Evan Ma, Johns Hopkins University
John Mauro, Corning Inc
Matthieu Micoulaut, Physique Theorique de la matiere Condensee
Yunfeng Shi, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
UU2: Network Glasses
Monday PM, December 01, 2014
Sheraton, 2nd Floor, Republic B
2:30 AM - *UU2.01
Understanding Structure-Property Relations of Compressed Glasses through Relaxation Studies
Morten M. Smedskjaer 1 Mouritz N. Svenson 1 Randall E. Youngman 2 John C. Mauro 2 Sylwester J. Rzoska 3 Yuanzheng Yue 1
1Aalborg University Aalborg Denmark2Corning Inc. Corning USA3Polish Academy of Sciences Warsaw PolandShow Abstract
When a glassy material or its liquid state is subjected to sufficiently high pressure, significant changes can take place in the short- and medium-range structure, vibrational density of states, and physical properties. It is crucial to determine and understand the structure-property relations under high pressure from both scientific and technological perspectives, since the glass structures frozen-in under elevated pressure may give rise to properties unattainable under ambient pressure. However, the structural and topological origins of the pressure-induced changes in macroscopic properties are not yet well understood. Here, we address this problem by subjecting various isostatically compressed glasses to isothermal annealing at ambient pressure and monitor the relaxation of glass structure and properties as a function of time and temperature. For different glass systems, density is found to relax in a stretched exponential manner with an exponent close to the Phillips value of 3/5 for relaxation in three dimensions when both short- and long-range interactions are activated . For a compressed soda lime borate glass, we find that upon annealing at 0.9Tg, the pressure-induced increase in boron coordination remains unchanged, while the pressurized values of macroscopic properties such as density, refractive index, and hardness are relaxing . Hence, the pressure-induced changes in macroscopic properties are not necessarily attributed to changes in the short-range order in the glass, but rather to changes in overall atomic packing density and medium-range structures. Moreover, we show that the relaxation mechanism depends on the annealing temperature and different physical properties (e.g., density and hardness) are found to relax on different timescales.  M. M. Smedskjaer, S. J. Rzoska, M. Bockowski, J. C. Mauro, Journal of Chemical Physics140, 054511 (2014).  M. M. Smedskjaer, R. E. Yougnman, S. Striepe, M. Potuzak, U. Bauer, J. Deubener, H. Behrens, J. C. Mauro, Y. Z. Yue, Scientific Reports4, 3770 (2014).
3:00 AM - *UU2.02
Unsuspected Dynamics in Silicate Glasses: From Adsorption-Induced Deformation to Fast Atomic-Scale Relaxations
Benoit Ruffle 1
1University of Montpellier II Montpellier FranceShow Abstract
This talk reports on two interesting new phenomena recently discovered in glasses.
The first part of the talk will discuss the elastic properties of vitreous silica submitted to high pressures in a diamond anvil cell. We show that the compressibility of a silica sample immersed in helium or neon fluid is much smaller than expected from its elastic properties measured by Brillouin light scattering. It results from gas atom penetration into the interstitial free volume of the glass network. This adsorption-induced expansion can be described by a generalized poromechanical model. The second part of the talk will address the long-standing question of the nature of the glassy state. It is commonly believed that far below the glass transition temperature, dynamics in glasses is frozen, i.e. relaxations occur on time scales too large to be observed. X-rays photon correlation spectroscopy is used to reveal the existence of surprisingly fast atomic rearrangements in a sodium silicate glass, even at room temperature. These results challenge our conception of the glassy state and call for a new microscopic theory.
(1) C. Weigel, A. Polian, M. Kint, B. Rufflé, M. Foret, and R. Vacher, Vitreous Silica Distends in Helium Gas: Acoustic Versus Static Compressibilities, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 245504 (2012).
(2) B. Coasne, C. Weigel, A. Polian, M. Kint, J. Rouquette, J. Haines, M. Foret, R. Vacher, and B. Rufflé, submitted.
(3) B. Ruta, G. Baldi, Y. Chushkin, B. Rufflé, L. Cristofolini, A. Fontana, M. Zanatta, and F. Nazzani, Revealing the fast atomic motion of network glasses, Nat. Commun. 5, 3939 (2014).
3:30 AM - UU2.03
Statistics of Glass Structure and Bonding
John C. Mauro 1
1Corning Incorporated Corning USAShow Abstract
The constituents of any network glass can be broadly classified as either network formers or network modifiers. Network formers, such as SiO2, Al2O3, B2O3, P2O5, etc., provide the backbone of the glass network and are the primary source of its rigid constraints. Network modifiers play a supporting role, such as charge stabilization of the network formers or alteration of the network topology through rupture of bridging bonds and introduction of floppy modes. The specific role of the modifiers depends on which network formers are present in the glass and the relative free energies of modifier interactions with each type of network former site. This variation of free energy with modifier speciation is responsible for the so-called mixed network former effect, i.e., the nonlinear scaling of property values in glasses having fixed modifier concentration but a varying ratio of network formers. In this talk, a general theoretical framework is presented describing the statistical mechanics of modifier speciation in mixed network glasses. The model provides a natural explanation for the mixed network former effect and also accounts for the impact of thermal history and relaxation on glass network topology.
