In the context of Plamsonics it is shown that, due to the enhancement of the electric field, it is possible to create chiral evanescent fields with much higher chirality than that of circularly polarized light. Such enhanced chiral fields are highly desirable for multiple applications such as enantiomer sensing, enhanced light-matter interaction, etc. in the case of enhanced enantiomer sensing there are two major problems associated with the Plasmonic structures proposed so far. First, most of the optical activity regarding the chiral biomolecules take place in UV or higher frequency part of the visible spectrum. However, majority of the prototypical chiral Plasmonic antennas show a resonance at much higher wavelengths. Gammadions, helical antennas and G shaped wheels are some of the typical chiral antennas researchers have used. The problem of the Plasmonic resonances occurring far from the desired frequencies stems from the difficulty of fabricating small enough antennas while preserving their geometrical chirality. Second, due to the mainly dipolar nature of these resonances positive and negative evanescent chiral fields surround the antenna. This makes specific enhancement of one particular handedness of an enantiomer elusive. Here, we propose that using a cluster-based approach to creating the chiral hot spots can alleviate these problems. We numerically demonstrate that through a cluster of achiral Plasmonic nano antennas arranged in a chiral geometry one can create localized evanescent super chiral fields with a specific non-changing sign. Moreover, due to the feasibility of shifting the Plasmonic resonance of the individual components of the cluster to Blue or even Ultraviolet part of the spectrum, enhanced chiral light matter interaction in this range of the spectrum can be achieved.
9:00 AM - C3.04
Synthesis, Characterization and Medical Application of Magnetic Core at Shell Nanoparticles Consisting of Aloy Cores and Au Shells
Jing Li 1 Shan Yan 1 Shiyao Shan 1 Yan Liu 1 Zakiya Skeete 1 Chuan-Jian Zhong 1
1Binghamton University Binghamton USAShow Abstract
Gold based nanoparticles with multifunctional properties have found increasing medical applications such as medical diagnostics, imaging, therapies, etc. One of the biggest challenges is the creation of the ability to enable the nanoparticles with both biocompatibility and bio-intervention capability for effective detection of biomolecular activities in bioassay or diagnostic processes. Recently, we have successfully synthesized magnetic nanoalloys such as NiFe and NiCo and use them as cores to create core@shell nanoparticles (e.g., NiFe@Au) with controllable size and composition by hydrothermal method, which could function as biocompatible and magnetically-separable nanoprobes in aqueous solutions. In addition to describing the structural characterization results, this report will discuss preliminary findings in an investigation of the bioconjugation, especially DNA or aptamer functionalized NiFe@Au nanoprobes, for the creation of interparticle “hot-spot” to enable surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection. The results have demonstrated the viability of the core-shell magnetic nanoparticles for SERS detection in aqueous solutions. Implications of these results to new strategies in medical diagnostics and imaging will also be discussed.
9:00 AM - C3.05
Study of FePtAu Ternary Alloy Nanoparticles as a Functional Magneto-Plasmonic Hybrid System
Priyank Mohan 1 Mari Takahashi 1 Rishika Rastogi 1 Derrick Mott 1 Shinya Maenosono 1
1Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology Nomi JapanShow Abstract
Currently there is pronounced curiosity in the development of nanoparticles that combine plasmonic assets with magnetic properties to achieve the ability of using the particles as a vehicle for simultaneous plasmonic monitoring and magnetic operations. These dual functional probes hold great promise as sensing probes for diagnostics and environmental applications such as immunomagnetic/chemo-magnetic separation under plasmonic imaging, dual mode imaging (MRI and plasmonic) and SERS sensing. Au has traditionally been included in fcc FePt as a dopant to lower the annealing temperature required for the L10 fct phase transition, however no significant work has been done to fully characterize their potential in magneto-plasmonic applications. With this in mind, we report the combination of magnetic and plasmonic components in single phase FexPt100-x-yAuy ternary NPs, which are used as a new material for dual functional magnetic/plasmonic applications. In this work, we synthesized FexPt100-x-yAuy spherical NPs which reveals the potential for dual application of plasmonic imaging and magnetic separation. Magnetic and plasmonic properties are found to be dependent on the final composition of the particles which were carefully studied in terms of the effect of shape, size and composition. Finally by carefully tailoring the various parameters we tried to optimize the best conditions for getting the desired nanoparticles. Our research leads to a deeper understanding of the critical role of physical and chemical properties (precise control of size, shape and composition) and their correlation to the usage of particles in biomedical applications.
9:00 AM - C3.06
Optimizing Ligand Properties to Promote Nanoparticle-Bilayer Fusion Based on Factors that Govern Lipid Protrusion Probabilities
Mukarram Ahmad Tahir 1 Reid Van Lehn 1 Alfredo Alexander-Katz 1
1MIT Cambridge USAShow Abstract
Monolayer-protected gold nanoparticles have been shown to embed in the hydrophobic core of lipid bilayers in a manner that resembles the behavior of transmembrane proteins . This fusion capability of the nanoparticles makes them a promising candidate for drug delivery and biological sensing applications. In recent work, we have established that stochastic lipid tail protrusions are responsible for inducing fusion of these nanoparticles with lipid bilayers . Enhancing fusion probability would hence require both an understanding of factors that govern lipid protrusions and tuning the properties of ligands that coat these nanoparticles. Moreover, understanding the mechanisms that promote lipid protrusions would also provide physical insight into more fundamental biological processes such as vesicle fusion.
Using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, we show that the relative thermodynamic likelihood of protrusion events is insensitive to lipid composition in single-component bilayers. Instead, the packing arrangement of surrounding lipids presents a steric barrier that kinetically limits the incidence of protrusion events. Through membrane surface analysis, we demonstrate that spontaneous protrusion events are facilitated by the presence of geometrical defects in the bilayer. We then utilize this physical understanding to tailor the nanoparticles' protective ligands in a manner that promotes fusogenic behavior. Though the ligand monolayer in recent works has mainly been composed of a binary mixture involving purely hydrophobic and anionic end-functionalized linear alkanethiols to match experimental work, we use simulations to identify new candidate ligands with higher fusion probability.
 R. C. Van Lehn et al., "Effect of particle diameter and surface composition on the spontaneous fusion of monolayer-protected gold nanoparticles with lipid bilayers", Nano Letters 13 (9), 4060-4067 (2013).
 R. C. Van Lehn et al., "Lipid tail protrusions mediate the insertion of nanoparticles into model cell membranes", Nature Communications, Accepted (2014).
9:00 AM - C3.07
Gold-Based Functional Nanoparticle Arrays for Imaging and Detection of Biomolecular Activities
Zakiya Skeete 1 Wei Zhao 1 Jing Li 1 Shanana Yan 1 Jin Luo 1 Chuan-Jian Zhong 1
1Binghamton University Binghamton USAShow Abstract
As interests in the application of noble metal nanoparticles, especially gold nanoparticles, in medical theranostics rapidly expand in many cutting-edge areas, there is an increasing need for the development of effective strategies for the fabrication of nanomaterials and the detection of the biomolecules. One important strategy is to establish an effective coupling of the unique optical properties of gold-based nanoparticles and the functional properties for an enhanced detection or visualization. This report describes recent findings of an investigation using gold-based nanoparticles to construct a microfluidic platform for the detection of proteins or DNA in the biomolecular recognition process. In addition to establishing an effective protocol for building a well-defined gold-based nanoparticle array on a substrate, one important emphasis is the understanding of molecular and biomolecular interactions at the interfaces of the array in a solution. Atomic force microscopy, surface enhanced Raman scattering, and confocal Raman microscopy are discussed for the characterization and the detection of biomolecular activities such as protein recognition and DNA binding. Results involving gold nanoparticles and magnetic nanoparticles coated or decorated with gold shells will be discussed, along with their implication to biomedical imaging.
9:00 AM - C3.08
Analysis of the CD10+ AND CD19+ Markers in Leukemic Cells through SERS with Gold Nanostars
Juan Carlos Martinez Espinosa 1 Nayem Amtanus Ramirez Chequer 1 Ana Karen Zavala Raya 1 Victor Hugo Romero Arellano 2 Jose de Jesus Ibarra Sanchez 3 Miguel Jose Yacaman 4 German Plascencia Villa 4
1Instituto Politecnico Nacional-UPIIG Leamp;#243;n Mexico2Centro de Investigaciones en Optica Leon Mexico3Universidad de Guanajuato-DCI Leon Mexico4University of Texas at San Antonio San Antonio USAShow Abstract
Leukemia is a disease caused by the malignant transformation of immature lymphoid cell, which has the ability to reproduce and form a clone of the parent cell; these cells are found blocked in a differentiation point. The leukemic cells from most patients with B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) appears to originate from normal B-lymphocyte precursors who co-express antigens such as CD10+ and CD19+ on their cell surfaces during the immatureness stages; while the mature cells don&’t express the CD10+. In this work, we studied CD10+ and CD19+ markers by using functionalized gold nanostars (NS) and Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS). The NS were synthesized by wet chemical treatment (chemical reactions in solution). The nanomaterial&’s characterization was made through UV-Vis spectroscopy within the range from 400 to 900 nm with one nm of resolution. The morphology and size of the NS were determined by Transmission Electron Microscopy. The Raw spectra were recorded with a Reninshaw inVia Raman system, with a 785 nm laser source and we used 15 s of exposition time over the sample. All spectra were recorded in the range from 550 to 1700 cm-1 and we recollected 50 Raman spectra per sample by mapping with 4 µm of distance between each recorded spectra. The NS were coated by pegylation with OPSS-PEG-NHS and mPEG-SH (CREATIVE PEGWORKS); the antibodies anti-CD10 and anti-CD19 (ABCAM) by chemical attachment of their heavy chains. The study was made with leukemic B lymphoblast from the SUP-B15 cell line (ATCC CRL-1929), the cells were cultured at 37°C in Iscove&’s modified Dulbecco&’s medium supplied with 4mM L-glutamine adjusted to contain 1.5 g/L sodium bicarbonate and supplemented with 0.05 mM 2-mercaptoethanol, 80%; fetal bovine serum, 20%. The NS functionalized were incubated with the B lymphoblast for 2 hours. The adhesion of the NS to the cell surface was confirmed by TEM. Three different treatments (cells, cells with nanoparticles and functionalized NS with cells) were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy. The ratios of some band intensities were analyzed, and some of them resulted relevant and corresponded to proteins, phospholipids, amino acids and polysaccharides. It showed important differences between CD10+ and C19+ markers in the peaks 632, 1003, 1047, 1110, 1231, 1452 and 1585 cm-1. Characteristic patterns were observed when the principal components analysis were applied to the entire spectrum block (CD10 and CD19), and moreover, was possible to identify the presence of SERS in both groups. And thus generating new fields of study to find alternative therapeutic techniques to assist the medical community for the treatment of leukemia.
