John Abelson, University of Illinois-Urbana
Laura Espinal, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Claes-Goran Granqvist, Uppsala University
Enrico Traversa, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology
Symposium Support NISE Network
Sustainable Materials and Technologies
FF3: Sustainability Challenges and Approaches
Monday PM, December 01, 2014
Hynes, Level 2, Room 203
2:30 AM - *FF3.01
A Chemistry Perspective on Materials Sustainability
D. Constable 1
1ACS Green Chemistry Institute Washington USAShow Abstract
Without a doubt, industry has created an amazing variety of molecules and materials that go into the products that are a large part of our modern way of life. For a majority of the chemicals and compounds outside of the pharmaceutical industry, we have a limited amount of information upon which to make reasonable decisions about their toxicity to humans or the environment, their degradability (biological or otherwise), our ability to recycle or reuse them, or their renewability.
Society is heavily dependent on the products of the chemical industry; however, most of us know very little about where the basic building blocks come from, at what social and environmental cost, and if there are any elements facing critical supply constraints. For many elements that are of critical importance, like those used in catalysis, electronics and energy production, we are taking a large amount of mass, concentrating the desired elements and dispersing these same elements into a form that is sometimes difficult to recover and reuse.
This talk will set the context for the problem, discuss several compelling examples where key material life cycles need to be closed, and discuss a way forward.
3:00 AM - FF3.02
Human Health Considerations as an Integral Component of Sustainable Materials Design: Industry Change and New Research Opportunities
Ashley A. White 1
1U.S. Green Building Council San Francisco USAShow Abstract
Energy, water use, and environmental impacts are among the first topics that researchers consider in sustainable materials development. However, minimizing the negative human health impacts of materials and their production processes is just as critical to ensuring the safety of current and future generations.
Spurred by recent industry actions, such as internal retailer policies (e.g. chemical "red lists") and green building rating systems like Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) that are incorporating more stringent requirements around materials impacts, manufacturers are increasingly expected to account for both the environmental and human health aspects of their products. Because of this, they are looking for ways to redesign or reformulate their products to meet the needs of the changing marketplace. In some cases, manufacturers have difficulty finding substitutions for chemical and material ingredients deemed unsuitable due to their negative effects.
This situation presents both new considerations for researchers creating novel materials destined for the marketplace, as well as new opportunities for research into safer material chemistries and processing methods.
This talk will make a case for human health considerations being an integral, yet oft-overlooked, component of sustainable materials development. It will highlight important governmental policies and regulations in this arena, recent industry actions impacting environmental and human health considerations of materials, and present new opportunities for research.
3:15 AM - FF3.03
Tools for Sustainable Development of Impoverished Areas
Jameson Wetmore 1 2
1Arizona State University Tempe USA2Arizona State University Tempe USAShow Abstract
There has been a recent move by scientists and engineers in the United States to tailor some of their work for developing countries and areas. The idea is that engineering can help to meet some of the basic needs of impoverished people, raise their standard of living, and create more sustainable communities. Past projects have included attempts to provide off-the-grid energy, clean water, and wastewater treatment and/or disposal. The interest in this topic can be seen in the variety of efforts to outline engineering strategies for the Millennium Development Goals and the fact that it is increasingly difficult to find a major university that does not have an active Engineers without Borders program.
Unfortunately the history of the modern world&’s attempts to address impoverished areas through technology transfer is riddled with failures. Sometimes the technologies sit unused weeks after they are introduced. Sometimes the technologies disrupt the social fabric of the community. Problems like these arise not because the motives of the engineers were necessarily bad, but because their training is mainly in technical areas and only a small part of the overall problem is technical in nature. There are rare occasions when technologies mesh with the infrastructure, social frameworks, and needs of the community to enable positive lasting change. These successes come only when the designers involved understand the people they are working with. And even then a fair amount of luck is needed.
This presentation will cover the basic lessons developed for a training program designed to help engineers and scientists interested in addressing the problems of t\he developing world. The two day workshop has already been held at Georgia Tech and the University of the Western Cape in South Africa and by the time of the fall MRS meeting it will have been held at Concordia in Montreal as well as Arizona State University. The workshop does not give participants everything they need to know to be able to engage in development work, but helps them to avoid some of the common pitfalls that doom many projects at the earliest stages.
Most significantly the workshop focuses on the importance of working to understand the relationship between technology, people, and the environment and provides tools to begin to learn more about their interactions. It argues that the key to any successful project is successful engagement. Outsiders will never be able to understand the context of the situation well enough to create a successful design. Opening up ways of communicating with the community are crucial even as early as the first step of defining what problem might be useful addressed. The workshop illustrates the dangers of not listening and provides techniques for engineers and scientists to better listen to the people they want to help and observe the environment in which they will work.
3:30 AM - FF3.04
Organic Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes: An Economic, Environmental, and Efficiency Assessment
Catrice M Carter 2 Xiaojun Wang 1 3 Sivarampragadeesh Siva 2 Deirdre O'Carroll 2 3
1Jilin University Nanguan, Changchun, Jilin China2Rutgers University Piscataway USA3Rutgers University Piscataway USAShow Abstract
Proponents for sustainable alternative lighting and display options advocate for organic light-emitting diodes, particularly polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) whose color range extends the entire visible spectrum, because of their potential low-cost fabrication, low operating voltage, and low power consumption. In this work, a materials life-cycle analysis was completed for three alternative device configurations to the conventional bottom-emitting PLED device structure - inverted bottom-emitting, conventional top-emitting and inverted top-emitting - due to their potential to increase device operational lifetime (inverted) and light out-coupling efficiency (top-emitting). The study was completed in terms of the following metrics: materials cost, projected total life cost savings, life-cycle power cost, and operating energy consumption per unit area. We find that glass, indium tin oxide (ITO), and conjugated polymer active-layer materials are the main contributors to materials cost for the conventional bottom-emitting device, accounting for 70 %, 12 %, and 14 % of the materials cost, respectively. This is a result of the large glass layer thickness (greater than1000 µm) compared to other device layers (less than 142 nm) and the high cost to fabricate both ITO and the active-layer materials. Approaches to increase the total life cost savings are: implementation of device designs that utilize thinner glass substrates that can be re-used following a device lift-off process; elimination of indium tin oxide; and increasing device operating lifetime and efficiency. We will show that the conventional bottom-emitting device has the lowest total life cost savings, approximately 3 times that of its top-emitting counterpart, while the inverted top-emitting device has the lowest life-cycle power cost and operating energy consumption per unit area due to its approximately 1.5 times longer operational lifetime and its factor of 2 reduction in power consumption. In addition, electromagnetic simulations of light extraction efficiency and the percentage of light energy trapped or absorbed in each layer of the devices will be presented and considered alongside the other metrics to select the optimal device architecture in terms of efficiency, cost and environmental factors.
Monday PM, December 01, 2014
Hynes, Level 2, Room 203
4:15 AM - *FF4.01
Materials for Membranes and Water Sustainability
Suzana Nunes 1
1KAUST Thuwal Saudi ArabiaShow Abstract
The availability of drinking water and water reuse for agriculture or industrial purposes has been increasingly facilitated by membrane technology. Well-established processes like reverse osmosis dominates the market for water desalination. Other emerging processes are being implemented with the development of membranes with a diverse set of properties. Examples are nanofiltration for partial desalination of seawater for agriculture, forward osmosis for hybrid water reuse systems, microbial fuel cell and pressure-retarded osmosis for water-energy recovery. Our group has been dedicated to the synthesis of new polymers, their functionalization and morphology control aiming at the application to water-based separations. We focus on the development of porous membranes, which depending on hydrophobicity can be applied membrane distillation (MD) and ultrafiltration, as well as support for multilayer nanofiltration or forward osmosis membranes. We have been working for instance with fluorinated polyoxadiazoles and polytriazoles for MD. Analogous polymers with different chemical functionalizations have been used to manufacture solvent resistant membranes (hollow fiber and flat-sheet) for ultrafiltration and as support for forward osmosis. Besides chemical functionality, morphology control is a challenging task. Most of the available membranes have a broad range of pore size distribution. We have been exploring special techniques based on block copolymers to enable the manufacture of membranes with exceptional high and regular porosity. Recent advances and strategies for membrane manufacture for water-based separations will be summarized.
4:45 AM - FF4.02
Novel Hydrophobic Ionic Liquid Based Polymer for Membrane Pervaporative Enrichment of 1,3 Propanediol from Aqueous Solutions
Baishali Kanjilal 1 Iman Noshadi 2 Richard Parnas 1 2
1University of Connecticut Wilimatic USA2University of Connecticut Storrs USAShow Abstract
A paradigm shift towards renewable fuels like biodiesel comes with the adverse aspect of excess raw glycerol byproduct, fermentation of which to 1,3 propanediol provides a sustainable recourse to waste utilization. However, the downstream enrichment of such polar organics, typically produced in dilute mixtures, constitutes a major process efficiency bottleneck. Although membrane separation processes offer cheap and energy efficient alternatives of upgrading the concentration, high water affinity of 1,3 propanediol compounds the difficulty in pervaporative enrichment prompting the need to develop novel materials. The synthesis of a novel hydrophobic imidazolium ionic liquid salt monomer and its polymerization and copolymerization is presented. The monomer chemically anchors a hydrophobic high boiling solvent via a Menshutkin like pathway. The polymers are characterized by spectroscopy, thermal analysis, thin film water contact angle and mass uptake. A plug membrane is fabricated from these polymers and evaluated for batch pervaporation with a separation factor of ~ 100. These values are bettered only by high boiling hydrophobic cyanoborate ionic liquid based supported liquid membranes. Incorporation of a small molar percentage of Divinyl benzene and butyl acrylate causes a reduction in separation performance but is seen to maintain mechanical integrity for a longer period of time, thus allowing for structural membrane engineering and industrial scale up.
5:00 AM - FF4.03
Theoretical Study of Molecule Separation in Nanoporous Materials for Realization Sustainable Future
Rodion Belosludov 1 Yoshiyuki Kawazoe 2 3
1Institute for Materials Research Sendai Japan2New Industry Hatchery Center, Tohoku University Sendai Japan3Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics, SB RAS Novosibirsk Russian FederationShow Abstract
Our rapidly developing modern society challenges to scientific and engineering organizations in that many of the currently used technologies and prospective engineering innovations need to be directed in a more sustainable way. Therefore, materials science and sustainable engineering will continue to have important roles in five key thematic areas such as energy, transportation, housing, materials resources and health . In parallel with the experimental efforts, computer-aided materials design is also an important factor in the fabrication of novel materials, to be applied in driving engineering innovations and urgent technological needs for achieving a sustainable society. The recent advent of metal-organic framework materials (MOFs), as new functional adsorbents has attracted the attention due to scientific interest in the creation of unprecedented regular nano-sized spaces and in the finding of novel phenomena, as well as commercial interest in their application for storage and separation. For MOFs the structural versatility of molecular chemistry has allowed the rational design and assembly of materials having novel topologies and exceptional host-guest properties that are important for urgent sustainable applications. Due to the regularity of MOF structures, in a computer simulation we are easily able to build structural models of MOFs that are very helpful to find new materials with desired characteristics.
The aim of this study is detailed theoretical analysis the adsorption of targeted molecules into selected nanoporous materials in order to accelerate the realization of novel materials, hand-in-hand with experiment. Here, our recent achievements have been reported. The high sorption ability for acetylene on specific MOF material was determined , using both different experimental measurements and first-principles calculations which ascribe to the double hydrogen bond support between the acidic acetylene proton and its acceptor basic site on the channel surface. The absorption of several chiral sulfoxides, which constitute an important class of biologically active compounds and therapeutic drugs, into the homochiral porous coordination polymer has been also investigated . In collaboration with experimentalists the specific nanoporous material that selectively adsorbs CO with adaptable pores has been studied using first-principles calculations. The high selectivity of CO has been achieved from a mixture with nitrogen by both the local interaction between CO and accessible open metal sites and the modification of nanopore size .