3:45 AM - UU2.04
Electron Correlograph Analysis of Disordered Structures: A Guide through an Accurate Measurement and Reliable Structure Interpretation
Tao Sun 1 Michael M.J. Treacy 2 Nestor J. Zaluzec 3 J. Murray Gibson 4
1Argonne National Laboratory Argonne USA2Arizona State University Tempe USA3Argonne National Laboratory Argonne USA4Northeastern University Boston USAShow Abstract
The development of effective new tools for structural characterization of disordered materials and systems is becoming increasingly important as such tools provide the key to understanding, and ultimately controlling, their properties. The relatively novel technique of correlograph analysis (i.e. the approach calculating angular autocorrelations within diffraction patterns) promises unique advantages for probing the local symmetries of disordered structures. Because correlograph analysis examines a component of the high-order four-body correlation function, it is more sensitive to medium-range orders than conventional diffraction methods. Generally, electron correlograph analysis would be implemented in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) operating in the STEM mode where a nanoscale probe can be controllably created and translated to regions of interest on the specimen. It can be primarily used for characterizing local diffraction symmetry of disordered solid materials, such as amorphous semiconductors, oxides, and metallic glasses. Like fluctuation electron microscopy, electron correlograph analysis is a statistical method, replying on a sufficiently large sampling to distinguish between random and truly persistent structural correlations. The Friedel correlation in the mean electron correlograph unveils the crystallinity of samples with medium-range orders, an important structural parameter that cannot be measured by other techniques. In the presentation, I will describe the practical experimental method and common systematic errors of electron correlograph analysis. First, I will discuss the effects of beamstop, diffraction center locating, and distortions on the electron correlograph analysis. Second, by using both experimental data and numerical simulations, I will elucidate why those seemingly real correlations showing up in one or a few correlographs do not actually reflect the local symmetries of disordered structures, and emphasize that reliable structural information about the sample can only be obtained from the mean correlograph, which is averaged over results from an adequate number of individual diffraction patterns (typically > 50).
4:15 AM - *UU2.05
Understanding the Glass and Liquid Properties from the Underlying Polymorphism in Borates Systems
Guillaume Ferlat 1
1Univ. P. amp; M. Curie Paris FranceShow Abstract
I will review our previous work in B2O3 glass [1,2] as well as its recent extensions in the liquid phase and in other systems. Using ab-initio simulations, we predicted new low-density crystalline polymorphs  which provide a framework to understand the glass properties . Thanks to NMR, the new crystals are shown to be structurally much more similar to the glass than is any of the known polymorphs. Some possible routes to synthetise these crystals will be mentionned. I will also discuss the implications of these findings for the liquid behavior. In particular, the possible existence of a liquid-liquid transition, much similar to that hypothetized in water will be raised.
 G. Ferlat et al., Nature Materials, 11, 925 (2012)
 G. Ferlat et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 101, 065504 (2008)
4:45 AM - UU2.06
Probing Medium-Range Order in Amorphous In-Zn-O Thin Films
Badri Shyam 1 Kevin H Stone 1 Apurva Mehta 1 Philip Parilla 2 John D Perkins 2 Michael F Toney 1
1SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory Menlo Park USA2National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden USAShow Abstract
Amorphous transparent conducting oxides (TCO) are of considerable technological interest due to their unusually high electron mobilities, excellent optical properties, wide thermal stability and ease of processing. Significant progress has been made regarding the synthesis and optimization of these thin films (notably Zn and Sn-doped In2O3) for a wide range of applications. However, the structural changes upon doping as well as the exact role played by the short and intermediate-range order in defining their valuable optical and electronic properties is still lacking. This knowledge is desirable as it can be leveraged to direct research efforts towards other materials more abundant than Indium, or even point towards compounds hitherto unexplored. Short-range order (typically < 5Å) can be obtained through analysis of extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data which yields a partial structure function centered on the absorber atom. A complementary technique yielding structural information on longer length-scales, i.e. medium-range order, is to analyze the complete pair distribution function (PDF) obtained from total X-ray scattering data. Essentially, total scattering data is the properly corrected and normalized elastic scattering i.e. I(Q) vs. Q, where Q is the scattering vector. The PDF is a real-space distribution of atoms obtained through an appropriately weighted Fourier transform of this function. Taken together, EXAFS and PDF data contain important structural information such as bond distances, bond angles, coordination numbers and structural coherence lengths which are otherwise challenging to access in poorly ordered materials. In this study, we analyze EXAFS and grazing-incidence PDF data on amorphous In-Zn-O films with varying In:Zn ratios. Samples of a given composition but possessing significantly different electronic conductivities displayed only subtle changes in both XAS and PDF data. Further, the PDF data show clear ordering up to almost 3 nm indicating that the films are not truly amorphous. These observations have implications for both theoretical and experimental studies and will be discussed along with other structural insights on the In-Zn-O thin films with the broader aim of arriving at a better understanding of the short and medium-range order in amorphous TCO materials.