9:00 AM - C3.09
Plasmonic Sphere-in-Star Nanostructures for Raman-Based Theranostic Applications
Saide Zeynep Nergiz 1 Sirimuvva Tadepalli 1 Keng-Ku Liu 1 Srikanth Singamaneni 1
1Washington University in Saint Louis Saint Louis USAShow Abstract
Engineering the plasmonic properties of noble metal nanostructures with facile control over their size, shape and materials combination holds great promise for cancer nanomedicine. Here, we demonstrate multifunctional plasmonic sphere-in-star (SIS) nanostructures with built-in gold core and internal Raman reporter (gold sphere-in-star) for simultaneous high-resolution Raman bioimaging and photothermal ablation therapy. Raman reporter encoded between the gold core and the gold star shell was subjected to enhanced electromagnetic field due to their plasmon hybridization, resulting in ultra-bright probes for non-invasive high resolution Raman bioimaging. The star geometry of the SIS nanostructures enables their strong absorption of light in the near infrared therapeutic window that allows to deploy them not only for Raman bioimaging but also for photothermal ablation therapy and image-guided therapy applications. In vitro targeting SIS nanostructures to SKBR3 breast cancer cells via biofunctionalization with the ErbB2-receptor targeting antibodies is demonstrated to significantly improve the cellular uptake of the nanostructures. Owing to their compact size (~40 nm), cell-specific uptake at minimally invasive dosages and enabling simultaneous bioimaging and photothermal therapy, SIS nanostructures can be ideal candidates for medical nanotheranostics such as spectrum-guided therapy applications and paves the way to design novel plasmonic-engineered nanomedicine with ideal optical properties with desired multifunctionality.
9:00 AM - C3.10
Iron Oxide Nanocube Clustering for Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Hyperthermia
Minjung Cho 1 2 Cinzia Stigliano 1 Antonio Cervadoro 1 Vicki L. Colvin 2 Paolo Decuzzi 1
1Houston Methodist Houston USA2Rice University Houston USAShow Abstract
Different geometrical and physico-chemical configurations of iron oxide nanocubes (NCs) have been proposed as either probes for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with superior relaxometric properties or efficient heat generators for hyperthermia and tissue ablation. Here, individual and clustered NCs, with a characteristic edge length ranging from 11 to 28 nm, are synthesized via thermal decomposition methods with various combinations of iron precursors, surfactants, and solvents. Clustered NCs exhibit better magnetic properties than individual NCs, for both MRI relaxivity and specific absorption rate (SAR). In particular, 20 nm clustered NCs possess the highest transversal relaxivity, with a r2 of 680.3 ± 60.3 mM-1s-1 at 1.41T, and magnetic heating efficiency, with a SAR of 113.8 ± 21.6 W/g at 512 KHz and 10 kA/m. As compared to individual NCs, the 20 nm clustered NCs manifest a higher magnetization saturation (86.6 vs 21.9 emu/g), a larger Fe3+/ Fe2+ ratio (34 vs 3%), and a more homogeneous crystalline structure, with one sole crystalline direction . Wrapping NCs in serum albumin increases significantly their colloidal stability and returns an average hydrodynamic diameter of ~ 100 nm which is preserved up to 7 days in a physiological solution. In vitro viability tests on J-774 murine macrophages and U87-MG glioblastoma multiforme tumor cells demonstrate no significant toxicity up to NC concentrations of 100 ppm. This study suggests that 20 nm, albumin coated, clustered iron oxide NCs can simultaneously behave as superior MRI contrast agents and efficient heat generators for potential cancer theranosis.
9:00 AM - C3.11
Enhanced Radiation Therapy with Internalized Polyelectrolyte Modified Nanoparticles
Peipei Zhang 1 Ming Su 1 Liyuan Ma 1
1Worcester Polytechnic Institute Worcester USAShow Abstract
X-ray photons generate photoelectrons and Auger electrons, which cause ionization of water and formation of reactive free radicals (mostly hydroxyl radicals). The free radicals diffuse through chain reactions in cells, and damage DNA in mitochondria and nuclei by extracting hydrogen atoms from ribose sugars, leading to cleavage of polynucleotide backbone. A challenge of X-ray radiation therapy is that high dose X-ray can damage normal cells and cause side effects due to its low tumor selectivity. Nanoparticles of gold, platinum and bismuth are proposed to enhance radiation therapy, but the measured effect of nanoparticles is negligible. This is likely due to the fact that these nanoparticles are attached on cell membrane, and X-ray generated free radicals have to diffuse into vicinity of DNA to cause damage. This abstract describes the use of a nanoparticle-based method to enhance X-ray radiation therapy by delivering radio-sensitizing gold nanoparticles in cancer cells. The nanoparticles are modified with cationic polyelectrolytes to allow internalization into cells. Upon X-ray irradiation of nanoparticles, more photoelectrons and Auger electrons are generated to cause water ionization, leading to formation of free radicals that damage DNA of cancer cells. The enhanced DNA damage is confirmed with HaloChip assay, the expression of DNA repair protein (γ-H2AX) and flow cytometry assay. X-ray dose required for DNA damage and cell killing is reduced by putting gold nanoparticles inside cancer cells. More cells can be killed due to combined effect of X-ray radiation and nanoparticles.
9:00 AM - C3.12
Carboxybetaine-Zwitterionic Tantalum Oxide Nanoparticles as X-Ray Contrast Agents
Peter J Bonitatibus 1 Andrew S Torres 1 Robert E Colborn 1 Matthew D. Butts 1
1General Electric Niskayuna USAShow Abstract
Recently, we reported our advancements with tantalum oxide nanoparticles for potential use as next generation of x-ray contrast media.a Desirable properties of these materials that require further study are reduced viscosity and osmolality of concentrated particle solutions, and reduction of the total amount of Ta retained after administration. Here, we report on a family of new zwitterionic (carboxybetaine) siloxane polymer nanoparticle coatings, some of which showed dramatic reduction in viscosity of highly concentrated solutions of tantalum oxide particles (>250mgTa/mL), with exceedingly low tissue retention of injected tantalum. Subtle differences in the chemistry/coating structure were found to have a profound impact on both physico-chemical properties and excretion profiles.
aBonitatibus, P., et al. ACS Nano2012, 6, 6650-6658.
9:00 AM - C3.13
Photothermal Effect of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles and Penetration Depth of Near-Infrared Laser in Simulated Body Tissues by for Cancer Treatment
Yu Zhang 1 Andrew Dunn 1 Sadat Md Ehsan 2 David Mast 2 Donglu Shi 1
1University of Cincinnati Cincinnati USA2University of Cincinnati Cincinnati USAShow Abstract
Photothermal effect of polymer-coated magnetite Fe3O4 nanoparticle was investigated via near-infrared (NIR) laser at 785 nm for cancer therapy. For clinical applications, the tissue-depth dependence of the photothermal power was studied using various simulated body issues. These included Agar gel with cow blood. Three different NIR laser wavelengths were used in order to determine the critical penetration depths for hyperthermic ablation of cancer cells. The photothermal heating curves were obtained and cytotoxicity experiments were carried out for various Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The power and concentration dependences of different Fe3O4 nanoparticles were established from the heating curves. Also discussed is the operating photothermal mechanism of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles.
9:00 AM - C3.14
Ag Decorated Hydroxyapatite Hollow Nanospheres for Drug Delivery Applications
Mohammad Shahabuddin 1 Sanjay R Mishra 1 Joel Bumgardner 2 Dom Lal Kunwar 1
1University of Memphis Memphis USA2University of Memphis Memphis USAShow Abstract
Hollow hydroxyapatite nanospheres are widely used in areas of orthopedic, dental surgery, drug delivery applications because of its unique properties related to good biocompatibility and excellent adsorption properties. The HA nanospheres are more effective in fighting infection by loading them with Silver nanoparticles. Hollow HA nanospheres have large specific surface area, good flowability and easily tune the size of the spheres. Several methods have been developed to prepare HA nanospheres with dimensions ranging from nano to micron size for use in sustained release drug delivery systems. In this study the spherical porous HA nanoparticles are fabricated by the modified SBF solution method using carbon nanosphere as template. The SBF solution method is particularly attractive because of its wide spread use, controlled morphology and the particles are synthesized in human body environment. As derived HA nanospheres were further decorated with Ag nanodots using AgNO3 precursor. Hollow Ag-CaP nanospheres were obtained by removing carbon template at 300°C. XRD results confirm the presence of nanocrystalline CaP decorated with Ag. FTIR result shows distinct peak of PO4-2, CO3-2, -OH confirming presence of CaP in the sample. SEM result show spherical Ag decorated CaP nanospheres in the size range of 400 nm to 1 µm. Protein loading in Ag-CaP was assessed by cytorchrome C absorption. A high loading of 32.5 µg/mgNS was obtained for CaP nanosphere. The protein release study shows a steady release of 6.1 µgm/Day from High loading and discharge of protein is attributed to highly porous CaP surface. These results are superior to earlier studies on drug release from oxide nanoparticles. Our results indicate that Ag-CaP nanospheres can effectively be used for drug delivery application.