 D. Apelian, MRS Bulletin2012, 37, 318.
 R. Matsuda et al. Nature 436 (2005) 238.
 D. N. Dybtsev et al. Chem.-Euro. J. 16 (2010) 10348.
 H. Sato et al. Science 343 (2014) 167.
5:15 AM - FF4.04
Fouling Resistant, High Flux Membranes Using Self-Assembling Zwitterionic Copolymers
Prity Bengani 1 Ayse Asatekin 1
1Tufts University Medford USAShow Abstract
Water scarcity affects one in three people globally. Membranes are a key technology for water sustainability, for example wastewater reclamation and reuse. They also use less energy and no added chemicals, which makes their use more “green” compared to distillation and other separation methods. But current commercial membranes are susceptible to fouling, which manifests as a loss in permeability due to macromolecular adhesion on the membrane surface. Fouling lowers productivity and increases energy consumption and cost. We need membrane materials that offer excellent fouling resistance, along with high flux and selectivity. Here we report a new class of membrane materials using self-assembling zwitterion-containing polymers. Zwitterionic groups strongly resist biomacromolecular fouling due to their high affinity with water, which makes them favorable for membrane applications. Zwitterions are known to self-assemble into channel-type clusters of 0.6-2 nm in size. We have shown that within certain composition ranges, random copolymers of zwitterionic and hydrophobic monomers self-assemble to form bicontinuous networks of nanochannels. We have synthesized such copolymers and formed thin film composite membranes by coating them onto commercial ultrafiltration membrane supports. These membranes exhibit permeabilities as high as 21 L/m2.h.bar, which can be further improved by better membrane manufacturing and processing methods. Based on the rejection of anionic dyes of varying sizes, they show size-based selectivity with a size cut-off around 1 nm. This pore size closely matches the size of the zwitterionic nanochannels, measured to be ~1.1-1.4 nm in diameter by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We have also demonstrated the excellent fouling resistance performance of these membranes in parallel to a commercial membrane of comparable pore size. We expect these membranes to be promising candidates for various membrane and sustainable water applications.
5:30 AM - FF4.05
Investigation of Novel Opuntia Ficus-Indica Mucilage Nanofiber Membrane Filtration for Water Systems
Sylvia W Thomas 1 Norma A. Alcantar 2 Fei Guo 2 Daniela Stebbins 2 Manopriya Devisetty Subramanyam 1 Hrudaychand Katakam 1 Samuel Perez 1 Rasudha Muppaneni 1
1University of South Florida Tampa USA2University Of South Florida Tampa USAShow Abstract
Nanofiltration technology is being investigated as a cost-e#64256;ective and environmentally acceptable mechanism of sustaining industrial and public water systems. Nanofiber membranes are part of the family of filtration devices being used to remove inorganics and organics from water systems. This study investigates the use of the natural material, Opuntia ficus-indica (Ofi) cactus mucilage, as a tool for nanofiber membrane filtration. Mucilage is a natural, non-toxic, bio-compatible, biodegradable, inexpensive and abundant material. Mucilage is a clear colorless substance comprised of proteins, mono-saccharides, and polysaccharides. It also contains organic species which give it the capacity to interact with metals, cations and biological substances promoting flocculation for removing arsenic, bacteria, E. coli, and other particulates from drinking water. This natural material has the potential to be used as a sustainable method for water filtration and contaminant sensing. Therefore, mucilage nanofiber membranes were electrospun with volume ratios of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polystyrene (PS) to mucilage comparing the interaction of non-polar solvents. Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (AFS) from PSAnalytical was used to evaluate electrospun nanofiber membranes made from volume ratios ranging from 30:70 to 70:30 of mucilage: polyvinyl alcohol, mucilage: polystyrene-D-limonene, and mucilage: polystyrene-toluene in different proportions. The mucilage nanofiber membranes were used as filtration devices for 50 ppb arsenic solutions. Arsenic, being a toxic substance, acts as a deadly poison in water systems and has plagued societal preservation for centuries. The total arsenic content in the samples were measured before and after treatment. Comparative tests were also performed using 1) coated and non-coated GVWP 0.22 µm and 0.45 µm filters from Millipore and 2) columnar flow through Pasteur glass pipets filled with 0.5 g of pre-washed sand from Fisher Scientific and 0.01 g of mucilage nanofibers. Results show mucilage: polystyrene nanofiber membrane filters were capable of removing arsenic from test solutions, in terms of the percentage of arsenic removed. These data elucidate that mucilage nanofiber membranes have the potential to serve as the basis for the next generation of economically sustainable filtration devices that make use of a natural non-toxic material for sustainable water systems.
FF1: Focus on Sustainability: The Research / Corporate Nexus
Monday AM, December 01, 2014
Hynes, Level 2, Room 203
9:00 AM - *FF1.01
Materials Science for the Anthropocene
Martin Green 1
1NIST Gaithersburg USAShow Abstract
Civilization on our planet took a sharp turn about 250 years ago, at the beginning of the industrial revolution, and has accelerated on that highway ever since. Arguably, its impact on humankind is equivalent to that of the invention of fire. The enormous consequences of industrial activity, positive and negative, could not have been anticipated then, but the bottom line today is that
per capita global consumption of energy is higher than ever, and demand for materials (relative to the year 1900) has increased by factors of 3 to 6000, depending on the element. Total population as well as those segments of the population doing the consuming, is also increasing. Now we speak (informally, thus far) of the Anthropocene, the first geological epoch in which human activity is deemed to have had an effect on the Earth&’s ecosystem. For how much longer can economic growth and demand for goods be sustained, and can the same human ingenuity that started the industrial revolution mitigate its effects?
In this talk I will address the meaning and definition of sustainable development, and explore the space at its intersection with materials science. Every human endeavor should be informed by sustainable development, because none of our material resources are in#64257;nite and only a few sources of energy are sustainable. The most common definition of sustainable development comes from the 1987 Brundtland report, “Our Common Future”, and states that “Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” However, this is not a scientific definition, and essentially refers to economic development. Further, it requires that we know, or at least accurately estimate, what the needs of future generations will be. The immediate and direct connections between sustainable development and materials science include ef#64257;cient use of materials, materials life cycle assessment, replacement materials, energy-related materials, and water puri#64257;cation. I will highlight what MRS as a scientific society has been doing in the field of sustainable development, and suggest what future materials scientists should know about this field. From MRS&’s activities in sustainable development thus far, we have learned that there is nothing we do as humans to ensure our survival (food, water, materials, shelter, economy, health) that lies outside of its boundaries.
9:30 AM - *FF1.02
Materials Research and Sustainability
Mary Galvin 1
1National Science Foundation Arlington USAShow Abstract
The National Science Foundation has a crosscutting initiative, Science, Engineering and Education for Sustainability, which supports research through a portfolio of programs. One of these programs, Sustainable Chemistry, Engineering and Materials (SusChEM), is particularly relevant to the materials community. This talk will provide an overview of sustainability and its significance to society and materials research. Topics covered in SusChEM and other NSF programs will be described in detail. These include, but are not limited to, utilization of earth-abundant elements; materials for food, water and energy sustainability; and designing products and devices for zero-waste.
10:00 AM - *FF1.03
Engaging the Public in Constructive Conversations about the Future of Technology
Jameson Wetmore 1
1Arizona State University Tempe USAShow Abstract
Public outreach is often framed as a process of developing lesson plans with an aim of convincing the public to believe a series of facts and/or accept a specific viewpoint. These one-way patterns of communication, however, frequently fall short in at least two important ways. First, the public has many sources of information so getting the attention of a number of people is difficult. And second, the organizations that put together such programs are missing a major source of information that could help them to achieve their goals. Over the past several years museum professionals with the Nanoscale Informal Science Education Network (NISE Net) and scholars at Arizona State University&’s Center for Nanotechnology in Society have been developing techniques that go beyond this “linear model.” These techniques enable two way conversations in which members of the public learn about scientific achievements in a specific area and then build their own ideas of what they think a better future would like with them. What we have found is that the visitors to science museums in the United States are not only able to participate in constructive conversations, but that they are hungry for them. This talk will outline some of the lessons learned through this partnership and offer suggestions for how they can be implemented in other spheres.
10:30 AM - *FF1.04
Why be Good? The Role of Stakeholder Relations in Corporate Sustainability Practices
Michael Barnett 1
1Rutgers University Newark USAShow Abstract
Corporations are the greatest threat to the sustainability of our planet, and yet also promise to be the most effective means of resolving sustainability challenges. What shapes whether they do harm or do good? In this presentation, I focus on the role of a firm's stakeholders in influencing the firm's behaviors. In particular, I outline the role of firm-stakeholder relations in the business case for corporate social responsiblity, and I discuss several studies I've conducted that shed light on the limits of the business case for conditioning firms to engage in socially responsiblity practices.
FF2: Corporate Social Responsibility Roundtable
Monday AM, December 01, 2014
Hynes, Level 2, Room 203
11:15 AM - FF2
Corporate Social Responsibility Roundtable Show Abstract
John Abelson, University of Illinois-Urbana
Laura Espinal, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Claes-Goran Granqvist, Uppsala University
Enrico Traversa, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology
Symposium Support NISE Network
Sustainable Materials and Technologies
FF6: Hydrogen, Batteries and Fuel Cells - Part I
Tuesday PM, December 02, 2014
Hynes, Level 2, Room 203
2:30 AM - *FF6.01
Low Temperature Fuel Cell Developments for a Sustainable Hydrogen-Based-Economy
Emiliana Fabbri 1 Annett Rabis 1 Alexandra Patru 1 Tobias Binninger 1 Xi Cheng 1 Rhiyaad Mohamed 2 Pieter Levecque 2 Olaf Conrad 2 Ruediger Koetz 1 Thomas Justus Schmidt 1
1Paul Scherrer Institut Villigen Switzerland2HySA/Catalysis Centre of Competence, University of Cape Town Cape Town South AfricaShow Abstract
In the last decades many efforts have been directed towards the development of efficient energy conversion systems using renewable energy resources. In the scenario, particular for automotive applications, the development of low temperature fuel cells plays a critical role towards the development of a sustainable hydrogen-based-economy. Alkaline fuel cells (AFCs) were the first low temperature fuel cells developed in the 1960s and mainly used for space program applications. Afterwards, mostly due to the electrolyte deterioration when in contact with CO2, the interest in these systems has been shelved for many years. In parallel, the higher efficiencies and the advantage of using a polymer electrolyte membrane have driven the main research efforts towards the development of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). The main performance drops in PEFCs are caused by the cathodic electrode where the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) takes place. For the development of competitive PEFCs the discovery of durable and cost-effective catalysts for the ORR is one of the most urgent requirements. State-of-the-art PEFC cathodes are based on Pt nanoparticles supported on high surface area carbons.1 Despite the relatively good performance as cathode catalyst, Pt-supported on carbon suffers from corrosion stability, particularly due to carbon oxidation. Therefore, a growing interest is raising toward alternative, more stable support materials. In the present contribution alternative oxide-based supports have been investigated2-5 and an insight into Pt/oxide novel catalysts will be presented.
In the last decade the development of alkaline conductive membrane has raised again R&D interest towards AFCs. Compared to PEFCs, AFCs make use of an electrolyte medium which is less corrosive with respect to a wider range of compounds, thus significantly broadening the range of possible stable and inexpensive electrode materials. Due to the above mentioned reasons, a broad range of materials has been investigated in recent years as alternative catalysts to noble metals. Particularly, perovskite oxides have shown the potentials of high electrocatalytic activity towards ORR in alkaline media. In this contribution the performance of different perovskites as ORR catalysts will be presented, unraveling the oxygen reduction mechanism for this novel class of materials.6,7
The authors gratefully acknowledge: Swiss National Science Foundation (Ambizione Program), Swiss Competence Center for Energy Research (SCCER) Heat & Electricity Storage, and Umicore GmbH.