5:00 AM - UU2.07
Size Effect on the Short Range Order and the Crystallization of Nano-Sized Amorphous Alumina
Leonid Bloch 1 2 Yaron Kauffmann 1 Boaz Pokroy 1 2
1Technion Israel Institute of Technology Haifa Israel2Technion Israel Institute of Technology Haifa IsraelShow Abstract
Drawing inspiration from nature, where some organisms can control the short-range order of amorphous minerals, we successfully manipulated the short-range order of amorphous alumina by surface and size effects. By utilizing the Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) method to grow amorphous nanometrically thin films, combined with state-of-the-art electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), we show experimentally that the short-range order in such films is strongly influenced by size. This phenomenon is equivalent to the well-known size effect on lattice parameters and on the relative stability of different polymorphs in crystalline materials. Additionally, direct measurements of crystallization temperature have shown a dramatic increase in amorphous to crystalline phase transition temperature for thinner amorphous Al2O3 films. Finally, we show that the short-range order changes while still in the amorphous phase, before the amorphous to crystalline transformation takes place.
1 Leonid Bloch, Yaron Kauffmann, and Boaz Pokroy. Crystal Growth & Design. In press 2014.
5:15 AM - *UU2.08
Cooling Rate and Glass Formation Ability: Lessons from an Analytic Solvable Energy Landscape Model
Gerardo Naumis 1
1Instituto de Fisica, UNAM Mexico city MexicoShow Abstract
Originally, rigidity in glasses was formulated by J.C. Phillips in order to understand the relationship between cooling speed, which measures glass formation ability, and chemical composition. Although in the last years much of this picture has been confirmed by many experiments and simulations, still it is not clear how minimal cooling speed depends on the composition. Here a simple model is provided in which two key ingredients are considered in the glass, metastable states and their multiplicity. Metastable states are considered as in two level system models. However, their multiplicity and topology allows a phase transition in the thermodynamic limit, while a transition to the glass is obtained for fast cooling. By solving the corresponding master equation, the minimal speed of cooling required to produce the glass is obtained as a function of the distribution of metastable and stable states. This allows to understand cooling trends due to rigidity considerations in chalcogenide glasses as in metallic glasses doped with group IV impurities, like the Pd-Ni-P-Si compound.
5:45 AM - UU2.09
Strong Structure-Property Relationship in Metallic Glasses
Daisman P. B. Aji 1 Mingwei Chen 1
1Tohoku University Sendai JapanShow Abstract
We report that the properties of metallic glasses can be dramatically tailored by slow deposition at high temperatures without altering chemical composition. The glass transition and crystallization temperatures of the metallic glass can be increased as high as 83 K and 269 K, respectively, compared to the room-temperature deposited one and melt-spun ribbons. The high-temperature deposited glass also shows ultrahigh hardness, over 60 % higher than room-temperature deposited glass. Atomic structure characterization reveals that the exceptional properties of the high-temperature glasses are associated with abundance of medium range order contains mainly distorted icosahedral order with partially cubic symmetry. The finding of the high-temperature deposited glass gives insight on atomic mechanisms of metallic glass formation and has important impact on the technological applications of metallic glasses.
UU1: Metallic Glasses
Monday AM, December 01, 2014
Sheraton, 2nd Floor, Republic B
9:00 AM - *UU1.01
The Relation between Shear and Dilatation in Hard-Sphere Glasses
Frans Spaepen 1
1Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences Cambridge USAShow Abstract
That shear causes dilatation in densely packed granular systems has been known and studied since the days of Osborne Reynolds (1885). A similar effect occurs in dense packings of hard spheres, which are a useful analogues of metallic glasses. It is now possible to follow this process directly in colloidal hard-sphere glasses, by tracking the invidual particles by confocal microscopy. In dense hard-sphere systems, the moduli are strong functions of the density (they diverge at close packing). These moduli can be measured from the thermal distribution of the local strain energy densities. These measurements show a decrease in the shear modulus (and hence density) upon plastic shear deformation, and a relaxation back to the initial state after the deformation stops. Microscopic mechanisms for these density changes as well as their implications for strain softening and shear instabilities in metallic glasses will be discussed.