9:00 AM - C3.15
Synthesis and Optimization of Theranostic Nanoparticles for Multimodal Cancer Imaging and Therapy
Bobby Yassini 1 Albert Wright 1 Adeyinka Adejumo 2 Prakash Rai 1 2
1University of Massachusetts Lowell Lowell USA2University of Massachusetts Lowell Lowell USAShow Abstract
With the rising incidence of cancer, many forms of therapy have been developed to impede progression of cancer. Surgery, chemo- and radiation therapy continue to be the main treatments for cancer with limited success rates. Use of nanoparticles for anti-cancer drug delivery is a rapidly growing field and has received approval for clinical use. Unlike radiation/chemotherapy, drug-loaded liposomes can be specifically targeted to attack cancer cells. Advances in nanotechnology have permitted new possibilities for theranostics, which are defined as the combination of therapy and imaging within a single platform. We have been working to optimize the construction of theranostic liposomes loaded with gold nanoparticles (GNP) and methylene blue (MB). Encapsulating GNP and MB in targeted liposomes would allow for multimodal imaging and treatment of breast cancer. Folic acid can be conjugated to the drug loaded liposomes to target the overexpression of folate receptors on breast cancer cells. MB can be excited by light of appropriate wavelength to produce reactive oxygen species through photodynamic therapy, an emerging treatment modality that is used in the clinic. MB can also be used as an imaging agent for fluorescence-based optical imaging. Metallic nanoparticles like GNP are also used to enhance the contrast in computed tomography (CT). GNP can also absorb light at certain wavelengths, convert it into heat, and cause irreversible damage to the targeted cancer cells and this is referred to as photothermal therapy. We have been experimenting with several variables and tweaking our protocol to allow for optimal encapsulation in the targeted liposomes. We have also used imaging techniques such as confocal microscopy to test the specific uptake of these nano-constructs by breast cancer cells. Preliminary results on synthesis, optimization and characterization of these theranostic liposomes as well as imaging and treatment results against breast cancer cells will be presented.
9:00 AM - C3.16
Targeting of HepG2 Cells Using Lactose Modified Magneto-Plasmonic Nanoparticles towards Magnetic Separation with Optical Detection
Rishika Rastogi 1 Mari Takahashi 1 Priyank Mohan 1 Derrick M. Mott 1 Kazuaki Matsumura 1 Shinya Maenosono 1
1Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology Nomi JapanShow Abstract
Magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) are expected to be used in a wide variety of biomedical applications such as magnetic cell separation, drug delivery etc. However, many researchers have used large magnetic beads combined with fluorescence molecule to trace the NPs. The large size of NPs creates steric hindrance, which makes it difficult to interact with biological cells of smaller size while fluorescence molecules lose their activity with time. To overcome these problems, we synthesized FeCo@Ag magnetic core plasmonic shell NPs. FeCo has very high saturation magnetization and show response to external magnetic field while plasmonic Ag shell enables the optical tracing using plasmon scattering. The synthesis of FeCo@Ag is done by polyol one-pot synthesis method. The resulting NPs were characterized by TEM, UV-vis, XRD and SQUID magnetometer. The surfaces of as-synthesized NPs were modified with poly-L-lysine which contains thiol and lactose moieties (PLL-SH-Lac). The PLL-SH-Lac modified FeCo@Ag NPs were then attached on HepG2 cells which have lactose receptors. The PLL-SH-Lac FeCo@Ag NPs-cell attachment is carried out by incubation of HepG2 cells with PLL-SH-Lac FeCo@Ag NPs. The attachment was confirmed by dark field microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. These NPs also possess strong potential to be used for the magnetic-cell separation of these cancerous cell lines from the normal cell lines.
9:00 AM - C3.17
Development of a Root Canal Sealer Material with Antimicrobial Micro and Nanoparticles for Dental Applications
Paloma Netzayeli Serrano-Diaz 1 Ana Ivonne Ruiz-Medina 1 Paola Campos-Ibarra 1 Fernando Tenorio 1 Ma. Concepcion Arenas-Arrocena 1 Javier de la Fuente-Hernandez 1 Laura Susana Acosta-Torres 1
1UNAM Guanajuato MexicoShow Abstract
Introduction: In dentistry, a successful root canal treatment depends on the complete removal of contaminants and on the adequate sealing. The most common sealants endodontic cements are based on Zinc Oxide-Eugenol whose antimicrobial effect is reduced, but there are other antimicrobial agents successfully used in different biomedical applications that have not been explored in the endodontic field. Objective: To obtain an antimicrobial root canal sealer adding micro or nanoparticles for the inhibition of Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis cultures and being noncytotoxic. Methods: The Fourier Transformed Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), or Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) characterization was performed to the antimicrobial microparticles (triclosan, iodoform, terbinafine and chitosan) and to silver nanoparticles. The Zinc Oxide-Eugenol (ZOE) root canal sealer were mixed with the micro or nanoparticles. The prepared experimental groups were: Group-1 (ZOE+terbinafine); Group-2 (ZOE+triclosan); Group-3 (ZOE+, iodoform); Group-4 (ZOE+ chitosan) and Group-5 (ZOE+AgNPs). Each group was evaluated: the antimicrobial activity on Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis cultures by the diffusion test (n=4); the cytotoxicity was evaluated on 3T3-NIH fibroblast cultures by the MTT test (n=8). The assays were repeated by triplicate and One-Way ANOVA (p<0.05) was applied to the results. Results: The functional groups of the antimicrobial particles analyzed by FT-IR resulted according to previous reports. The morphology of the microparticles (SEM), showed irregular particles with particle size in: terbinafine (5-10 mu;m ), triclosan (15-50 µm), iodoform(10-40 µm), chitosan (15-50 µm); while the TEM observations indicated that the silver nanoparticles are spherical in shape and 10-25 nm in size. The antimicrobial assay showed different length in the inhibition zone (mm) of each ZOE cement when modified with different particles; the higher ihibition of Candida albicans was in the group of ZOE+chitosan (p=0.0019), while for Enterococcus faecalis the higher inhibition zone was in the group ZOE+triclosan (p<0.05). The cytotxicity assay (p=0.001) in the group of ZOE with terbinafine inidicating less viability cell (20%), while all other goups shown no cytotoxic effec to the fibroblast cell line.
Conclusions: The root canal sealer added with chitosan microparticles presented the higher inhibition of Candida albicans, and the sealer cement with triclosan microparticles better inhibited Enterococcus faecalis cultures. Most of the evaluated groups results with no cytotoxic, so that, the experimental root canal sealer with triclosan, iodoform, chitosan or silver nanoparticles could be used in endodontic treatments in order to avoid the post-treatment infections. Acknowledgements: DGAPA-UNAM: PAPIIT-TA200414 and PAPIME-PE200214. For technical support to: Dra. Genoveva-Hernández Padroacute;n, Dra. Marina Vega and Mtro. Gerardo Fonseca.
9:00 AM - C3.18
Silver Nanoparticle-Generating Mussel Adhesive Fusion Protein as a Novel Bioinspired Surface-Independent Antibacterial Coating Material
Yun Kee Jo 1 Jung Hyun Seo 1 2 Bum Jin Kim 1 Hwa Hui Shin 1 Byeong Hee Hwang 1 Hyung Joon Cha 1
1Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH) Pohang Korea (the Republic of)2Yeungnam University Gyeongsan Korea (the Republic of)Show Abstract
During implant surgeries, antibacterial agents are needed to prevent bacterial infections, which can cause the formation of biofilms between implanted materials and tissue. Silver nanoparticles, which release silver ions, have been considered to be a promising antibacterial agent because of their broad antibacterial activity. Mussel adhesive proteins (MAPs) derived from marine mussels are bioadhesives that show strong adhesion and coating ability on various surfaces even in wet environment. Here, we proposed a novel surface-independent antibacterial coating biomaterial by incorporating the strong adhesion ability of recombinant mussel adhesive protein into a silver-binding peptide. This sticky recombinant fusion protein enabled the efficient coating on target surface and the easy generation of silver nanoparticles on the coated-surface. The synthesized silver nanoparticles showed excellent antibacterial efficacy against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and also revealed good cytocompatibility with mammalian cells. Moreover, the silver nanoparticles were fully synthesized on various surfaces including metal, plastic, and glass by a simple, surface-independent coating manner, and they were also successfully synthesized on a nanofiber surface fabricated by electrospinning of the fusion protein. Thus, this facile surface-independent silver nanoparticle-generating antibacterial coating biomaterial has great potential to be used for the prevention of bacterial infection in diverse biomedical fields.
9:00 AM - C3.19
Effect of a Bias Voltage on the Bactericide Properties of Ag-GQD
Barbara Judith Avalos-Cavero 1 Rafael Velazquez-Vicente 2 Rebeca Belen Rivera-Vazquez 2 Jorge Rafael Santiago-Jordi 2 Axel Ruben Arroyo 3 Mariel Jimenez-Rodriguez 2 Alejandra Guevara 1 Jennifer Gil-Acevedo 4 Khaled Habiba 2 Abelardo Colon 5 Javier Antonio Avalos-Sanchez 2 Brad R Weiner 3 Gerardo Morell 2
1University of Puerto Rico San Juan USA2University of Puerto Rico San Juan USA3University of Puerto Rico San Juan USA4University of Puerto Rico San Juan USA5University of Puerto Rico San Juan USAShow Abstract
Functionalized silver nanoparticles coated with graphene nanostructures were synthesized by laser irradiation of benzene-silver colloid. The functionalization of this Ag-Graphene nanocomposite with polyethylene glycol provides stabilization and higher solubility in aqueous solution. The Ag-Graphene nanocomposite was characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), and Fourier transform IR spectroscopy (FT-IR). The antibacterial activity of Ag-Graphene was tested using Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus as model strains of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, respectively. The Ag-Graphene nanocomposite solution exhibits strong antibacterial activity against both types of bacteria, as tested using Kirby-Bauer assay disk diffusion and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) assay. By applying an external electric bias, a decrease in the bacterial inhibition time (less than 6 hrs) can be attained. The success of this method allows us to propose a mechanism which describes the bactericide effect in terms the ion transport in the solution when exposed to the bacteria. Taking advantage of the high biocompatibility of graphene and the antibactericidal activity of silver, the Ag-Graphene nanocomposite is a nontoxic biomaterial suitable for numerous applications, such as self-sterile textiles, biomedical devices, coatings, and cosmetics.