 E. Fabbri et al. ChemCatChem 6 (2014)1410-1418.
 A. Rabis et al. Phys. Chem.C 118 (2014) 11292-11302.
 E. Fabbri et al. Phys.Chem.Chem.Phys. (2014) DOI:10.1039/C4CP00238E.
 E. Fabbri et al. Chimia 68 (2014) 217-220.
 T. Binninger et al. J. Electrochem. Soc. 161 (2014) H121-H128.
 E. Fabbri et al. ChemElectroChem 1 (2014) 338-342.
 E. Fabbri et al. ACS Catalysis 4 (2014) 1061-1070.
3:00 AM - FF6.02
Sustainability Assessment of Energy Storage in Hydrogen Using Regenerative Fuel Cells
Matthew A. Pellow 1 Christopher J.M. Emmott 2 3 Charles J. Barnhart 1 Sally M. Benson 1 4 5
1Stanford University Stanford USA2Imperial College London London United Kingdom3Imperial College London London United Kingdom4Stanford University Stanford USA5Stanford University Stanford USAShow Abstract
Sustainable electricity generation technologies are highly variable, and energy storage has an important role in integrating them into the grid at large scale. Building this energy storage capacity has an energy cost, as with any manufacturing process. However, different energy storage technologies have different energy costs for manufacturing the same kilowatt-hour of storage capacity. Net energy analysis, a type of life cycle analysis, systematically examines the life-cycle energy costs of technologies such as energy storage. In this work, we apply net energy analysis to evaluate a regenerative hydrogen fuel cell (RHFC) as an energy storage system. To compare RHFC's to other storage technologies, we use the energy stored on invested (ESOI) ratio: the ratio of energy stored in the device over its lifetime to the energy required to build and operate the device. A device with a higher ESOI ratio provides the same service while consuming less energy during manufacture and operation, leaving the difference available for other productive uses. We present a model to determine the ESOI ratio of a RHFC system as a function of system properties such as storage capacity and fuel cell efficiency.
The ESOI ratio of our hypothetical RHFC system is similar to that of the best battery technology (Li-ion, ESOI = 10; Energy Env. Sci., 2013, 6, 1083), though still lower than those of pumped hydro (ESOI = 240) and compressed air (ESOI = 210). A sensitivity analysis highlights priorities for catalysis research in order to optimize the system's net energy performance: The most important technology advance for increasing the system's ESOI ratio is increasing the fuel cell lifetime to at least 20,000 h, and the electrolyzer lifetime to at least 50,000 h. In contrast, the ESOI ratio is only modestly sensitive to the efficiency of the electrolyzer and fuel cell, and to the embodied energy requirements for manufacturing these components. The system's energy-to-power ratio is also an important parameter. Although there is substantial uncertainty in the embodied energy values, uncertainty analysis indicates that on a net energy basis, a RHFC system can be competitive with Li-ion batteries even with higher-than-estimated embodied energy values. Finally, we illustrate the opportunities for further technology development to improve the net energy balance of RHFC's. For instance, in an RHFC system with an extended-life fuel cell (50,000 h) and electrolyzer (150,000 h) and an energy-to-power ratio of 10, the ESOI ratio would approach 80, well above that of any battery technology.
3:15 AM - FF6.03
Sol-Gel Synthesis of Monodispersed Core-Shell Ferrite Nanoparticles for H2 Generation from Thermochemical Water-Splitting
Vinod Amar 1 Jan Puszynski 2 Rajesh V Shende 1
1South Dakota School of Mines and Technology Rapid City USA2South Dakota School of Mines and Technology Rapid City USAShow Abstract
Core-shell ferrite materials can be utilized for thermochemical water-splitting process to achieve relatively stable hydrogen volume generation in multiple thermochemical cycles. Sol-gel derived ferrite nanoparticles can be further utilized for the preparation of core-shell nanoparticle morphologies. During sol-gel synthesis of core-shell morphology achieving monodispersion of ferrite nanoparticles pose significant technical challenge. As ferrite nanoparticles are magnetic by nature, while preparing the dispersion their agglomeration is unavoidable. To address this issue, we attempted to prepare monoparticulate dispersion of ferrite (e.g. NiFe2O4) nanoparticles, which were later subjected to in-situ zirconia coating following the sol-gel chemistries. Monoparticulate dispersion of ferrite nanoparticles were investigated in presence of non-ionic and ionic surfactants such as Pluronic P123, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cetyltriammonium bromide (CTAB) whereas the effects of these surfactants on particle morphology were studied during controlled hydrolysis and condensation reactions of zirconium isopropoxide with water. The obtained ferrite/zirconia gels were aged and calcined at 600oC. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed core-shell nanoparticle morphology whereas x-ray diffraction showed desired phase composition. These core-shell nanoparticles were loaded inside Inconel tubular reactor where multiple water-splitting and regeneration steps were performed at 900o-1100oC. These results indicated relatively stable H2 volume generation during 10 consecutive thermochemical cycles. The thickness and porosity of ZrO2 shell was found to depend on the type of surfactant used and optimum concentration of the surfactant and reactants employed. H2 volume generation ability of the monoparticulate core-shell ferrite nanoparticles was further correlated with the thickness and porosity of ZrO2 shell. Specific surface area (SSA) and porosity of core-shell nanoparticles were analyzed by BET surface area analyzer whereas grain growth was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and TEM after thermochemical water-splitting reaction. Characterization of core-shell nanoparticles and the results obtained on H2 volume generation with core-shell ferrite nanoparticles will be presented.
3:30 AM - *FF6.04
Sustainable Hydrogen Production with Disorder-Engineered Oxide Materials
S. Mao 1
1University of California at Berkeley Berkeley USAShow Abstract
This talk will provide an overview of recent progress in the development of sustainable photocatalytic materials for solar-driven production of hydrogen from water. The emphasis will be recent realization of disorder-engineered titanium dioxide, starting with an introduction of the electronic band structure resulted from disorder incorporation. The method of making disorder-engineered titanium dioxide nanocrystals will be presented, followed by measurements of their structural, electronic, and optical properties. Photocatalysis experiments based on solar-driven hydrogen production using disorder-engineered titanium dioxide nanocrystals, that can absorb solar energy in both visible and infrared wavelength regions, will be summarized, followed by an analysis of the fundamental physics underlying increased photocatalytic efficiency of disorder-engineered titanium dioxide nanocrystals.
FF7: Hydrogen, Batteries and Fuel Cells - Part II
Tuesday PM, December 02, 2014
Hynes, Level 2, Room 203
4:30 AM - *FF7.01
New Materials to Accelerate the Commercialization of Redox Flow Batteries
Mike L. Perry 1
1United Technologies Research Center Glastonbury USAShow Abstract
A Redox Flow Battery (RFB) possesses several key advantages that make this technology potentially well suited for large scale energy-storage applications. This is especially true of applications that require high energy-to-power requirements (i.e., multiple-hour discharge times at rated power) since the energy capacity can be increased by simply adding reactant solution without necessarily requiring (or negatively impacting) the power-delivery components. Despite this inherent scaling-factor advantage relative to conventional battery systems, the initial capital cost of flow batteries has been the major barrier to commercialization of RFB technology. Capital-cost targets for grid-scale energy storage are challenging; battery systems for major grid-scale applications must cost less ($/kWh) than those currently used for most portable or transportation applications. One attractive path to cost reduction is the development of RFB cells with substantially higher power densities than conventional RFB cells. United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) has developed and demonstrated high performance flow-battery cell stacks operating in complete Prototype RFB Systems. A summary of these results has been presented previously. Therefore, the focus of this talk will be on new materials that can potentially enable additional RFB-system cost reductions. This includes both advanced cell materials (e.g., electrodes, separators/membranes, bipolar plates) that can further improve the performance RFB cells, as well advanced reactant solutions. Key system-performance indices provide the basis for the formulation of key property requirements for these advanced materials. A brief review of the state-of-the-art of each these major materials will be included, along with their key properties. The major goal of this presentation is to help material developers identify potential opportunities to substantially improve RFB technology.
The author would like to thank his multiple colleagues at UTRC who have been an essential part of UTRC&’s advanced flow-battery team.
5:00 AM - FF7.02
The Reaction Mechanism of Sn2Fe Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries
Zhixin Dong 1 Ruibo Zhang 1 Qi Wang 1 Natasha A. Chernova 1 M. Stanley Whittingham 1
1SUNY at Binghamton Binghamton USAShow Abstract
Sn2Fe has been regarded as a promising candidate to replace presently dominating graphite anodes due to its low cost, environmental benignity and high theoretical capacity (804 mAh/g)1. However, the electrochemical reaction mechanism of Sn2Fe is not fully elucidated yet. It has been widely reported that Li-Sn alloys could be formed during lithiation of Sn2Fe while Fe being extruded, whereas Fe is difficult to be detected2,3. But there is a debate for the delithiation process, during which some researchers claimed that the “liberated” Fe particles would remain inert so that Sn2Fe could not be re-created4, while others argued contrarily that Sn2Fe could be reproduced upon delithiation2. To have a comprehensive understanding of the reaction mechanism of this material, pure Sn2Fe was prepared solvothermally by reducing SnCl2 and FeCl3 with NaBH4; the reaction mechanism during the first two cycles has been thoroughly investigated through a variety of in-situ and ex-situ characterization techniques such as X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), pair-distribution function (PDF) analysis, etc. Our results confirmed that the Li-Sn alloys were formed during the lithiation process, so was the Fe phase; such a reaction is reversible upon delithiation and most of Sn2Fe could be re-formed (but with a small portion of discrete Fe and Li-Sn alloys being inactive). During this reaction, the formation and dissolution of Fe were successfully identified by a combined analysis of synchrotron-based XRD, XAS and PDF techniques. This research is supported by DOE-EERE-BATT, DE-AC02-05CH11231 under Award Number 6807148, and by NYSERDA.
(1) Zhang, R.; Upreti, S.; Stanley Whittingham, M. Journal of The Electrochemical Society2011, 158, A1498.
(2) Yoon, S.; Lee, J.-M.; Kim, H.; Im, D.; Doo, S.-G.; Sohn, H.-J. Electrochimica Acta2009, 54, 2699.
(3) Chamas, M.; Sougrati, M.-T.; Reibel, C.; Lippens, P.-E. Chemistry of Materials2013, 25, 2410.
(4) Nwokeke, U. G.; Alcántara, R.; Tirado, J. L.; Stoyanova, R.; Yoncheva, M.; Zhecheva, E. Chemistry of Materials2010, 22, 2268.
5:15 AM - *FF7.03
Reducing the Pt Content in Fuel-Cell Electrodes: Reactivity and Stability of Pt/Ceo2 Nanomaterials from First-Principles Modelling
Stefano Fabris 1
1National Research Council and SISSA Trieste ItalyShow Abstract
Platinum-group metals supported and dispersed on highly reducible oxide surfaces are active catalysts for several reactions of industrial interest, including water-gas shift, selective CO oxidation, hydrocarbon reforming, low-temperature hydrogen/methanol oxidation, and oxygen reduction. Due to their high cost, there is an ongoing effort for reducing the amount of precious metal without affecting the device efficiency. In the context of polymer-electrolyte-membrane fuel cell electrodes, ultra-low loading Pt-ceria (CeO2) systems are investigated as potential candidates for meeting the new national and international targets .