9:00 AM - C3.20
Core/Shell Nanoclusters of Doxorubicin Functionalized Au-M (Co, Mn) Fe2O4: A Theranostic Approach for Cancer Therapeutics
Ravichandran Manisekaran 1 Goldie Oza 2 Velumani Subramaniam 2 1 Jose Tapia Ramirez 3
1CINVESTAV-IPN Mexico city Mexico2CINVESTAV-IPN Mexico city Mexico3CINVESTAV-IPN Mexico City MexicoShow Abstract
Core-shell nanoclusters have recently received considerable attention owing to their physical and chemical properties that are strongly dependent on the structure of the core, shell, and interface. The core-shell magnetic nanoclusters are of special interests since the heterogeneous nanostructures offer opportunities for developing devices and cluster-assembled materials with new functions for magnetic recording, bio, and medical applications. In fact, superparamagnetic nanoparticles with suitable biocompatible coatings have important implications in biology, biotechnology, and other biomedical disciplines1.
Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of CoFe2O4/MnFe2O4 coated Au NPs that were prepared by reducing a gold (III) salt in the presence of respective magnetic NPs. Co and Mn NPs were prepared using standard co-precipitation methods, respectively. An Au layer was subsequently added using seed-mediated approach. Such Core-shell nanoclusters were characterized by Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and High Resolution-Transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Line mapping EDS was employed for elemental composition of core and shell. Saturation magnetization of such clusters was also determined to be 78 emu/gm using Vibrating sample magnetometer. Such Au coated magnetic NPs were transferred into aqueous solution and then bio-functionalized with doxorubicin for drug release studies. The presence of Au shell on the magnetic core makes it possible to functionalize the NPs with dox molecules by exploiting Au-N chemistry2. FTIR studies confirm the binding of dox onto the surface of nanoclusters. The biocompatible studies of these nanoclusters were investigated using MTT assay on L6 cell lines. They also exhibit very high T2 relaxivitiy, hence can be evaluated as an efficient contrast agent in MRI. Dox functionalized nanoclusters have proved to be effectively cytotoxic against Hep-2 Larynx carcinoma cell lines leaving normal and healthy cells. This is in good agreement with Wu et al3, who have synthesized highly biocompatible nanoclusters for Cancer Therapeutics.
Sadighian S, Rostamizadeh K, Hosseini-Monfared H, Hamidi M. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2014 Mar 12;117C:406-413.
Sibnath Kayal and Raju Vijayaraghavan Ramanujan, J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10, 1-13, 2010.
Ya-Na Wu, Dong-Hwang Chen, Xian-Yu Shi, Chiao-Ching Lian, Ting-Yu Wang, Chen-Sheng Yeh, Kyle R. Ratinac, Pall Thordarson, Filip Braet, Dar-Bin Shieh, Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine, 7 (2011) 420-427
9:00 AM - C3.21
Direct Green Synthesis of Raspberry-Like Polymer Composite Spheres Coated with Silver Nanoparticles Mediated by Polymer Colloid Support Itself and Their Antibacterial Activity
Guofang Chen 1 Jingran Lu 1 Clarissa Lam 2 Yong Yu 2
1St. John's University Jamaica USA2St. John's University Jamaica USAShow Abstract
A low-cost and direct green synthetic strategy was developed for the preparation of polymer composite spheres composed of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) decorated on the polymer colloids in a raspberry-like fashion. The polymer colloids were employed as both the reductant and the substrate support. The environmentally benign reaction system consists of AgNO3, polymer spheres and ethanol solvent, without any additional reducing agent or stabilizers. The obtained composite spheres are surprisingly stable. The size range of the formed AgNPs is from several to tens of nanometers, dependent on the reaction time, AgNO3 concentration, and the amount of polymer spheres. A four-step mechanism was proposed for the formation of AgNPs-coated polymer spheres emphasizing the role of ethanol to saturate the external surface of the polymer spheres firstly. These composites exhibit an excellent antibacterial activity, dependent on both the concentration of the composite spheres and the size of AgNPs.
C1: Therapeutics I
Monday AM, December 01, 2014
Sheraton, 2nd Floor, Independence East
9:30 AM - *C1.01
Local Plasmonic and Magnetic Heating of the Interiors of Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles for Biomedical Drug Delivery Applications
Jeffrey Zink 1
1University of California Los Angeles Los Angeles USAShow Abstract
The temperature increase inside mesoporous silica nanoparticles that is induced by encapsulated smaller gold nanocrystals when exposed to light and by encapsulated superparamagnetic nanocrystals in an oscillating magnetic field is effective in actuating thermosensitive nanovalves for biomedical drug delivery applications. The release mechanism is caused by local internal heat, and not a bulk temperature increase.
The internal temperature is measured using a crystalline optical nanothermometer. The detection mechanism is based on the temperature-dependent intensity ratio of two luminescence bands in the upconversion emission spectrum of NaYF4:Yb3+, Er3+. A facile stepwise phase transfer method to embed both a nanoheater and a nanothermometer in 100 nm mesoporous silica nanoparticles is developed. The magnetically induced heating inside the dual-core nanoparticles varies with different experimental conditions, including the magnetic field induction power, the exposure time to the magnetic field, and the magnetic nanocrystal size. The temperature increase of the immediate nano environment around the magnetic nanocrystals is monitored continuously during the magnetic oscillating field exposure. The interior of the nanoparticles becomes much hotter than the macroscopic solution and cools to the temperature of the ambient fluid on a time scale of seconds after the magnetic field is turned off.
A thermally sensitive gatekeeper attached to the mesoporous nanoparticle functions as a unique drug delivery system. A mesoporous silica framework surrounding a zinc-doped iron oxide nanocrystal was surface modified with pseudorotaxanes. Upon application of an oscillating field, internal heating causes the molecular machines to disassemble and allows the cargos (drugs) to be released. When breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-435) were treated with doxorubicin-loaded particles and exposed to an oscillating field, cell death was induced.
Light-operated nanovalves that control the pore openings of mesoporous silica nanoparticles containing gold nanoparticles cores were also synthesized. The nanoparticles consist of 20 nm gold cores inside ~150 nm mesoporous silica spherical shells. The nanovalves are comprised of cucurbituril rings encircling stalks that are attached to the ~2 nm pore openings. Plasmonic heating of the gold core raises the local temperature and decreases the ring-stalk binding constant, thereby unblocking the pore and releasing the cargo molecules that were preloaded inside. Bulk heating of the suspended particles to 60 0C is required to release the cargo, but no bulk temperature change was observed in the plasmonic heating release experiment. These light- or magnetically-stimulated, thermally activated mechanized nanoparticles demonstrate new systems with potential utility for non-invasive, externally controlled, on-command drug delivery with cancer-killing properties.
10:00 AM - C1.02
Using Nanorod-Protein Coronas to Switch on and off Blood Clotting
Kimberly Hamad-Schifferli 1 2
1MIT Cambridge USA2MIT Lexington USAShow Abstract
We demonstrate the use of laser-triggered release of DNA from gold nanorods (NRs) to switch on and off blood clotting. The NRs can be excited by laser irradiation at their longitudinal surface plasmon resonance (SPR), which heats the NRs and releases their payloads. Because the SPR can be tuned throughout the NIR with NR size and shape, selective release of multiple species is possible. We utilize this property of NRs to release a DNA aptamer and its complement in a mutually exclusive manner to control the activity of thrombin, the central protein in the blood coagulation cascade. One NR is loaded with the thrombin binding aptamer (TBA), so triggering of its release by one excitation wavelength inhibits thrombin and stops blood clotting. Another NR is loaded with its complement, and triggering its release by excitation at a second wavelength inhibits the TBA and restores blood clotting. In order to obtain high enough DNA loading on the NR that can be used for controlling blood coagulation, we use protein coronas because they can hold large quantities of small molecules and DNA at a capacity higher than what is achievable by covalent attachment strategies. We characterize the loading of the protein corona and its release properties to enable optimization of DNA and drug loading.
10:15 AM - C1.03
Transdermal Protein Delivery Mediated by Photothermal Effect of Gold Nanorods
Hengmin Tang 3 Yasuro Niidome 2 Takeshi Mori 3 Yoshiki Katayama 3 Takuro Niidome 1
1Kumamoto University Kumamoto Japan2Kagoshima University Kagoshima Japan3Kyushu University Fukuoka JapanShow Abstract
Transdermal delivery is an attractive method for drug/protein delivery, even though the stratum corneum is a major barrier of their translocation into the skin. To achieve protein delivery through the stratum corneum, we examined thermal ablation of the stratum corneum by photothermal effect of gold nanorods.
We first casted gold nanorods, acting as a heating device in response to near-infrared light irradiation, onto the skin surface. After applying an aqueous solution of ovalbumin to the skin, the skin was irradiated by near-infrared laser light. Irradiation of the skin with a continuous-wave laser increased the skin temperature and enhanced the permeability of ovalbumin through the stratum corneum. Inflammation cells were also observed to migrate to the heated area of the skin and HSP70 was induced. In contrast, skin irradiation with a pulsed-laser enhanced the permeability of the stratum corneum without causing an increase in skin temperature and inflammation. The pulsed-laser irradiation intensively heats the gold nanorods, but immediately change the rod shape to spherical form, resulting in reduction of the photothermal effects. Such transient photothermal effects in a localized area could enhance the permeability of ovalbumin through the stratum corneum by selectively ablating the stratum corneum.
Thus, the physiological response of skin was dependent on the type of laser light used. It will be an important foundation on which to develop transdermal protein delivery and vaccination combined with external stimuli.
10:30 AM - C1.04
Silver Nanoparticles are Effective for the Treatment and Radiosensitization of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer
Jessica Swanner 1 Ravi Singh 1
1Wake Forest University Health Sciences Winston Salem USAShow Abstract
Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer related deaths in women. The majority of those deaths are due to triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), for which all current targeted therapies are rendered useless. Consequently, we have been exploring the use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) for the treatment of TNBC. AgNPs have shown anti-cancer efficacy in vitro and in vivo against leukemia, glioblastoma, and colon cancer. In addition, AgNPs also possess anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory properties which are currently being exploited in the clinic as wound dressings and as coatings for neurosurgical shunts. We utilized transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and nanoparticle tracking analysis to aid in the characterization of our lyophilized AgNPs stabilized with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as the capping agent. Using this combinatorial analysis, we showed our AgNPs to be approximately 108 nm in size with a zeta potential of -36 mV which confers coloidal stability. To assess the cytotoxic properties of our AgNPs, viability was determined via MTT conversion, and short term proliferation was assessed via BrdU incorporation. Using three TNBC cell lines and three non-tumorigenic cell lines, we have demonstrated a 10 fold decrease in viability for TNBC cells treated with various concentrations of AgNPs (1-100 mu;g/ml) compared to non-tumorigenic breast cells. Significantly decreased short term proliferation was also shown compared to luminal A breast cancer cells and non-tumorigenic breast cells. AgNPs inhibit migration of TNBC cells while the growth of non-tumorigenic breast cells are uninhibited as demonstrated via a scratch assays. This data indicates that AgNPs may be beneficial for preventing local recurrence after breast conserving surgery. Our AgNPs also demonstrated minimal cytotoxicity against cells derived from the liver, kidney, and monocyte lineages. In addition to selective cytotoxicity against TNBC cell lines, synergy between AgNPs and ionizing radiation was observed at low concentrations of AgNPs (1 µg/ml) via clonogenic assays in two different TNBC cell lines. We have demonstrated that AgNPs deplete glutathione, a glutamate-cysteine-glycine tripeptide necessary for mitigating damage induced by cancer drugs, radiation, and toxins. Supplementation with glutathione prior to AgNP exposure significantly decreased the damage induced by AgNPs. However, the depletion of glutathione with buthionine sulfoximine largely increased the cytotoxicity induced by AgNPs. AgNPs also induce DNA double strand breaks which were additively increased when combined with ionizing radiation. An in vivo study showed that AgNPs slow TNBC xenograft growth and enhance radiotherapy. Our current study indicates that AgNPs have significant anti-cancer activity toward TNBC cells in vitro and in vivo, and point to potential vulnerabilities in TNBC cells that could be exploited for the development of new therapeutic agents.
10:45 AM - C1.05
Multifunctional Polymer-Bimetallic Nanoparticles for Cancer Cell Targeting, Imaging and Gene Therapy
Qingwen Guan 1 Min Wang 1
1The University of Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong KongShow Abstract
Gene therapy, which uses exogenous genes to perform therapeutic functions, offers highly promising treatments for cancer. The therapeutic genes can be delivered to replace defective ones which cause diseases or silence the expression of mutated genes. Although viral vectors have been proven efficient and stable delivery vehicles, safety concerns over viral vectors make non-viral vectors preferable delivery vehicles. Nanotechnology now offers unprecedented opportunities to explore potential non-viral vectors. A variety of nanoparticle (NP) -based gene delivery vehicles have emerged, using cationic polymers such as polyethyleneimine and chitosan. Inorganic NPs such as gold NPs and silica NPs have also shown promises for gene delivery due to their good biocompatibility, facile functionalization and capability for targeted delivery and controlled release. Meanwhile, integrating multiple nanocomponents into a single nanostructure can provide both diagnostic and therapeutic functions for cancer. In the present study, we synthesized hybrid NPs with an Au-Ag bimetallic core and a folic acid-chitosan shell (Au-Ag@CS-FA), which not only give targeting and imaging functions but also possess good DNA binding ability. The synthesis of Au-Ag NPs was performed through successive layer-by-layer deposition of Au and Ag precursors with FA-conjugated CS molecules acting as a reductant and also as a structure-directing agent for forming highly branched Au-Ag NPs. Tests showed that sufficient FA molecules were conjugated to Au-Ag NPs, which would provide strong targeting ability for folate receptor overexpressed cancer cells. Highly branched Au-Ag core could provide high surface-enhanced Raman scattering, which would be used for cancer cell sensing and imaging. The cationic polyelectrolyte nature of the CS-FA polymer shell provided strong electrostatic interaction with negatively charged DNA and protected it from nuclease degradation. The plasmid DNA encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein with a CMV promoter (pEGFP) was used as report gene. Nanoparticle/pEGFP complexes with different molar ratios were prepared to investigate the effect of incubation time and pH values on the binding ability of nanoparticles with pEGFP. Results showed Au-Ag@CS-FA NPs were stable and had good biocompatibility and strong DNA binding ability in the acidic environment.
11:30 AM - *C1.06
Spherical Nucleic Gold Conjugates as Intracellular Probes and Gene Regulation Agents
Chad A. Mirkin 1 Pratik Randeria 1
1Northwestern University Evanston USAShow Abstract
The natural defenses of biological systems for exogenous oligonucleotides, such as synthetic antisense DNA and siRNA, present many challenges for the delivery of nucleic acids in an efficient, non-toxic, and non-immunogenic fashion. Indeed, because nucleic acids are negatively charged and prone to enzymatic degradation, researchers have historically relied on transfection agents such as cationic polymers, liposomes, and modified viruses to facilitate cellular entry and protect delivered biomolecules from degradation. However, each of these platforms is subject to several drawbacks, which include toxicity at high concentrations, the requirement of specialty nucleic acids to enhance stability, and severe immunogenicity.
Spherical nucleic acid (SNA) gold nanoparticle conjugates (inorganic nanoparticle cores functionalized with a spherical shell of densely organized, highly oriented nucleic acids) pose one possible solution for circumventing these problems in the context of both antisense and RNAi pathways. Remarkably, these highly negatively charged SNA structures do not require cationic transfection agents or additional particle surface modifications and naturally enter all cell lines tested to date (over 50, including primary cells). Further work has shown the cellular uptake of these particles to be dependent upon DNA surface density: higher densities lead to higher levels of particle uptake. The high-density polyvalent nucleic acid surface layer is believed to recruit scavenger receptors from the cells that facilitate endocytosis. Moreover, the ion cloud associated with the high-density oligonucleotide shell, combined with steric inhibition at the surface of the particles, inhibits enzymatic nucleic acid degradation and activation of the enzymes that trigger the innate immune response of certain cells. In this talk, methods to synthesize such structures and novel applications that take advantage of the interesting properties unique to spherical and other forms of three-dimensional nucleic acids will be described.
12:00 PM - *C1.07
Magnetic Nanoparticles for Cell Imaging and Activations
Jinwoo Cheon 1
1Yonsei University Seoul Korea (the Republic of)Show Abstract
One of the important trends of next-generation nanomedicine is theranostics that is defined by the combination of therapeutics and diagnostics on a single platform. Magnetic nanoparticles are among one of the most essential platforms for targeted imaging, therapy, and simultaneous monitoring of therapeutic efficacy. In this talk, I will discuss magnetic nanoparticles as a core platform material for theranostics and add a variety of functionalities such as drug, targeting moiety, and gene to enhance their performance. Their unique utilization in highly accurate dual-modal MR imaging, therapeutic hyperthermia of cancer cells, controlled drug release, gene delivery, and molecular level cell signaling and cell fate control will be discussed.
12:30 PM - C1.08
Multifunctional Tumor pH-Sensitive Self-Assembled Nanoparticle/Polymer Hybrids for Multimodal Imaging and Treatment of Resistant Heterogeneous Tumors
Daishun Ling 1 2 Taeghwan Hyeon 1 2
1Center for Nanoparticle Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Seoul Korea (the Republic of)2School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seoul National Universityamp;#65292; Seoul Korea (the Republic of)Show Abstract
Nanoparticle-based diagnosis-therapy integrative systems represent an emerging approach to cancer treatment. However, the diagnostic sensitivity, treatment efficacy, and bioavailability of nanoparticles as well as the heterogeneity and drug resistance of tumours pose tremendous challenges for clinical implementation. Herein we report on the fabrication of tumor pH-sensitive nanoparticle/polymer hybrids composed of self-assembled noble metal (such as Pt and Au) or metal oxide nanoparticles and pH-responsive polymeric ligands. These nanohybrids can readily target tumors via surface-charge switching triggered by the acidic tumor microenvironment, and are further disassembled into a highly active state in acidic subcellular compartments that “turn on” their imaging and therapeutic activity. We successfully visualized small tumors implanted in mice via unique pH-responsive imaging, demonstrating early-stage diagnosis of tumors without using any targeting agents. Furthermore tumor pH-triggered disassembly of these nanohybrids enabled pH-dependent cancer therapy. In particular, we demonstrate the superior therapeutic efficacy of these nanohybrids in highly heterogeneous drug-resistant tumors, showing a great potential for clinical applications.
D. Ling et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2014, 136, 5647-5655
D. Ling et al. Nature Materials2014, 13, 122-124
D. Ling et al. Nano Today 2014, in press
12:45 PM - C1.09
Clickable Gold Nanoparticles (AuNP) for Bioconjugation, Imaging and Drug Delivery
Pierangelo Gobbo 1 Mark S. Workentin 1
1University of Western Ontario London CanadaShow Abstract
A family of small (~3nm) water-soluble gold nanoparticles (AuNP) based on triethylene glycol ligands and containing interfacial "clickable" reaction moieties was synthesized. These include AuNPs that incorporate clickable interfacial maleimide, an azide or a strained alkyne, and a substituted triphenylphosphine. The Maleimide-AuNP can undergo an interfacial Michael addition reaction, the azide- or strained alkyne-AuNP can participate in interfacial strain-promoted alkyne-azide cycloaddition (I-SPAAC) reaction with the appropriate reactive partner, whereas the substituted triphenylphosphine-AuNP can undergo a Staudinger ligation. Each of these clickable nanoparticles were completely characterized and the number of interfacial clickable functionalities was estimated with good precision using thermogravimetric analysis, multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The reactivity of the clickable AuNP was then tested and monitored using model molecules. Each approach leads to covalently modified AuNP, with high efficiency and high yields, and thus represents a convenient and desirable way to introduce biomolecules, drugs and contrast agents onto the AuNP surface. The modified-AuNPs created through this technology were finally tested in vivo showing promising results. In this presentation aspects of the synthesis, characterization and reactivity of the clickable-AuNP and results of their use in imaging and bioconjugation will be presented.