Density functional theory calculations are used to rationalise the enhanced reactivity displayed by these Pt-ceria systems and to characterise the active sites of new materials that minimise the Pt load by means of solid solutions. In particular, I will first focus on supported sub-nm Pt clusters and establish the role of cluster morphology in the thermodynamics and kinetics of surface processes relevant for reactivity: cluster mobility, charge transfers at the metal-oxide interface, reverse oxygen spillover, and oxygen vacancy formation [2,3]. I will then present a thermodynamics analysis that predicts the stability of specific Pt2+ and Pt4+ species in realistic reaction conditions, emphasising the key role played by O vacancies, surface steps and solid solutions . The results will be discussed in the context of recent STM images and XPS data. The different reactivity of these sites towards hydrogen and methanol oxidation will be established and rationalised in terms of local electronic and morphological properties.
The calculated results allow for rationalising the available experimental data and identify correlations among the mechanism of reaction, thermodynamic efficiency, and local structure of the active sites, thus shedding light on the origins of the reactivity and stability of novel Pt/CeO2 materials for fuel-cell electrodes.
 A. Bruix et al., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., in press.
 P. Ghosh, M. Farnesi Camellone, and S. Fabris, J. Phys. Chem. Letters (2013)
 F. R. Negreiros and S. Fabris, submitted (2014)
 M. Farnesi Camellone, F. R. Negreiros, and S. Fabris, submitted (2014)
5:45 AM - FF7.04
Tungsten Oxide PhotoAnodes Deposited by Pulsed Laser Deposition for Water Splitting Devices
Cristian Fabrega 1 Sebastian Murcia 1 Carles Ros 1 Damian Monllor-Satoca 1 Teresa Andreu 1 Joan Ramon Morante 1 2 Maria Hernandez-Alonso 3 German Penelas Perez 3
1IREC Sant Adriad Spain2UB Barcelona Spain3Ctra de Extremadura Mamp;#243;stoles SpainShow Abstract
Tungsten Oxide is still considered a promising candidate as photoanode for both, water splitting and CO2 reduction. However, photocurrent densities obtained up to now are far away from the theoretical values according to its band gap (2.7 eV). The short diffusion length of the charge carriers limits the thickness of the WO3 films and consequently its light absorbance. In this work, we present high crystal quality WO3 films deposited by Pulse Laser Deposition (PLD) which reduces bulk recombinations through grain boundaries and increase diffusion lengths. Finally, a Al2O3 surface passivation was applied using Atomic Layer Deposition in order to diminish recombination at surface states and also the formation of peroxo-species.
FF8: Poster Session I: Gas Conversion, Storage, Separations
Tuesday PM, December 02, 2014
Hynes, Level 1, Hall B
9:00 AM - FF8.01
Boron Nitride Nanoparticles for Safe and Efficient Hydrogen Storage and Transportation
Samuel A. Escobar Veras 2 1 Laura Lizeth Mendez Santacruz 2 1 Frank Mendoza 2 1 Vladimir Makarov 2 1 Jose E. Nocua 1 Brad Weiner 2 3 Gerardo Morell 2 1
1Universidad de Puerto Rico Rio Piedras Campus San Juan USA2Institute for Functional Nanomaterials San Juan USA3University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus San Juan USAShow Abstract
Boron Nitride (BN) nanoparticles were synthesized employing hot filament chemical vapor deposition technique; using borazine as its gas precursor. These samples have been characterized to reveal their morphology, their chemical components, and their structure; using techniques such as the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) & Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTIR). In previous analysis it has been shown that BN interacts with hydrogen gas, enhancing its electrical resistance. It has been shown that significant amounts of hydrogen gas adsorbed in the BN nanoparticles, making it a suitable material for safe hydrogen storage and transportation applications that can facilitate the utilization of new energy technologies, such as fuel cells. The BN nanoparticles show great cycleability in such the H adsorption-desorption processes without degradation or poisoning.
9:00 AM - FF8.02
Sensing, Capture and Storage of Carbon Dioxide
Chandrani Chatterjee 1 Ayusman Sen 1
1Pennsylvania State University University Park USAShow Abstract
Carbon dioxide emission from anthropogenic sources is a chief source of greenhouse gas in terrestrial atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is the most abundant byproduct of all respiration, fermentation and combustion processes, leading to a steady increase in concentration by 2.07 ppm every year. Thus, the sensing, capture and storage of carbon dioxide has become crucial to control and consequently reduce the emission of carbon dioxide, to curtail environmental pollution.
Classical approaches towards carbon dioxide capture from concentrated sources usually require two mols of primary or secondary amines to capture one mol of carbon dioxide in the form of ammonium carbamate salts. In the current approach a series of solid-supported tertiary amino alcohol adsorbents are developed for more efficient uni-molecular capture of carbon dioxide. The energy efficient pressure-swing carbon dioxide desorption process also makes these materials more advantageous over the classical adsorbents, which entail thermal regeneration. The application of these tertiary amino alcohols is further extended to develop reusable, inexpensive colorimetric sensors for the facile detection of small amounts of gaseous carbon dioxide. The visible detection range is 2-20%, encompassing the concentrations of carbon dioxide in ambient air or flue gas. These materials have potential use in food, beverage, as well as mining and chemical industries.
9:00 AM - FF8.03
Superwetting Nanofibrous Membranes for Effective Oil-Water Separation
Na Wang 1 Aikifa Raza 1 Jianyong Yu 2 Bin Ding 2
1Donghua University Shanghai China2Donghua University Shanghai ChinaShow Abstract
As engineers strive to develop a practical and energy-efficient method with high efficacy to separate oil/water mixtures, especially those stabilized by surfactants has proven to be extremely challenging. Here, we describe a powerful yet economic strategy for the synthesis of superhydrophilic and prewetted oleophobic nanofibrous membranes by the facile combination of in situ cross-linked polyethylene glycol diacrylate nanofibers supported on polyacrylonitrile/polyethylene glycol nanofibrous (x-PEGDA@PG NF) membranes. The as-prepared x-PEGDA@PG NF membranes have shown superhydrophilicity with ultralow time of wetting and promising oleophobicity to achieve effective separation for both immiscible oil/water mixtures and oil-in-water microemulsions solely driven by gravity. These new membranes are endowed with good mechanical strength of 14 MPa and very high flux rate of 10,975 L m-2 h-1 with extremely high separation efficiency (residual oil content in filtrate is 26 ppm). More importantly, the membrane exhibits high separation capacity, which can separate 10 L of an oil/water mixture continuously without a decline in flux and excellent antifouling property for long term use. These suggested that this cost-effective membrane could be used as promising materials for treating wastewater produced in industry and daily life, crude oil, especially for high viscosity oil purification.
9:00 AM - FF8.04
Nanoporous Carbon Membranes for the Purification of Oil-Contaminated Water
Yoshihisa Fujii 1 Sadaki Samitsu 1 Izumi Ichinose 1
1National Institute for Materials Science Tsukuba JapanShow Abstract
It is not easy to solve the ongoing issues of worldwide environmental pollution. In both the chemical and petrochemical industries, the nanofiltration of organic solvents may make a significant contribution to improved energy efficiency in the production process. Polymer-based membranes are widely used for gas separation, filtration, desalination of seawater, wastewater treatment, etc. Chemical, petrochemical, energy and environment-related industries, however, strongly require highly durable membranes applicable under extreme conditions, since the present polymeric membranes gradually or sometimes rapidly deteriorate with time due to undesired swelling, clogging, and chemical reactions. In our poster presentation, new porous diamond-like carbon (DLC) membranes will be discussed. The DLC was first prepared by Aisenberg and Chabot by means of an ion-beam deposition technique . At present, a widely used technique for DLC deposition is plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using organic compounds. In the plasma CVD of organic compounds, a highly cross-linked network of sp3 carbons is obtained under certain conditions, resulting in thin carbon films with mechanical stability comparable to that of diamond. DLC has been seemed to be extremely dense and it is used mainly for gas barrier applications. In contrast, recently, we successfully prepared nanoporous DLC membranes which exhibited extremely high permeability to water and organic solvents while maintaining a considerable degree of mechanical strength [2, 3]. We believe that the nanoporous carbon membranes open the way for the water treatment.
 S. Aisenberg and R. Chabot: J. Appl. Phys., 42, pp. 2953minus;2958 (1971).
 S. Karan, S. Samitsu, X. Peng, K. Kurashima and I. Ichinose: Science, 335, pp. 444minus;447 (2012).
 S. Karan, Q. Wang, S. Samitsu, Y. Fujii and I. Ichinose: J. Membr. Sci., 448, pp. 270minus;291 (2013).
9:00 AM - FF8.05
Synthesis and Characterization of Silica-Cobalt Core-Shell Nanoparticles and Their Catalytic Applications
Yan Zhang 1 Fan Gao 1 Zhiyong Gu 1
1University of Massachusetts Lowell Lowell USAShow Abstract
As one of the most widely studied hybrid nanostructures, core-shell nanoparticles are attracting more and more attention, since properties arising from either core or shell materials can be quite different. Currently, core-shell nanoparticles have been used for many applications, including catalysis, environmental remediation, information storage, biomedical imaging, and energy harvesting. The aim of this work is to synthesize precisely controlled silica-cobalt (SiO2-Co) core-shell nanoparticles for catalytic applications. The core material of SiO2 nanoparticles has been synthesized by the Stöber method. Then, the SiO2 nanoparticles were subjected to surface modification with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane. The Co shell with controlled thickness was formed by a chemical reduction method. The size and morphology of the SiO2-Co core-shell nanoparticles have been characterized by the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The SiO2-Co core-shell nanoparticle has been used as a catalyst to degrade methyl orange, a common azo dye containing azo functional group (-N=N-). The degradation characteristics and kinetics were investigated by measurement of the absorption of the dye solution with a UV/Vis spectrometer. Kinetic studies revealed that both the surface adsorption and degradation contributed to the absorption spectra. Reductive degradation by the SiO2-Co core-shell nanoparticle catalyst is a very promising approach to the remediation of azo dye containing waste water due to the fast degradation rate and high degradation efficiency.
9:00 AM - FF8.06
Cobalt Carbide Catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis: Formation, Activation, and Regeneration
Geunjae Kwak 1 Yun-Jo Lee 1 Ki-Won Jun 1
1Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology (KRICT) Daejeon Korea (the Republic of)Show Abstract
Carbide has been considered as important phase in two commercial Fe and Co catalysts for Fisher-Tropsch synthesis (FTS). Iron carbide has known to be more active in FTS than metal iron and dominant phase rather than metallic Fe under FT reaction condition. On the other hand, the cobalt carbide (Co2C) is not directly involved in FTS. The formation of Co2C occurs easily under low H2/CO ratio (< 1) conditions and has been considered rather as a deactivation route of cobalt-based catalyst during FTS. However, the produced Co2C could be activated to Cohcp phase in slurry phase by H2 bubbling at a relatively low temperature of 220 °C. We experimentally demonstrated that the Cohcp catalyst activated from Co2C showed higher catalytic activities in slurry phase FTS, compared with Cofcc reduced from cobalt oxide. In this study, for high catalytic performances in FTS, we reported an optimum procedure for preparing cobalt carbide depending on the process temperature and pressure, and also demonstrated the simple route for the activation of the cobalt carbide. We could clarify the activated condition of Co2C. Also, we considered the application in regeneration of deactivated cobalt catalyst, using the formation of Co2C and subsequent hydrogenation. It was confirmed that this carburization-hydrogenation treatment could enhance the catalytic activities of the regenerated Cohcp in FTS rather than the initial activities of the cobalt catalyst.
9:00 AM - FF8.07
Control of Osmosis and Desalination Driven by Lower Critical Solution Temperature Phase Transition Materials
Yeongbong Mok 1 Yan Lee 1
1Seoul National University Seoul Korea (the Republic of)Show Abstract
The global water poverty crisis is now becoming a problem of serious concern all over the world. To obtain fresh water from seawater, recently a forward osmosis (FO) process has been developed as an attractive alternative to distillation and reverse osmosis. FO uses a 'draw solution' to osmotically pump water molecules out from feed solutions through a semipermeable membrane. Solutes in this draw solution are separated to produce usable water. However, the FO method for practical desalination remains problematic given its drawing system, low drawing power, energy costs, complicated separation, and difficult recovery of the draw solutes. In this study, we present an innovative method based on draw solutes with lower critical solution temperature (LCST) phase separation from water to induce the abrupt change of effective concentrations and osmotic pressure.