Xiaoyuan (Shawn) Chen, National Institutes of Health
Duan Hongwei, Nanyang Technological University
Zhihong Nie, University of Maryland
Hsian-Rong Tseng, University of California, Los Angeles
C5: Bioimaging and Diagnostics II
Dong Woo Lim
Tuesday PM, December 02, 2014
Sheraton, 2nd Floor, Independence East
2:30 AM - *C5.01
Engineering of Polymeric Nanoparticles for Medical Applications
Omid Farokhzad 1
1Harvard University Boston USAShow Abstract
A variety of organic and inorganic materials have been utilized to generate nanoparticles
for drug delivery applications, including polymeric nanoparticles, dendrimers, nanoshells,
liposomes, nucleic acid based nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles, and virus
nanoparticles. Most commonly used systems are polymeric nanoparticles and liposomes.
Controlled release polymer technology impacts every branch of medicine. Polymeric
nanoparticles can deliver drugs in the optimum dosage over time, thus increasing the
efficacy of the drug, maximizing patient compliance and enhancing the ability to use
highly toxic, poorly soluble, or relatively unstable drugs, and can also be used to codeliver
two or more drugs for combination therapy. The surface engineering of these
nanoparticles may yield them “stealth” to prolong their residence in blood and the
functionalization of these particles with targeting ligands can differentially target their
delivery or uptake by a subset of cells, further increasing their specificity and efficacy.
The successful clinical translation of therapeutic nanoparticles requires optimization of
many distinct parameters including: variation in the composition of the carrier system,
drug loading efficiency, surface hydrophilicity, surface charge, particle size, density of
possible ligands for targeting, etc., resulting in potential variables for optimization which
is impractical to achieve using a low throughput approach. Combinatorial approaches
precisely engineer nanoparticles and screen multiple nanoparticle characteristics
simultaneously with the goal of identifying formulations with the desired physical and
biochemical properties for each specific application. This review demonstrates our efforts
in the design and optimization of polymeric nanoparticles for medical applications, which
formed the foundation for the clinical translation of the first-in-human targeted and
controlled-release nanoparticles, BIND-014 and SEL-068.
3:00 AM - *C5.02
Gold Nanoparticles as Contrast Agents in X-Ray Imaging and Computed Tomography
Ryan Keith Roeder 1 2 3 Lisa E. Cole 1 2 3 Ryan D. Ross 1 2 Prakash D. Nallathamby 2 3 Tracy Vargo-Gogola 4 1 3
1University of Notre Dame Notre Dame USA2University of Notre Dame Notre Dame USA3University of Notre Dame Notre Dame USA4Indiana University Medical School - South Bend South Bend USAShow Abstract
Computed tomography (CT) is an important clinical diagnostic imaging modality which enables three-dimensional anatomical imaging at high spatial resolution, but requires the administration of an X-ray contrast agent to distinguish tissues with similar or low X-ray attenuation. Over the last decade, gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) have gained attention as a potential X-ray contrast agent due to exhibiting a high X-ray attenuation, low cytotoxicity, and facile synthesis and surface functionalization enabling colloidal stability and targeted delivery. Potential applications of Au NPs in diagnostic X-ray imaging include blood pool imaging, passive targeting, and active targeting, where actively targeted Au NPs could enable molecular imaging capabilities with CT. The current state of knowledge for Au NP X-ray contrast agents will be reviewed within a paradigm of key structure-property-function relationships in order to provide guidance in the design of Au NP contrast agents. Au NPs must be designed to meet the necessary functional requirements for a contrast agent in a particular clinical or preclinical application. These functional requirements include delivery to the site of interest, non-toxicity during delivery and clearance, targeting or localization at the site of interest (e.g., blood, tumor, microcalcification, etc.), and contrast-enhancement for the site of interest compared to surrounding tissues. Importantly, design is achieved by strategically controlling structural characteristics (e.g., composition, mass concentration, size, shape, and surface functionalization) for optimized properties and functional performance. Examples from the literature will be used to highlight current design tradeoffs that exist between different functional requirements. Novel applications will also be introduced, including targeted labeling of breast microcalcifications for improved sensitivity and specificity during mammographic screening of breast cancer, and spectral (color) CT using multiple contrast agents.
3:30 AM - C5.03
Chelator-Free 64Cu Doped Nanomaterials
Xiaolian Sun 1 Xinglu Huang 1 Jinxia Guo 1 Orit Jacobson 1 Dale Kiesewetter 1 Xiaoyuan Chen 1
1NIH Bethesda USAShow Abstract
Nanomaterials (NMs) have attracted much attention as probes for tumor imaging due to their unique physical properties as well as the ease of surface functionalization. Radionuclide imaging has an important role in cancer diagnosis due to its unique advantages like high sensitivity and the ability to conduct quantitative analysis of the whole-body images. We directly doped 64Cu into quantum dots (QDs) via cation exchange reaction. These self-illuminated 64Cu doped QDs show greatly enhanced Cerenkov resonance energy transfer efficiency and has been successfully applied for in vivo luminescence and PET (positron emission tomography) imaging. We also integrated 64Cu onto polyethylene glycol stablized Au NMs via chemical reduction. Our 64Cu integrated NMs are proved to be radiochemically stable and can provide the accurate distribution of Au NMs via non-invasive PET imaging. Further study on 64Cu integrated arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide modified Au nanorods (NRs) showes these NRs not only have high tumor targeting ability but also could be successfully used for PET image guided photothermal therapy. These intrinsically radioactive NMs are emerging probes for theranostic applications.
3:45 AM - C5.04
Signal-Tunable Surface Enhanced Raman and Fluorescent Gold Nanostar for Trimodal Bioimaging
Sang-Myung Lee 1 Seulbi Lee 1
1Kangwon National University Chuncheon-si Korea (the Republic of)Show Abstract
Single imaging tools (MRI, CT, ultrasound, optical imaging, etc.) have limitations that sensitivity, resolution, tissue penetration, etc.. So, various types of multimodal nanoplatforms have been developed to come over the shortages of single modality. Here, we present that a multimodal imaging nanoprobe emitting radiation, SERS and Fluorescence signal (SERF-AuNSs) simultaneously. We used DTTC NIR dye which simultaneously irradiates fluorescence and SERS signal, and star-shaped gold nanoparticles which have the strong plasmonic extinction in NIR region and rough and sharp morphology called as ‘hot spot&’, which can afford to generate SERS (The enhancement factor is almost 108). AuNSs were synthesized by PVP method efficiently, and the functionalities corresponding to a application were invested to surface and the inside of AuNSs. The shapes and physical properties of nanoparticles at each step were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, TEM, ELS, and their optical properties including SERS and fluorescence were analysed by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and confocal Raman spectroscopy (Figure 1a, 1b and 1c). For the triplmodal imaging, RSF-AuNSs were labelled with 123I radionuclide and they were injected into mice through tail vein. We successfully obtained multimodal images using IVIS for NIR fluorescence imaging and SPECT/CT for radioimaging (Figure 1d and 1e) Furthermore, RSF-AuNSs were applied to the active tumor targeting and multimodal imaging by conjugating cyclic RGD.
4:30 AM - *C5.05
Recent Developments in the Use of Gold Nanostructures for Biomedical Applications
Younan Xia 1
1Georgia Tech Atlanta USAShow Abstract
Gold nanostructures provide a multifucntional platform for an array of applications in biomedicine, including cancer diagnosis and treatment. In this talk, I will discuss some new developments in engineering the properties of gold nanostructures for biomedial applications. Examples include 1) the development of a method for precisely controlling the sizes from 5 to 150 nm for gold nanoparticles with a truly spherical shape; 2) the development of a method for incorporating radioactive Au-198 into the lattice of gold nanostructures for both radioactive and Cerenkov luminescence imaging; and 3) the development of various methods for controlling the shape, structure, and plasmonic properties of gold nanostructures for photoacoustic imaging and photothermal cancer treatment. I will also discuss some future directions and issues in pushing this class of nanomaterials toward clinical applications.
5:00 AM - C5.06
Gold Nanostar-Nanospheres Superstructures as SERS Substrates for Biomedical Applications
A. Swarnapali D. S. Indrasekara 1 Roney Thomas 1 Laura Fabris 1 2
1Rutgers University Piscataway USA2Rutgers University Piscataway USAShow Abstract
Fabrication of nanoparticles to sustain higher electromagnetic field enhancement for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy has become a field of interest mainly in analytical and biomedical-related research areas. SERS relies on the highly localized confinement of the electromagnetic energy within the narrow gap between plasmonic nanoparticles or at the sharp edges or tips of isolated nanoparticles. Based on this fact, many attempts in designing assembled nanostructures for improved SERS properties can be found in the literature.
Herein, we report the development of water-based, physiologically stable, regiospecific core-satellite nano-assemblies as excellent SERS probes. In this system, gold nanostars with multiple sharp tips, which produce SERS enhancement factors equal to 109, were used as the core particle onto which spherical satellite nanoparticles were assembled. The assembled structures are here envisioned to yield a high SERS enhancement per nanoparticle due the possibility of converting each tip into a SERS hot spot. Our assembly scheme involves nanoparticles capped with small, rigid SERS active organic molecules, and a conjugation linker chemistry that creates narrow gaps between the nanoparticles via covalent linking. The assembled nanostructures are capped with polyethylene glycol to provide stability in physiological conditions. Transmission electron micrographs show the core-satellite structures with 1-2 nm interparticle gap with a preferential assembly of the spheres at the tips of the nanostars, which are confirmed by changes in the SERS spectra. Taken together, these results demonstrate a great potential for our core-satellite nanoparticle assembly particularly as substrates in SERS-based bio imaging and bioanalytical applications.
5:15 AM - C5.07
Design and Synthesis of Nanoparticle Contrast Agents for Spectral (color) X-Ray Imaging
Prakash Daniel Nallathamby 1 Tracie L McGinnity 1 3 Lisa E Cole 1 2 3 Tracy Vargo-Gogola 2 4 3 Ryan K Roeder 1 2 3
1University of Notre Dame Mishawaka USA2University of Notre Dame Notre Dame USA3University of Notre Dame Notre Dame USA4Indiana University Medical School South Bend USAShow Abstract
Computed tomography (CT) is an important tool in clinical diagnostic imaging enabling three-dimensional anatomic imaging at high spatial resolution with short scan times. However, X-ray attenuation differences in physiological fluids and soft tissues are relatively small, requiring the use of contrast agents to achieve sufficient imaging contrast. Recent advances in energy-sensitive X-ray detectors have made spectral (color) CT commercially feasible by unmixing the energy-dependent attenuation profile of different materials and will potentially enable molecular imaging in CT. In order to leverage these capabilities for diagnostic imaging, we are developing a spectral library of nanoparticle contrast agents with K-shell absorption edges spaced at least 10 keV apart. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the ability of spectral CT to simultaneously detect up to three different contrast agents and unmix their signals to create color images. Gadolinium oxide (Gd), hafnium oxide (Hf) and gold (Au) were chosen due to exhibiting exhibiting K-edges spaced 10-20 keV apart. Core-shell nanoparticles of each composition were synthesized by various methods to have a core diameter of 15-20 nm and were coated with a silica shell 2-4 nm in thickness to create a common platform for surface functionalization. The contrast agents were imaged in a soft tissue equivalent phantom using both source-side and detector-side methods for spectral CT imaging. The source-side approach utilized monochromatic synchrotron radiation at the Argonne National Laboratory which, while not clinically applicable, served as a gold standard due to providing the highest spectral resolution. The detector-side approach utilized a photon-counting detector in an advanced preclinical system. The nanoparticles designed for this study have broad appplications in biomedical imaging due to their modular assembly, potential for enabling multi-modal detection, and surface functionalization with biomolecules (e.g., antibodies, peptides or enzymes) for active targeting.
C4: Bioimaging and Diagnostics I
Dong Woo Lim
Tuesday AM, December 02, 2014
Sheraton, 2nd Floor, Independence East
9:30 AM - *C4.01
Porphysome Nanotechnology: Explore New Frontiers of Cancer Imaging and Therapy
Gang Zheng 1
1University of Toronto Toronto CanadaShow Abstract
We recently discovered ‘porphysomes&’, the first all-organic nanoparticles with intrinsic multimodal photonic properties. They are self-assembled from porphyrin-lipid building blocks to form liposome-like bilayer vesicle (~100 nm diameter). The very high porphyrin packing density (>80,000 per particle) results in both ‘super&’-absorption and structure-dependent ‘super&’-quenching, which, in turn, converts light energy to heat with extremely high efficiency, giving them ideal photothermal and photoacoustic properties that are unprecedented for organic nanoparticles. Upon porphysome nanostructure dissociation, fluorescence of free porphyrins is restored to enable low background fluorescence imaging. In addition, metal ions (e.g., radioactive copper-64) can be directly incorporated into the porphyrin building blocks of the preformed porphysomes thus unlocking their potential for PET, MRI and radiation therapy. As a result of their organic nature, porphysomes were biodegradable in vivo and induced minimal acute toxicity in mice with high intravenous doses. In a similar manner to liposomes, porphysomes can be easily scaled up via commercial extrusion techniques and the large aqueous core of porphysomes could be passively or actively loaded with drugs, opening up a new avenue for image-guided drug delivery. By changing the way porphyrin-lipid assembles, we developed ultra small high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-like porphyrin nanoparticles (<20nm), trimodal (US/photoacoustic/fluorescence) porphyrin shell microbubbles (~2um), confocal microscopy-controlled porphyrin microreactors (~100um), and hybrid porphyrin-gold nanoparticles, expanding the purview of porphyrin nanophotonics. Compared with classical “all-in-one” nanoparticles containing many functional modules, the simple yet “one-for-all” nature of porphysomes represents a novel approach to the design of multifunctional nanoparticle and confers high potential for clinical translation.
10:00 AM - C4.02
Directional Conjugation of Antibodies to Gold Nanoparticles for Point-of-Care Device Detecting Dengue Virus
Justina Tam 1 2 Chunwan Yen 2 1 Helena de Puig Guixe 2 Hikaru Miyazaki 2 Ann Fiegen 2 Elizabeth Phillips 2 Jose Gomez-Marquez 4 Irene Bosch 2 Patrick Regan 1 Charles Clavet 1 Kimberly Hamad-Schifferli 3 Lee Gehrke 2
1FDA Somerville USA2Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge USA3MIT Lincoln Labs Lexington USA4Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge USAShow Abstract
Rapid diagnostics are needed to detect dangerous human viruses that are either geographically endemic or introduced through potential bioterror attacks. Some human viruses, including dengue fever virus, have multiple serotypes. Infection with one dengue serotype does not confer immunity against the other serotypes, and in fact, secondary infections from different serotypes of dengue are correlated with severe and even fatal symptoms. Current technology in rapid diagnostic devices does not distinguish among viral serotypes, and this gap in technology allows for potentially avoidable epidemics. Thus, the ability to rapidly identify viral serotypes can serve as an early warning to alert public health officials. Dengue is a positive sense RNA flavivirus that is estimated to affect 390 million people each year. Symptoms can range from flu-like symptoms to fatal dengue shock syndrome. To aid in predicting the occurrence of patients with severe dengue symptoms, we have developed a point-of-care (POC) device that can distinguish among different serotypes of dengue. When coupled with a mobile phone reader, the device provides real-time geographic monitoring capabilities. Our POC device applies lateral flow chromatography technology, using anti-dengue NS1 antibodies and gold nanoparticles. To increase sensitivity of the device, we compared three types of surface chemistries to optimize antibody conjugation to the nanoparticle surface: thiol binding, electrostatic, and commercial covalent (proprietary) binding. Conjugation via thiol and electrostatic binding led to higher limits of detection in lateral flow tests than commercial covalent binding, as analyzed by ImageJ software. For thiol conjugation, antibodies were conjugated to gold nanoparticles via heterbifunctional molecule comprised of a dithiol moiety on one end to bind to the gold nanoparticle surface, and a hydrazide on the other end to bind to the Fc region of antibodies. Antibody-conjugated nanoparticles were characterized by UV Vis, DLS, gel electrophoresis, and ultimately, lateral flow tests. Lateral flow tests were validated against samples of a dengue marker, dengue NS1 protein, which is typically circulating in the blood of infected patients in early stages of dengue. Samples of dengue NS1 protein were developed in the supernatants of mammalian Vero cells that were individually infected with dengue serotypes 1-4. This POC device is affordable, and does not require special storage conditions, handling of special reagents, or trained personnel for use in the field.
10:15 AM - C4.03
A Rapid, Multiplexed, Mobile Phone-Enabled Point of Care Diagnostic Device to Detect Infectious Diseases
Chun-Wan Yen 1 2 Helena de Puig Guixe 1 Kimberly Hamad-Schifferli 3 Justina Tam 1 2 Irene Bosch 1 2 Charles Clavet 2 Patrick Regan 2 Lee Gehrke 1
1Massachusettes Instittute of Technology Cambridge USA2Food and Drug Administration Winchester USA3MIT Lincoln Labrotary Lexington USAShow Abstract
Medical countermeasures surveillance and reporting during and after a public health emergency event require sensitive and specific detection/diagnostic methods and devices. We are designing, building, and testing a rapid, multiplexed, mobile phone-enabled diagnostic device to detect dengue virus and Ebola virus, and yellow fever virus. The goal is to deliver a device that will permit screening for multiple pathogen markers without the need for refrigeration, specialized training, specialized equipment or chemicals. Mobile phone technology is used to analyze the lateral flow data, quantify the results, and upload the results for real time epidemiology.
The device is based on lateral flow chromatography, an established technology. Current multiplexing permits assay for up to eight pathogen markers concurrently using one hundred microliters of sample. Monoclonal antibodies have been screened using flow cytometry and lateral flow chromatography to define functional pairs when conjugated to gold nanoparticles and bound to nitrocellulose paper. Nanoparticle surface chemistries are being evaluated to identify low cost approaches to prepare conjugated nanoparticles. A mobile phone app has been coded to record the image of the multiplexed diagnostic, correct the image for user photography errors, quantify the signal intensities, and upload data to a server, with GIS.
A prototype device that detects and distinguishes the four serotypes of dengue virus, dengue IgG/IgM, Ebola glycoprotein, and yellow fever NS1protein has been built and tested. Initial specificity and sensitivity tests using laboratory proteins and human patient serum samples are favorable. A multiplexed rapid lateral flow diagnostic for field use detects Category A pathogens and uploads data for real time epidemiology.