Because temperature-sensitive materials show temperature-driven hydrophilic to hydrophobic transition in aqueous condition, corresponding abrupt changes of effective concentration in the solution containing those materials could induce conversion of osmotic flows. Derived from the structure of LCST polymer, we synthesized N-acylated tris(2-aminoethyl)amine (nBu-TAEA). It has low MW (356g/mol) and shows LCST-type phase separation above ~27 Celsius. nBu-TAEA aqueous solution showed clear conversion of osmotic pressure upon low and high temperature. The nBu-TAEA solution could draw fresh water from a seawater (0.6 M NaCl) at the temperature below the phase separation point, and release the drawn fresh water into low-salt water at higher temperatures. Finally, a new desalination system was produced via circulation of the draw solutions between low and high temperature sets allowing direct seawater-drawing, transfer and release of water, and separation and recovery of draw solutes in a simultaneous and continuous manner with high energy efficiency.
9:00 AM - FF8.08
Theoretical Study of Contact-Mode Triboelectric Nanogenerators as an Effective Power Source
Simiao Niu 1 Sihong Wang 1 Long Lin 1 Ying Liu 1 Yu Sheng Zhou 1 Youfan Hu 1 Zhong Lin Wang 1
1Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta USAShow Abstract
Scavenging mechanical energy from the ambient environment has attracted worldwide attention and is also an important way to realize sustainable development since mechanical energy is a zero-carbon emission, and widely available energy source. Among all of the available technologies of mechanical energy harvesting, contact-electrification enabled nanogenerators, i.e. triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) emerge as a new energy technology with numerous advantages, including large output power, high efficiency, and easy fabrication with low cost. The basic working principle for TENGs is a combination of contact electrification and electrostatic induction. The contact-mode TENG has been demonstrated to have numerous applications both as a power source and as an active sensor. However, there is still a lack of a systematic theoretical model in this field. Experimentally, it is known that the maximum power on a load as provided by the TENG is a result of matching between the TENG and the load. However, a thorough theoretical understanding about how the structural parameters and operation conditions of a TENG affect the match with the load is still missing, which is critical for designing a compatible TENG for a specific application.
In this work, a comprehensive theoretical model is built for the contact-mode TENG. Utilizing the derived equation, the real-time output characteristics of the TENG are mathematically modelled and the equivalent circuit model of TENG was derived. Then based on the calculation results, we clarified the physics behind the three-working-region behavior and the optimum load resistance. The optimum load resistance is formed because of the impedance match of internal TENG capacitance and load resistance. Finally, the quantitative relationship of the optimum resistance with the parameters of TENG is derived to provide guidance for rational design of TENGs for a specific load. This work is the first in-depth interpretation and analysis of the contact-mode TENG&’s working principle, clearly showing its unique operation characteristics, which will be able to serve as important guidance for rational design of the device structure as a power source in specific applications and self-powered systems. 
1. Simiao Niu, Sihong Wang, Long Lin, Ying Liu, Yu Sheng Zhou, Youfan Hu, and Zhong Lin Wang, Energy & Environmental Science 6 (12), 3576 - 3583.
9:00 AM - FF8.09
Effect of Multivalent Inorganics and Various Organics on the Performance of Ion-Exchange Membranes in Reverse Electrodialysis
Jin-Soo Park 1 Dong-Ju Lee 1 Chan-Soo Kim 2 Young-Woo Choi 2
1Sangmyung University Cheonan Korea (the Republic of)2Korea Institute of Energy Research Jeju Korea (the Republic of)Show Abstract
Salinity-gradient energy is a promising sustainable energy source. Among the technologies using the salinity-gradient energy, reverse electrodialysis (RED) is a very efficient process retrieved from the difference in the salt concentration between seawater and river water, often called a concentrated salt solution and a diluted salt solutions, respectively. The alternating arrangement of sea water and river water, cation- and anion-exchange membranes placed between two electrodes is allowed to generate Donnan potential and finally to pass charge to external loads by the passage of ions through the membranes. In fact, seawater has complicated water chemistry by mono- or multi-valent ions and organics which are huge but has charge. In the phenomena of ion transport through the ionic selective membranes, some multivalent cation such as calcium or magnesium cause some hydroxide precipitation on the surface of cation-exchange membranes and some negatively charged organic substances could be attached onto the surface of anion-exchange membranes. It is called fouling. The fouling makes further fouling phenomena accelerate such as enhanced water dissociation to worse the precipitation of multivalent ions by the fouling of anion-exchange membranes by organic substances. Thus the fouling is significantly interconnected. In this study, we investigated influence on the performance of ion-exchange membranes in a RED system due to foulants dissolved in sea and river water and provided the solving or mitigating methods. To study the effect of fouling when both feed waters are similar with natural conditions, the performance has been evaluated for open circuit voltage (OCV), stack resistance and power density.
This research was financially supported by the New and Renewable Energy of Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the Korean government&’s Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (No. 20143030071240).
1. Vermaas, D. A., Kunteng, D., Saakes, M., Nijmeijer, K., WATER RESEARCH, 2013, 45, 1289.
2. Post, J. W., Hamelers, H.V.M., Buisman, C.J.N., J. Membr. Sci., 2009, 330, 65.
9:00 AM - FF8.10
Ultrahigh Surface Area Activated Carbon Derived from Agricultural Waste Streams for Energy Applications
Paul Armstrong 3 Kofi W. Adu 1 2 Zachary Morchesky 4 David Essumang 5 Joseph Tufour 5 Joseph Koranteng-Addo 5 Samuel Mensah 6 7
1The Pennsylvania State University, Altoona College Altoona USA2The Pennsylvania State University University Park USA3The Pennsylvania State University-Altoona College Altoona USA4The Pennsylvania State University University Park USA5University of Cape Coast Cape Coast Ghana6University of Cape Coast Cape Coast Ghana7University of Cape Coast Cape Coast GhanaShow Abstract
The unique structural architecture of carbon-based nanoporous structures such as activated carbon (AC) has made activated carbon one of the most viable materials to address current environmental challenges. The highly developed porosity, large surface area, tunable surface chemistry, and high degree of surface reactivity make AC the most widely used adsorbent for the removal of wide variety of organic and inorganic pollutants dissolved in aqueous media or from gaseous environments, as well as the use as electrodes in energy related applications. Traditional feedstocks for AC production include, primarily, mineral carbons, and lignocellulosics from biomass and wood. However, any cheap material, with a high carbon content and low mineral content, can be used as a precursor for the production of AC. Agricultural wastes are proving to be promising precursors for the production of ACs mainly due to their availability and low cost.
We present preliminary investigation on utilized chemical activation technique to convert agricultural waste (cocoa and coconut husks) into ultra-high surface area activated carbon suitable for myriads of environmental and energy related applications. Our preliminary investigation of KOH activation of coconut husks biochar already indicates extremely high BET surface area ~ 2900 m2/g. The AC shows potential for an electrode application in supercpacitor.
9:00 AM - FF8.11
Design of High-Throughput Superoleophobic Meshes for Continuous Oil-Water Separation
Haoran Liu 1 BoKang Jia 1 Guanqiu Li 1 Sumaya Nooralla 1 TieJun Zhang 1
1Masdar Institute of Science and Technology Abu Dhabi United Arab EmiratesShow Abstract
Oil-water separation is critical for both oil recovery and oil pollution treatment. Conventionally, the oil industry depurates oil and water by centrifuging, which consumes large amounts of energy. A more environment-friendly method is to employ meshes (or membranes) for oil-water separation. Meshes with superhydrophobic surfaces were first introduced. However, since most oils are lighter than water, the separation performance of hydrophobic and oleophilic meshes becomes limited. Recently, underwater superoleophobic meshes were used to achieve low-energy and fast oil-water separation.
Nevertheless, the challenge in scaling up this technology is the fabrication of high flux rate meshes with longer life span and lower cost. The mesh pore size will play an important role on the oil-water separation flux rate. As the superhydrophilic mesh is easily contaminated by the oil which usually has a lower surface tension compared to the water, a proper design for meshes (or membranes) based oil/water system will be needed.
We have successfully fabricated a superhydrophilic nanostructured copper mesh with a contact angle of about 150 degrees through a very simple and rapid chemical etching technique. With this mesh, the underwater superoleophobic behavior has been experimentally observed and oil was separated from water. Theoretical analysis predicts the condition zone for underwater superoleophobic phenomenon, which also agrees with the experiments. Further study is ongoing to investigate how the mesh pore size and roughness affect flux rate, which is critical to improve the mesh performance. A continuous loop will be built and tested under industrial conditions before large-scale application of the proposed meshes. Other practical issues, such as life time, reliability, and cleaning, will be addressed.
9:00 AM - FF8.12
Organic Remediation Using Graphene -Metal Oxides (TiO2, ZnO) Nanocomposite Photocatalyst from Water
Srikanth Gunti 2 Ashok Kumar 2 Manoj K Ram 1
1University of South Florida Tampa USA2University of South Florida Tampa USAShow Abstract
Recently, we have extensively studied the photocatalysts (titanium oxide; TiO2 and zinc oxide; ZnO) nanomaterials (nanoparticles, nanowire etc.) for remediation of organics including oil in water. The photocatalysts are grown using the hydrothermal and sol -gel techniques . It is challenging to control the size and shape and quality of the nanowires, and find effective remediation of organics in the visible light. However, the success of organic remediation by iron and silver doped in ZnO has been shown from our group [2, 3]. We are also growing the graphene doped photocatalyst ZnO nanowires and graphene doped TiO2 nanoparticles for organic remediation in water similar to graphene-silicon oxide nanoparticles . In the present work, G-TiO2, G-ZnO, G-(ZnO+TiO2) nanocomposites were synthesized by using hydrothermal techniques and sol-gel techniques. Each synthesized material was characterized using SEM, FTIR and X-Ray Diffraction, techniques. The graphene doped ZnO nanowires shows the better remediation in visible light than graphene -TiO2 based materials. The comparative remediation properties of organics (methyl orange (MO), toluene, naphthalene etc.) with and without presence of surfactant have been studied under visible light.
1. M Ladanov, P Algarin-Amaris, G Matthews, M Ram, S Thomas, A Kumar, Microfluidic hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanowires over high aspect ratio microstructures, Nanotechnology 24 (37), 375301
2. I Udom, MK Ram, EK Stefanakos, AF Hepp, DY Goswami
One dimensional-ZnO nanostructures: Synthesis, properties and environmental Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing applications, 16 (6), 2070-2083.
3. I Udom, Y Zhang, MK Ram, EK Stefanakos, AF Hepp, R Elzein, R Schlaf ...
A simple photolytic reactor employing Ag-doped ZnO nanowires for water purification, ,Thin Solid Films (in press) 2014
4. TE Alam, MK Ram, M Ladanov, F Alvi, A Mujumdar, A Kumar
Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Graphene Silicon Oxide Nanocomposite Material, MRS Proceedings 1400, mrsf11-1400-s08-07
9:00 AM - FF8.13
Regular Free-Standing b-Oriented MFI Membrane for Xylene Separation
Thanh Huu Nguyen 1 Kyung Won Park 1 Kyung Byung Yoon 1
1Sogang University Seoul Korea (the Republic of)Show Abstract
We have developed the method to fabricate the regular free standing b-oriented MFI membrane with the support of polymer. It shows straight b-oriented membrane, and promising for xylene separation.
9:00 AM - FF8.14
Elimination of Residual Components of Industrial Waste Oils Using Iron(III) Oxide Nanoparticles Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes
Oswaldo S. Arrieta Chavez 1 Edgar G. de Casas Ortiz 1 David Garcia G. 1 Oxana V Kharissova 1
1UANL Monterrey MexicoShow Abstract
This work presents a method of treatment in oils based in a filter of metallic iron oxide(III) nanoparticles (Fe2O3) functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs). These materials have properties allowing their use to dispose compounds of industrial oils (metal-mechanic). The aim of this filtering process is the removal of contaminants from waste oils to avoid damage at environment as ground, flora, fauna and future generations. The characterization of oxide iron nanoparticles functionalized carbon nanotubes was carried out by TEM and Raman spectroscopy, and the results show that there is a covalent functionalization in CNTs. The oils filtered with functionalized CNTs show, in FTIR spectrum, an elimination of different residual compounds that having industrial waste oils.
9:00 AM - FF8.16
Varying the Morphology of Electrospun Fiber Membranes for Membrane Distillation
Fei Guo 1 Gregory Rutledge 1
1Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge USAShow Abstract
Membrane distillation (MD) is a thermal desalination technology that uses membranes to create large interfacial areas for vaporization of water from salt solutions. In the MD application, the membrane hydrophobicity is a critical parameter for reducing the wettability of membranes. Increased hydrophobicity should lead to higher liquid entry pressures (LEP) for pores of a given size, and reduced opportunity for liquid breakthrough that would compromise salt rejection in the MD process. Electrospun fiber membranes are considered good candidates for MD membranes due to their combination of high porosity and small pore size. Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and its copolymers with trifluoroethylene are the most common choices of material for the manufacture of electrospun fiber membranes for membrane distillation, due to their combination of fluorine content and solubility in common solvents. However, PVDF is only sparingly hydrophobic, with an intrinsic contact angle of around 90 degrees. In this work, we fabricate electrospun PVDF fiber membranes with various fiber morphologies, such as beaded fibers, rough fibers, and porous fibers, in order to increase the apparent hydrophobicity of the membranes. The effect of fiber morphology on apparent contact angle, LEP, and MD performance are discussed.
9:00 AM - FF8.17
Combining Galvanic Replacement and Precursor Reduction Reactions to Produce Hollow Ag-Pt Nanodendrites for Catalytic Applications
Thenner Silva Rodriques 1 Anderson Gabriel Marques da Silva 1 Humberto Vieira Fajardo 2 Pedro Henrique Cury Camargo 1
1University of Samp;#227;o Paulo Samp;#227;o Paulo Brazil2Federal University of Ouro Preto Ouro Preto BrazilShow Abstract
Platinum (Pt) based nanomaterials have been extensively employed in catalytic and electrocatalytic applications, showing excellent performances toward a myriad of reactions. As properties in metal nanomaterials are strongly dependent upon shape, size, morphology, and structure (solid versus hollow interiors), the precise control over any or several of these parameters opens up the possibility to tailor and/or optimize properties for a target application. In this work, we were interested in developing Pt nanomaterials possessing hollow interiors as well as dendritic morphologies, as these features may allow for higher surface to volume ratios when compared to their solid and/or rounded counterparts, which is particularly attractive for catalytic applications. We describe herein the synthesis of Ag-Pt hollow nanodendrites displaying controlled and monodisperse sizes and well-defined morphologies by combining galvanic replacement and precursor reduction reactions. We employed Ag nanospheres as seeds/sacrificial templates, PtCl62- as the Pt precursor, hydroquinone as the reducing agent, PVP as the stabilizer, and water as the solvent. The catalytic performances of the obtained Ag-Pt materials were investigated towards two reactions: i) the 4-nitrophenol reduction by NaBH4; and ii) the oxidation of volatile organic compounds (benzene, toluene and xylene) by dioxygen. Here, the hollow Ag-Pt nanodendrites were deposited onto commercial SiO2 through a wet impregnation method, which enabled their uniform dispersion over the support. We believe that the approach described herein can serve as a platform for the synthesis of hollow nanondendrites having a wealth of sizes, compositions, and surface morphologies for applications in catalysis.
9:00 AM - FF8.18
Metal-Organic Framework (MOF) Materials as a Tool to Circumvent the Sustainability Issues of Homogenous Catalysts
Zhehui Li 1 Joe Morabito 1 Lien-Yang (Randy) Chou 1 Chia-Kuang (Frank) Tsung 1 Jeffery A. Byers 1
1Boston College Boston USAShow Abstract
Homogeneous catalysis has a huge impact on human&’s daily life and global environmental system. Several weaknesses shared by homogenous catalysts lead to poor sustainability: (1) they are difficult to be isolated from the reaction pot, giving rise to product purification issues, and (2) the aggregation of active sites during reactions impedes their recyclability. Herein, we use metal-organic framework (MOF) materials as a tool to circumvent the sustainability issues of homogenous catalysts. In our system, the homogenous catalyst (guest) is encapsulated in the cavity of the MOF porous material (host), a 3D infinite coordination polymer. The advantages of using MOFs as hosts lie in the diversity of structures and their tunability through the functionalization of the organic linkers, which allows the engineering of the local environment of the cavity. Different guests, such as catalytically active Rh(I) and Ru(III) organometallic compounds, and host materials, such as ZIF-8 and UiO-66, were investigated in our study.
9:00 AM - FF8.19
Ag-Pd Hollow Nanoflowers Supported on Silica for Catalytic Applications
Anderson Gabriel Marques da Silva 1 Thenner Silva Rodrigues 1 Humberto Vieira Fajardo 2 Pedro Henrique Cury Camargo 1
1Univerisidade de Samp;#227;o Paulo Samp;#227;o Paulo Brazil2Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto Ouro Preto BrazilShow Abstract
Among several classes of metallic nanomaterials, those displaying hollow interiors as well as sharp tips/branches at their surface, such as hollow nanoflowers, are especially attractive. While hollow interiors provide larger surface-to-volume ratios than their solid counterparts, sharp tips/branches at the surface enable improved performances for catalytic and electrochemical applications due to higher surface areas relative to their rounded counterparts. In this work, we describe a facile strategy for the synthesis Ag-Pd hollow nanoflowers supported on silica (AgPd/SiO2) displaying monodisperse and controllable sizes, well-defined morphologies, and uniform dispersion over the support. Our approach was based on seed-mediated growth that combined the galvanic replacement reaction between Ag and PdCl42- and the PdCl42- reduction to Pd in the presence of hydroquinone. Also, polyvinylpirrolidone was employed as a stabilizer and water as the solvent. The AgPd/SiO2 were investigated as catalysts for benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) oxidation, showing good catalytic activities (product conversion: 94% of benzene, 70% of toluene and 50% of xylene) at relatively low temperatures (300oC) using O2 the as oxidant. The results described herein demonstrate the potential of hollow metallic nanomaterials displaying tips/branches at their surface for catalytic applications.
9:00 AM - FF8.20
Facile Preparation and Enhanced Photocatalytic Activities of Semiconductor Nanocomposites with Well-Defined Hetero-Interfaces
Leilei Xu 1 Junyuan Duan 1 Xiaoli Sun 1 Jianguo Guan 1
1Wuhan University of Technology Wuhan ChinaShow Abstract
Hetero-nanostructured (HNS) composite semiconductors show unique charge transport characteristic, and may play an important role in addressing the worldwide energy crisis and environmental pollution problems. Besides the material composition, the interface structure of heterojuntions also has a significant effect on the charge transfer and separation, even light absorption performance. However, most of the heterostrutured composite photocatalysts reported so far were prepared by sol-gel or co-precipitated methods and possessed an uncontrolled interface. Herein, we concentrated on the construction of the heterostructured composite photocatalysts with well-defined interfacial structures, which show less interfacial defects and minimized interfacial resistances. Noticeably, for the materials such as Ta2O5 or TiO2, whose precursors have rapid hydrolysis rates, we have developed a synchronous etching-growth process to deliberately regulate their growth. Using this process, we demonstrate here that the NaTaO3/Ta2O5 photocatalysts with a well-defined heterostructured interfacial structure can be steadily available. At the same time, we have also developed a novel and efficient liquid-phase in-situ epitaxial growth strategy for the ingenious fabrication of hetero-nanostructures of Ag3PO4 quantum dots on hematite nanotubes (q-Ag3PO4@Fe2O3 HNSs) with a well-defined heterojunction. In our protocol, the pre-adsorbed phosphate anions as a hardly dissociative form in the surface of α-Fe2O3 nanotubes (NTs) ensure the heterogeneous nucleation and in-situ epitaxial growth of Ag3PO4 on the external walls of α-Fe2O3 nanotubes. Compared with randomly deposited hetero-nanostructures and separated components, the as-obtained HNS photocatalysts with a well-defined interfacial structure can not only accelerate the separation and transfer of photogenerated charges, but also induce the directly interfacial charge transfer, and thus further extend the light absorption range of the heterostructured composites. As a result, both composites exhibited excellent photocatalytic activities either for hydrogen production or for organic pollutant degradation. The in-situ epitaxial growth methods developed here are promising to fabricate heterostructured composite materials with well-defined interfaces, exhibiting potential applications in photocatalysis, solar cell and so on.
FF9: Poster Session II: Functionalization, Extraction, Nanotechnology
Tuesday PM, December 02, 2014
Hynes, Level 1, Hall B
9:00 AM - FF9.01
Sustainable Flame Retarding Epoxy Based upon Deoxybenzoins
Megan Warner Szyndler 1 Justin C Timmons 1 Zhan H Yang 1 Alan J Lesser 1 Todd Emrick 1
1University of Massachusetts, Amherst Amherst USAShow Abstract
Recent concerns over the potential health and environmental consequences of halogenated flame retarding polymers and additives motivates the discovery of new non-halogenated flame retarding materials. We demonstrate the use of multifunctioanal deoxybenzoin-based molecules as non-halogenated flame retardants integrated into polymers. We describe the synthesis of 2,4,4&’,6-tetrahydroxydeoxybenzoin (THDB) as a multifunctional cross-linker in conjunction with bis-epoxydeoxybenzoin epoxide (BEDB), affording new resins that combine excellent physical and mechanical properties with low flammability. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC) were used to measure the char residue and heat release capacity of the cured materials, respectively. Resins incorporating THDB exhibited low total heat release (13 kJ/g) and high char yields (34%), as well as good mechanical properties, making them suitable candidates for consideration in high performance adhesive applications. The desirable heat release and char forming properties of these resins are realized without the presence of any conventional flame retardant, such as halogenated structures or inorganic fillers that are commonly used in commercial materials.
9:00 AM - FF9.02
Silver Nanowire/PEDOT:PSS Current Collector for a Novel Solid Electrochemical Super-Capacitor
Mohamad Rezaei 1 Jasbir Patel 1 Bozena Kaminska 1
1Simon Fraser University Burnaby CanadaShow Abstract
In this work, we present a flexible solid supercapacitor fabricated with an automated spray coating system using a nano-composite based current collector structure and electrolyte. Supercapacitors are a promising technology for the storage of electrical energy due to their very high power and energy storage capacity . Supercapacitors also offer longer lifetime, short charging and discharging time and higher number of charge-discharge cycles with respect to the conventional battery technology. The supercapacitor electrodes consist of a conductive current collector and an active material with a high specific surface area . Increasing the contact area between them can reduce the resistance of the current collector and the active layer.
In this research, a network of silver (Ag) nanowires (Sigma-Aldrich-778095) with the length and diameter ~50 mu;m and 120-150 nm respectively is used as a current collector . The ink is prepared using activated carbon particles (Sky Spring Nanomaterials-0530HT) with the average size less than 100 nm and deposited on an ionomer membrane by an automated spray coating system (Sono-Tech ExactaCoat). Consequently, a thin coating of Ag nanowires is directly sprayed on the carbon coated electroactive layer. To further improve the adhesion between the carbon and Ag nanowire layer and to provide polymer backbone to the Ag nanowires, a layer of PEDOT:PSS is deposited on top of the Ag nanowires using the same automated spray coating system. The resulting supercapacitor is degassed for 30 mins to evaporate organic solvents.