10:30 AM - C4.04
Leukemia Cells Detection Using Au-Nanoparticles/Lectin Conjugates
Valeria Marangoni 1 Juliana Cancino 1 Valtencir Zucolotto 1
1University of Sao Paulo Sao Carlos BrazilShow Abstract
Biomolecule-nanoparticles conjugates is a topic of intense and growing interest for extending the applications of nanomaterials in biomedicine. Despite the recent advances, the biomedical applications of these materials are still limited, among other factors, by the low efficiency of functionalization, low stability and high toxicity. Overcoming these obstacles requires a complete understanding of the interactions between nanomaterials and biomolecules. Here, we present the development of jacalin-conjugated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs/jacalin) for leukemia cells detection via impedimetric measurements. Jacalin is a lectin that may specifically recognize a tumor-associated disaccharide that is overexpressed in most types of human cancers. AuNPs were synthesized in presence of poly(amido amine) generation 4 (PAMAM G4) and conjugated with a jacalin targeted with the fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) Typical AuNPs/Jacalin conjugates are shown in figure 1a. The AuNPs/jacalin formation is driven by an entropic process with good affinity, as revealed by isothermal titration calorimetry and quenching fluorescence measurements. Moreover, in vitro tests revealed that the AuNPs/jacalin-FITC complexes presented higher affinity against K 562 leukemia cells compared to normal ones (figure 1b). The nanoconjugates were successfully immobilized on specific electrodes for impedimetric detection of THP-1 leukemia cells, as shown in figure 2. Our findings are relevant for extending the understanding of the interactions between nanomaterials and biomolecules besides of their applications in biomedicine, especially for cancer cells detection.
10:45 AM - C4.05
Magnetic-Metal Nanoparticles for Capture and Detection of Rare Cancer Cells in Blood
Xiaohua Huang 1
1The University of Memphis Memphis USAShow Abstract
Detection of rare cancer cells in human blood has important implications for detecting metastasis at early stage. However, it is very difficult to capture and detect these cells because of the background blood cells that are billions time higher in concentration than the cancer cells. We report a simple and highly sensitive detection method based on the dual magnetic-optical properties of iron oxide-gold core-shell nanoparticles. Anisotropic iron oxide-gold core-shell nanoparticles were prepared using a seed-mediated growth method. The hybrid nanoparticles were coated with QSY21 Raman reporters and linked with antibodies against epithelial cell adhesion molecules and human epidermal growth factor receptors to form magnetic and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-active nanoprobes targeting breast cancer. Using the dual functional nanoprobes in conjunction with a capillary-based flow system, we demonstrated that breast cancer cells spiked in human whole blood could be captured with high efficiency (about 90%) via magnetic separation, followed by on-line SERS detection with the sensitivity down to 1-2 cells/mL blood. The use of magnetic-metal nanoparticles bridged the gap of current rare cell enrichment and detection methods, making a huge step forward in developing a simple, rapid, quantitative and ultrasensitive technique for the detection of circulating tumor cells in blood of cancer patients.
11:30 AM - *C4.06
Ag2S Quantum Dot: A Bright and Biocompatible Fluorescent Nanoprobe in the Second Near-Infrared Window
Qiangbin Wang 1
1Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences Suzhou ChinaShow Abstract
Fluorescent imaging in the second near-infrared window (NIR-II, 1.0~1.4 mu;m) is appealing due to minimal autofluorescence and negligible tissue scattering in this region, affording maximal penetration depth for deep tissue imaging with high feature fidelity. Simulations and modeling studies suggested that fluorophores with emission in the 1000-1320 nm NIR-II region could significantly improve signal-to-noise ratio compared to those emitting at 650-950 nm (NIR-I). Recent efforts have been devoted to identifying NIR-II emitting agents for in vivo imaging applications. Quantum dots (QDs) such as PbSe, PbS, and CdHgTe with NIR emission have been successfully developed. However, the highly toxic nature of Pb, Cd and Hg is of concern for in vivo applications. Therefore, highly biocompatible NIR-II fluorescent probes that do not contain Cd, Pd or Hg will facilitate biological imaging in this beneficial spectral region. Herein, we first reported a new type of NIR QDs, Ag2S QDs, with emission in the NIR-II region.
1) Highly selective in vitro targeting and imaging of different cell lines were achieved using biocompatible NIR-II Ag2S QDs with different targeting ligand.
2) In vivo imaging of early-stage tumor in mice with Ag2S QDs was also achieved. Video-rate dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging revealed deep inner organs and tumor in mice.
3) In vivo real-time visualization of lymphatic structures, blood flow, and angiogenesis mediated by a subcutaneous xenograft 4T1 mammary tumor utilizing Ag2S QDs.
4) PEGylated-Ag2S QDs are mainly accumulated in the reticuloendothelial system (RES) including liver and spleen after intravenous administration and can be gradually cleared, mostly by fecal excretion, without appreciable toxicity to the treated mice over a period of 2 months as evidenced by blood biochemistry, hematological analysis and histological examinations.
1. Du, Y.; Xu, B.; Fu, T.; Cai, M.; Li, F.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, Q. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2010, 132, 1470-1471.
2. Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Hong, G.; Chen, G.; Li, F.; Dai, H.; Wang, Q. ACS Nano2012, 6, 3695-3702.
3. Hong, G.; Robinson, J. T.; Zhang, Y.; Diao, S.; Antaris, A. L.; Wang, Q.; Dai, H. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2012, 51, 9818-9821.
4. Li, C.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Chen, G.; Li, L.; Wu, D.; Wang, Q. Biomaterials2014, 35, 393-400.
5. Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Hong, G.; He, W.; Zhou, K.; Yang, K.; Li, F.; Chen, G.; Liu, Z.; Dai, H.; Wang, Q. Biomaterials2013, 34, 3639-3646.
6. Chen, G.; Tian, F.; Zhang, Y.; Li, C.; Wang, Q. Adv. Funct. Mater. 2014, 24, 2481-2488.
12:00 PM - C4.07
ldquo;Light-Onrdquo; Sensing of Antioxidants Using Gold Nanoclusters
Niveen Khashab 1
1KAUST Thuwal Saudi ArabiaShow Abstract
Depletion of intracellular antioxidants is linked to major cytotoxic events and cellular disorders such as oxidative stress and multiple sclerosis. In addition to medical diagnosis, determining the concentration of antioxidants in foodstuffs, food preservatives and cosmetics has proved to be very vital. Gold nanoclusters (Au-NCs) have a core size below 2 nm and contain several of metal atoms. They have interesting photophysical properties, are readily functionalized, and are safe to use in various biomedical applications. Herein, a simple and quantitative spectroscopic method based on gold nanoclusters (Au-NCs) is developed to detect and image antioxidants such as ascorbic acid (AA). The sensing mechanism is based on the fact that antioxidants can protect the fluorescence of Au-NCs against quenching by highly reactive oxygen species (hROS). Our method shows great accuracy when employed to detect the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in commercial fruit juice. Moreover, confocal fluorescence microscopy images of HeLa cells show that this approach can be successfully used to image antioxidant levels in living cells. Finally, the potential application of this “light-on” detection method in multiple logic gate fabrication was discussed using the fluorescence intensity of Au-NCs as output.
12:15 PM - C4.08
Multiplexed Plasmon Sensor for Rapid Label-Free Analyte Detection
Christina Lambertz 1 Janak Prasad 1 2 Andreas Neiser 1 Andreas Henkel 1 Jonathan Edgar 1 Carsten Soennichsen 1
1University of Mainz Mainz Germany2Graduate School Materials Science in Mainz Mainz GermanyShow Abstract
Inexpensive sensors verifying quickly the presence of multiple analytes within a small drop would bring drastic improvements for medical diagnosis, e.g. in discriminating SARS from normal flu patients. Common approaches for parallel analyte detection in small liquid samples couple specific receptor molecules to spectrally encoded markers (e.g. SERS barcode, luminex) limiting the number of independent targets in a parallel assay to a few dozen. A (potentially) larger number of targets are possible on micro-spot arrays (e.g. DNA microarrays, multiplexed ELISA) where the type of target is encoded in the position of the corresponding spot. However, current multiplexed detection schemes are too complex, slow and/or expensive for routine use ‘in the field&’. We show a new approach to detect multiple analytes simultaneously in a microfluidic flow cell using randomly deposited gold nanorods. Random deposition allows an inexpensive, simple and high-throughput sensor fabrication. Each nanorod responds with a spectral shift of its plasmon resonance specifically to one target, acting effectively as a ‘nano-SPR&’ device. Using four distinct proteins as targets, we demonstrate the feasibility of the concept, sensitivity down to nanomolar concentrations, the reactivation and reuse of the sensor over several cycles, and estimate the potential for up-scaling the concept to hundreds or thousands of targets. Our technique has the potential to simplify multiplexed detection and reduce the costs of each sensor to negligible dimensions, especially if combined with advanced nanofabrication methods like nano-stamping or optical trapping. Such inexpensive sensor platform could be used, for example, to discriminate influenza subtypes in a doctor&’s office. Even a simplified home version is imaginable provided the readout machine is produced with costs compatible to consumer budgets. Besides medical uses, applications for inexpensive multiplexed sensors are abundant, for example identifying plant diseases, monitoring food composition, quality and safety, screening for explosives, drugs or environmental hazards.
12:30 PM - C4.09
Gold Nanostar Particles for Sensitive Detection of Circulating Protein Markers
Yong Il Park 1 Hyungsoon Im 1 Ralph Weissleder 1 2 Hakho Lee 1
1Massachusetts General Hospital Boston USA2Harvard Medical School Boston USAShow Abstract
Monitoring protein markers in easily accessible bodily fluids (e.g., blood, urine, ascites) is an important diagnostic and prognostic tool. We herein report a rapid and sensitive platform for protein detection, based on star-shaped Au nanoparticles. Noble metallic nanoparticles (e.g., Au, Ag) have been used as a sensing element for localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), as the resonance characteristic changes upon the binding of target molecules. LSPR assays offer 1) high kinetics as the reaction occurs in bulk solution; 2) facile readout from visual color changes using simple instrumentation; and 3) no need for precise temperature control. We reasoned that the LSPR sensitivity could be further enhanced by morphing conventional spherical particles into star-shaped ones; such a structure is expected to generate strongly localized electromagnetic fields (hot spots) for more pronounced spectral changes upon molecular binding. Finite-difference time-domain modeling revealed that Au nanostars have >100-fold larger spectral changes than Au nanospheres. We further validated this prediction by synthesizing 70-nm Au nanostars and applying them to a biotin-avidin model system. As an example of clinical application, we used the Au nanostar platform to detect kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), a novel protein marker for renal proximal tubule injury. We show that Au nanostar-based LSPR allowed for fast (<30 min) and simplified target detection of KIM-1.