The PEDOT:PSS and Ag nanowire based current collector structure has high conductivity, excellent adhesion to the active layer and efficient charge transport for the fabricated supercapacitor. The morphology of the electrodes is studied using a scanning electron microscope (FEI-Dualbeam 235). The cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge/discharge are performed by potentiostat (PARASTAT 4000). The proposed current collectors indicate a low resistivity. The electrochemical test shows high capacitance (4.8 mF.cm-2). This fully solid supercapacitor can be used as an energy storage device or a power source for electronic applications.
1. Huang, C., Grant. S, “One-step Spray Processing of High Power All-solid-state Supercapacitors” Scientific Reports 3, Article number 239, 2013
2. H. C Wua, Y. P Lina, E. Leea, W. T. Linb, J. K. Hub, H. C. Chenb, N. L. Wua, “High-performance carbon-based supercapacitors using Al current-collector with conformal carbon coating” , Materials Chemistry and Physics, Volume 117, Issue 1, pp 294-300, 2009.
3. Patel, J., A. Chang, C. Cordoba, B. Kaminska, “Printable Powering Patch for Portable Devices”, IEEE PowerMEMS Conference, Energy Harvesting Devices and Systems, London, UK, 2013.
9:00 AM - FF9.03
Contact Resistance Optimization for Enhanced Performance in Microfabricated Microbial Fuel Cells
Kalthom Kalantan 1 Jhonathan Rojas 1 Muhammad Mustafa Hussain 1 Arwa Kutbee 1
1King Abdullah University of Science and Technology Thuwal Saudi ArabiaShow Abstract
Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a bio-electrochemical system that generates power by using different organics as fuels in presence of bacteria, which typically comes from wastewater as the natural source of these microbes. They can be described as bioreactors that operate under anaerobic conditions with the catalytic activity of microorganisms to convert and transform the energy from the chemical bonds of organic compounds into electrical energy. The active bacteria can work inside microbial fuel cells and decompose fuels to generate bioelectricity by organic waste oxidation and renewable biomass. Additionally, microbial fuel cell is an amazing tool that can help the environment by removing waste from water and converting it into useful energy.
The basic structure of the conventional microbial fuel cell is typically composed of an anode and a cathode, separated by a proton exchange membrane (PEM) in a two chambers configuration. Both electrodes, anode and cathode, must be conductive and the anode must be biocompatible with the bacteria introduced into the system to form a biofilm as the biochemical catalyst that will transform waste into useful energy. The liquid organic fuel is introduced into the system and bacteria start to oxidize it and generate protons and electrons. The protons pass to the cathode through the proton exchange membrane and the electrons transferred from the anode to the cathode through an external circuit driving an external load and reducing the electron acceptor at the cathode.
In our case of study, we use a micro-scale, air-cathode and membrane-less microbial fuel cell for small-scale power production, which can be potentially used as an on-chip power source for lab-on-chip applications. The single fundamental material used in most of the micro- and nano-fabrication systems is silicon. Thus, we have used it as substrate and because of its semiconducting nature, it is important to improve the contact engineering to be able to extract the highest amount of current produced by such microbial fuel cells. For improved contact engineering, it is important to increase the contact area of the anode to increase the number of electrons moving from the anode to the cathode. In addition to the conventional anode material, gold, we also experimented with a low-cost alternative, nickel. After depositing them on silicon using sputtering, we annealed the nickel sample at a certain temperature and time to form nickel silicide (NiSi). This provides a balanced platform to understand the Ohmic versus Schottky contact study. Additionally, we studied the wire bonding of gold and soldering of copper wires to these materials and observed the contact resistance variation and mechanical integrity of such system, comparing the final output power generation of each system. Our study thus provides valuable insight for future study relevant to microbial fuel cell fabricated on silicon platform.
9:00 AM - FF9.04
A Systematic Study of the Chemical Functionalization of Crystalline Cellulose
Chemar J. Huntley 1 Kristy D. Crews 1 Michael L. Curry 2 1
1Tuskegee University Tuskegee USA2Tuskegee University Tuskegee USAShow Abstract
In recent years, interest in the use of cellulose fibers has intensified due to its various industrial applications, its potential use in the fabrication of green plastic composites for applications in technological devices, and low cost. Although cellulose is abundant in nature, it is not a trivial process to obtain cellulose from biomass sources due to the presence of other interfering non-cellulosic materials. Hence, in this study, crystalline cellulose was extracted from agricultural waste biomasses (i.e., wheat straw, peanut shells, and Hibiscus) and chemically functionalized using the Albright-Goldman and Jones Oxidation methodologies to increase its hydrophobicity and thermal stability of the polymer at elevated temperatures. Fourier transform infrared analysis reveals that oxidation of the cellulose polymer occurs without degradation of the polymer structure. In addition, x-ray diffraction analysis revealed that functionalization of the cellulose structure induced a polymorphic change in the crystal structure (CI to CIII). In addition, thermal measurements of the functionalized cellulose showed a dramatic increase in the thermal stability at high temperatures.
Acknowledgements: The authors gratefully acknowledge the National Science Foundation under Grant Nos. NSF EPS-1158862, NSF HRD-1137681, and NSF IGERT on Sustainable Electronics DGE-1144843 for support of this research.
9:00 AM - FF9.05
Heavy Metal Ions Removal from the Water with Verbascum Cheiranthifolium L. Material
Hafize Nagehan Koysuren 1 Sukru Dursun 2
1Ahi Evran University Kirsehir Turkey2Selcuk University Konya TurkeyShow Abstract
In this study, removal of heavy metal ions (Pb(II) and Ni(II)) from aqueous solutions by modified mullein (Verbascum cheiranthifolium BOISS. var. cheiranthifolium) plant material was investigated. Effects of modification method on the adsorption capacity improvement for removal of these heavy metals ions have been investigated. Structures of modified mullein plant materials before and after modifications process were examined by the FTIR and SEM analyses. Modification processes were performed using HCl acid solutions. The investigations of kinetic, isotherm and thermodynamic parameters were also studied for HCl modified mullein plant material. The regeneration processes were studied for the determination of modified mullein plant material&’s reusability after the adsorption processes. Additional costs for applied modification processes were calculated and compared with the other classical methods. The chemical oxygen demand residues in treated water by modified mullein plant material comparing raw materials were decreased from 910-1430 mg/L to 10-90 mg/L with the modification processes. The removal efficiencies changed with heavy metal concentration in water sample and increased about 70% for modified mullein plant material. Heavy metal adsorption capacities were found maximum about 90 mg/g according to type of adsorbent and modification process. As a consequence, it was revealed that adsorption capacities and costs efficiency of adsorbent were compatible with conventional adsorbents.
9:00 AM - FF9.06
Lightweight Carbon-Coated Separators for Dynamically and Statically Stable Lithium-Sulfur Batteries
Sheng-Heng Chung 1 Arumugam Manthiram 1
1The University of Texas at Austin Austin USAShow Abstract
The increasing demand for high-energy density rechargeable batteries for electric vehicles and grid storage has sparked a concerted research effort toward lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. The inexpensive and environmentally benign sulfur cathode offers a high theoretical capacity of 1672 mA h g-1, which is an order of magnitude higher than those of the conventional insertion-compound cathodes. However, the commercialization of Li-S cells is hampered by several technical challenges: (i) the insulating nature of sulfur and its discharge end products (Li2S2/Li2S) and (ii) severe polysulfide diffusion (Li2Sx, 4 < x le; 8) during cell cycling and resting. These cause low electrochemical utilization, fast capacity fading, poor discharge/charge efficiency, and severe self-discharge. To address these scientific issues, current Li-S technology has focused on improving the electrical conductivity of the “composite” cathode and localizing polysulfides within the cathode region of the cell. These promising approaches include sulfur-porous carbon composites, sulfur-conductive polymer composites, binder/electrolyte additives, and cell configuration modifications. These approaches function as various kinds of quick cures and have achieved enhanced active material utilization, suppressed polysulfide diffusion, and improved cyclability. Although these quick cures mostly overcome the original scientific challenges, they impose unfavorable side effects: (i) a low sulfur content/loading in the composite cathode, (ii) increase in cell weight on adding novel but extra cell components, and (iii) complex fabrication processes.
Here, we present a bifunctional separator with a lightweight carbon coating for use with pure sulfur cathodes. The carbon-coated (C-coated) separator integrates two necessary, cost-effective, and commonly used components that are already present inside the cell: the Super P conductive carbon and the Celgard polymeric separator. The architecture of the C-coated separator consists of a layer of conductive carbon coating onto one side of the Celgard separator. The bifunctional carbon coating functions as a conductive upper-current collector and a “containment building” for, respectively, improving the electrochemical utilization and suppressing the “polysulfide leak.” The Celgard separator serves as the electrically insulating membrane while allowing the transport of lithium ions. As a result, the C-coated separator allows pure sulfur cathode to reach a high initial discharge capacity approaching 1400 mA h g-1 and a reversible capacity of 828 mA h g-1 after 200 cycles. The C-coated separator also minimizes the self-discharge rate of pure sulfur cathodes to as low as 0.19 % per day after resting for three months. Moreover, the carbon coating weighs only 0.2 mg cm-2, overcoming the drawbacks of the added weight from the conductive additives in the composite cathodes and the novel interlayer components employed in cell modifications.
9:00 AM - FF9.07
Thermodynamically Neutral Kubas-Type Hydrogen Storage in Chromium(III) and Iron (II) Alkyl Hydride Gels
Leah Morris 1 Daniel Reed 2 Michel L Trudeau 3 David Book 2 David M Antonelli 1
1University of South Wales Pontypridd United Kingdom2Hydro Quebec Varennes Canada3University of Birmingham Edgbaston United KingdomShow Abstract
Hydrogen storage is still one of the key barriers to overcome to make the switch from relying on fossil fuels to hydrogen fuel. Compared to petroleum based fuels, hydrogen has greater energy content by mass and is regarded as a clean energy carrier because its only by-product of combustion is water. Due to their low hydrogen adsorption enthalpy in the range of 4 to 10 kJ mol-1, hydrogen storage materials that use physisorption to store hydrogen work well at 77 K but do not retain their capacity at 298 K. At the other end of the scale metal and complex hydrides tend to have high gravimetric capacities but due to higher hydrogen adsorption enthalpies (50-70 kJ mol-1) have problems with reversibility and recycling of the materials. The Kubas interaction is where dihydrogen forms a non-classical side-on bond with a transition metal. This type of interaction falls into the 20-30 kJ mol-1 hydrogen adsorption enthalpy range which has been predicted to be required for room temperature hydrogen storage1.
Recent findings from the Antonelli research group have demonstrated that a series of first row transition metal hydrides can store hydrogen at ambient temperatures via the Kubas interaction2. A titanium (III) hydride gel demonstrated a reversible hydrogen storage capacity of 3.49 wt% at 140 bar and 298 K without saturation. The Raman spectra of titanium (III) hydride at 100 bar H2 showed a signal at 2903 cm-1 corresponding to Kubas bound H2. This was the first example of a material that uses hydride ligands as a structural feature whilst being able to bind further hydrogen via the Kubas interaction3. We have extended this work and have also prepared an amorphous chromium (II) hydride gel that stores 5.07 wt% hydrogen at 150 bar and 298 K which is close to the US Department of Energy&’s gravimetric capacity target for 2017. The adsorption isotherm is linear and does not saturate at 150 bar indicating that higher performance could be seen at higher pressures. The material stores hydrogen reversibly and did not lose activity over 10 repeated adsorption-desorption cycles. We recently also reported an iron(II) hydride gel whilst not being a good candidate for hydrogen storage could potentially be used in catalysis4. This talk will discuss the synthetic approach for these materials, as well as physical characterization and hydrogen storage properties of these new solid state transition metal hydride gels.
(1) Zhao, Y.; Kim, Y.-H.; Dillon, A. C.; Heben, M. J.; Zhang, S. B. Phys. Rev. Lett.2005, 94.
(2) Antonelli, D. Novel Metal Hydrides and Their Use in Hydrogen Storage Applications. WO2013088170 (A1), June 20, 2013.
(3) Hoang, T. K. A.; Morris, L.; Reed, D.; Book, D.; Trudeau, M. L.; Antonelli, D. M. Chem. Mater.2013.
(4) Morris, L.; Trudeau, M. L.; Lees, M. R.; Hanna, J. V.; Antonelli, D. M. J. Alloys Compd.2014, 590, 199.
9:00 AM - FF9.08
Automatic Quantitative Characterization of Mineral Phases in Red Ceramics with Addition of Iron Ore Processing Tailings
Fabiane Leocadia Silva 2 Fernando Gabriel Araujo 2 3 Rodrigo Claudiano Gomes 4 Jaqueline Santos Soares 1 Fernando Leopoldo Kruger 2 3
1Universidade Federal De Ouro Preto Ouro Preto Brazil2Universidada Federal De Ouro Preto Ouro Preto Brazil3Fundaamp;#231;amp;#227;o Gorceix Ouro Preto Brazil4Faculdade de Santa Rita Conselheiro Lafaiete BrazilShow Abstract
This work studies the mineralogical and chemical characterization of ceramics with addition of iron ore processing tailings. To optimize the procedure of preparing additives from iron ore tailings for the production of new ceramics and to determine their effects on the final properties of the materials produced, they were added in ratios of 0 % to 50 % in substitution to traditional aggregates . Thus, to study the physical, chemical, optical and morphological properties of mineralogical phases present in the ceramics, they were characterized by an Integrated Mineral Analyzer, associated to a field emission SEM. As the built-in mineral analyzer database is composed of a finite set of mineral spectra, based on data collected from samples originated in deposits outside the Brazilian territory, a substantial part of the analysis was performed constructing a new database for the particular materials used in the ceramics. This allowed the establishment of a fully automated method for the mineral characterization of gangue phases for Brazilian iron ores. For the calibration of the results, the data obtained was cross checked with optical microscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray fluorescence and electron microprobe analysis.
Acknowledgments: This work was supported by CNPq, Fapemig, Fundaccedil;atilde;o Gorceix and UFOP.
 SILVA, F. L. et al, Recycling of Concentration Tailings of Iron Ore for the Production of Concrete Block (Pavers), Materials Science Forum - 2014.
9:00 AM - FF9.09
Study of the Recovery and Recycling of Tailings from the Concentration of Iron Ore for the Production of Ceramic
Fabiane Leocadia Silva 1 Fernando Gabriel Araujo 1 Rodrigo Claudiano Gomes 2 Fernando Leopoldo Kruger 1
1Universidade Federal De Ouro Preto Ouro Preto Brazil2Faculdade de Santa Rita Conselheiro Lafaiete BrazilShow Abstract
The ceramic industry is the one that stands out in the use of industrial tailings, replacing pure raw materials by part these materials. Both technologically and economically, this segment is a good option for the recycling of solid waste. This work aims to study the feasibility and sustainability, from the economic and technological points, for the of use iron ore tailings as additives in the ceramic industry. To study the chemical, physical, morphological and optical properties of the tailings and clay, chemical, mineralogical and granulometric analysis were carried out. Specimens were formulated with different ceramic compositions at levels of 0 and 5 % of tailings added in commercial clay and sintered at a temperature of 950°C. The ceramics were characterized for color and mechanical properties. Results indicated that the addition of tailings from concentration of iron ore for the production of red ceramics was highly feasible both technically and environmentally.
9:00 AM - FF9.10
Influence of Anion Type on Ionic Liquid Pretreated Lignocellulosic Biomasses
Yongjun Ahn 1 Hyungsup Kim 2 Jae Woo Chung 3 Seung-Yeop Kwak 1
1Seoul National University Seoul Korea (the Republic of)2Konkuk University Seoul Korea (the Republic of)3Soongsil University Seoul Korea (the Republic of)Show Abstract
The effect of anion type in ionic liquid on transition of crystalline structure was studied using lignocellulosic biomass pretreated with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EmimOAC) or 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (EmimCl). The influence of the pretreatment on the composition and crystalline structure was observed by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), compositional analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). Dependency on lignin content and transformation from cellulose I to II was related with anion type in ionic liquid. Comparing to EmimCl, EmimOAC pretreatment substantially decreased the cellulose as well as the lignin, coinciding with decrease of cellulose molecular weight. The biomass samples recrystallized only in EmimOAC whereas coexistence of cellulose I and cellulose II was observed from samples pretreated with EmimCl.
9:00 AM - FF9.11
Biomining for Rare Earth Elements
Prasanna Bhomkar 1 2 Feng Wang 1 2 Sibel Cetinel 1 3 Carlo Montemagno 1 3
1Ingenuity Lab Edmonton Canada2National Institute for Nanotechnogy Edmonton Canada3University of Alberta Edmonton CanadaShow Abstract
The Rare Earth Elements (REEs) are becoming increasingly important for global economy due to their increasing usage in a variety of applications ranging from permanent magnets, wind turbines to hybrid and electric cars. Some of these REEs are becoming increasingly critical due to a global imbalance between the existing supply and demand chain. While sustainable primary mining from old and new REE deposits is being exploited as the first response to mitigate the REE supply risk, comprehensive efforts are also being made towards recycling of REEs from End-of-Life Material Streams. We aim to complement these recycling efforts by developing processes and technologies to recycle REEs from industrial waste water residues. We intend to exploit the phage display technique to identify peptide sequences that can selectively bind the target REE. The peptide sequences displaying strong binding affinity towards target REEs will be first screened using microscopic and spectroscopic methods and further characterized with SPR (Surface Plasmon Resonance) and QCM (Quartz Crystal Microbalance) to obtain quantitative binding kinetics. Eventually, we hope to convert these peptides into smart and hybrid biomaterials for biomining applications under industrial conditions. Details of the current work and progress focused on three REEs (namely Yttrium oxide, Dysprosium oxide, and Europium oxide) will be discussed.
9:00 AM - FF9.12
Optimal Electrode Material for Use in Electrodynamics Screens Used to Repel Dust from Solar Collectors
Malay Mazumder 1 Calvin Kennell-Heiling 1 Fang Hao 2 Zhongkai Xu 2
1Boston University Jamaica Plain USA2Boston University Boston USAShow Abstract
Dust deposition on the top of solar collectors is a significant source of efficiency loss ranging from 10% to 50% depending upon location. Unfortunately the dry, arid regions that are ideal for solar energy due to their high direct irradiance are also prone to high soiling rates. The prevailing dust mitigation techniques involve water deluge and mechanical scrubbing that are both water intensive and costly. Electrodynamic screens (EDS) can be used as an alternative approach to clean the dust particles without the water and high labor cost. An EDS system consists of parallel electrodes embedded within a transparent dielectric film and deposited on the front of PV modules and solar mirrors. When activated the dust particles on the surface of the film become electrostatically charged and are removed by a three-phase alternating electric field.
In order for the EDS to be a viable cleaning alternative it must be integrated into a solar collector with minimal impact on the device&’s power output. Because the EDS sits above solar collector surface the electrode material used must be highly transparent or, in the case of concentrating mirrors, have a high specular reflectivity. In addition to the optical properties, for effective EDS operation the electrodes need to have a high conductivity and excellent outdoor durability. Furthermore, to make the system cost effective the electrode material should have a relatively low material cost and compatible with a large-scale manufacturing process such as gravure or screen- printing. Several transparent conductive materials have been investigated for this purpose including: PEDOT: PSS, ITO, aluminum doped zinc oxide, and silver nanowire. EDS were constructed from candidate materials and tested for their dust removal efficiency and initial optical transmission. In order to gauge overall effectiveness of these materials in an EDS system a figure of merit was developed. These results are discussed as well as cost and processing considerations for each material.
9:00 AM - FF9.13
Compatibility and Impact Resistance of Biodegradable Polymer Blends Using Clays and Natural Nanotubes
Yichen Guo 1 Kai Yang 1 Shan He 1 Miriam Rafailovich 1
1Stony Brook University Stony Brook USAShow Abstract
High performance biodegradable polymer nanocomposites are able to play very important roles of maintaining energy sustainability and preventing white pollution caused by polymer products overutilized. Montmorillonite clays and Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) were modified by surface adsorption of resorcinol di (phenyl phosphate) (RDP) oligomers. Biodegradable poly (lactic acid) (PLA) and poly (butyleneadipate-co-butyleneterephthalate) (PBAT) polymers were blended together with either, RDP coated montmorilonite clays, RDP coated HNTs, Ditallow functionalized clays (Cloisite 20A), unfunctionalized sodium clays and HNTs. The thermo-mechanical response of the samples were directly compared in order to determine the role of the particle morphology (tube vs sheet) on the materials properties. TEM images of thin sections indicated that even though both clay nanotubes and platelets, regardless of coating, segregated to the interfacial region between the two immiscible polymers, only the platelets, having the larger aspect ratio, were able to reduce the domain sizes. The ability of clay platelets to partially compatibilize the blend was further confirmed by the dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) which showed that the glass transition temperatures of two polymers tend to shift closer. No shift was observed with either coated or uncoated HNTs samples. Izod impact testing demonstrated that the rubbery PBAT phase greatly increased the impact strength of the unfilled blend, but addition of only 5% of clay filler decrease the impact strength by nearly 50% while a small increase was observed with nanotubes at that concentration. The differences in tensile toughness were even more dramatic, where the toughness decreased by nearly 500% with clays, while that for the nanotubes samples was negligible. A simple model is proposed. The clay platelets are observed to cover the interfacial area. Although they are effective at reducing the interfacial tension, they increase the overall brittleness, and facilitate micro-crack initiation and propagation. On the other hand, the HNTs are observed to lie perpendicular to the interface, which makes them less effective in reducing interfacial tension, but far more effective at blocking micro-crack propagation.
9:00 AM - FF9.14
Characterization of Fuel Oils by Terahertz Spectroscopy: An Effective Way to Determine the Octane Ratings and Ethanol Percent
Enis Arik 1 Aylin Elci 1 Hakan Altan 2 Okan Esenturk 1
1METU Ankara Turkey2METU Ankara TurkeyShow Abstract
Investigation of optical properties of fuel oils and its mixtures with ethanol has significant interest among both public and scientific communities. Public community would like to be ensured of purchased product quality, and scientific community would like to have a better understanding of the complex mixtures; especially the role of intermolecular forces on relaxation dynamics of solvent and solute molecules. In this study, the optical properties of fuel oils and their mixture with ethanol have been investigated by Fourier transform and Time-Domain Terahertz (THz) Spectroscopy covering a wide spectral range of 5 cm-1 to 400 cm-1. Frequency dependent absorption coefficients, refractive indices, and dielectric constants were calculated from the measurements of pure fuel oils and their mixtures with ethanol. Ethanol mixtures of gasoline were modeled successfully with a simple model in which the mixture behavior was described with a basic contribution approach of pure liquids. The results suggest that there is no strong interaction between ethanol and molecules in the gasoline. As the mixing ratio changes meaningful shifts are observed in the frequency dependent refractive index and absorption coefficients associated with the dominant component, ethanol. We concluded that this new approach offers a simple and useful method to determine the concentration of ethanol in gasoline with ca. 1 % error (by volume) with respect to the actual ethanol percentage. There are specific bands associated with the certain components of the gasoline by which the fuels can be separated according to their octane ratings. Fuels have also been investigate