UU3: Poster Session I: Structure-Property Correlations in Metallic Glasses
Monday PM, December 01, 2014
Hynes, Level 1, Hall B
9:00 AM - UU3.01
Developing Processing Maps for Thermoplastic Forming in the Supercooled Liquid Region of Ce-Based BMG Alloys
Philip Meagher 1 David J. Jarvis 2 David J. Browne 1
1University College Dublin Dublin Ireland2European Space Agency - ESTEC Noordwijk NetherlandsShow Abstract
Owing to the high cooling rates necessary for glass formation in metallic glasses, parts with a complex geometry have been difficult to cast directly. The metallic glasses' remarkable softening behaviour above the glass transition temperature Tg has led many to suggest, then develop, thermoplastic forming as an alternative manufacturing method for complex parts. Cerium-based BMGs, exhibiting very low Tg as well as a large supercooled liquid region (SCLR), provide an excellent platform on which to study such thermoplastic forming. In order to investigate and develop new thermoplastic forming processes, the SCLR of these alloys must first be appropriately characterised. Heating rate, processing temperature, and strain rate have been examined; their effects on viscosity, flow, and devitrification explored; and the results and conclusions are hereby reported.
9:00 AM - UU3.02
Production of Amorphous Nanoparticles through Microfluidic Spray Drying
Esther Amstad 1 Frans Spaepen 2 David A Weitz 2 3
1EPFL Lausanne Switzerland2Harvard University Cambridge USA3Harvard University Cambridge USAShow Abstract
Many materials have a high propensity to crystallize as this is the energetically most favorable state; it is thus difficult to make these materials amorphous. However, for certain applications, it would be highly beneficial to make these materials amorphous as many of their physicochemical properties differ from those of their crystalline couterparts. For example, amorphous materials have a much higher solubility than crystalline ones. I will present a microfluidic spray drier, we call it a microfluidic nebulator, that produces very small drops through the use of supersonic air. These small drops serve as containers to form small amorphous nanoparticles; the size of these nanoparticles is determined by the number of solute molecules contained in the drop. The nanoparticle structure is determined by the probability for a crystalline nucleus to form as the drop evaporates; this probability is typically very high in supersaturated solutions as crystalline solids readily form under these conditions. However, the formation of a crystalline nucleus itself entails some time delay. We demonstrate that the nebulator can kinetically suppress the formation of crystalline nuclei; thereby, it produces amorphous nanoparticles from many different materials, even from materials that have a very high propensity to crystallize.
9:00 AM - UU3.03
Johari-Goldstein beta; Relaxations in Bulk Metallic Glasses: Effect of the Chemical Composition
Jean-Marc Pelletier 1 Jichao Qiao 1 Hidemi Kato 2
1INSA-Lyon Villeurbanne France2IMR Sendai JapanShow Abstract
One of the most intriguing issues in supercooled liquids and glassy materials is their dynamic relaxation behaviors, which underlies their physical and mechanical properties. Recently, Yu et al. found that the b-relaxations in metallic glass-forming liquids is sensitive to the chemical interactions among all the constituent atoms. In other words, b-relaxations in metallic glasses are linked to a large mixing enthalpy for the atoms.
We use mechanical spectroscopy to investigate the mechanical relaxation (a and b relaxations) in several typical bulk metallic glasses in isochronal route as well as isothermal mode: Pd-Ni-Cu-P, La-Ni-Cu-Al and Cu-Zr-Al-Dy systems. We investigated the dependence of the mechanical relaxation on the physical aging to study the evolution of the localized atomic mobility with the physical aging. The pronounced JG b relaxations in metallic glasses are associated to large negative values of the enthalpy of mixing among the constituting atoms, these results are in good agreement with the recent report by Yu et al.
9:00 AM - UU3.05
An Examination of the Ionic and Defect-Driven Changes which Lead to the Generation of Discrete, Reversible, Non-Volatile States of Conductance in Amorphous Silicon Suboxide
Mark Buckwell 1 Luca Montesi 1 Adnan Mehonic 1 Manveer Munde 1 Stephen Hudziak 1 Richard Chater 2 Sarah Fearn 2 David McPhail 2 Anthony Kenyon 1
1University College London London United Kingdom2Imperial College London London United KingdomShow Abstract
Resistive switches offer the prospect of improved performance, efficiency and scalability over current data storage methods. Many device architectures have been proposed, reliant upon a wide variety of materials whose conductance switches in a non-volatile manner with the application of an applied field. Silicon-based switching materials are of particular interest in these devices as they offer the added potential for integration into existing CMOS infrastructures. It is of great importance that the underlying physics of switching is well-understood, such that device optimisation and integration into commercial hardware may be realised. Our device layers are sputter-deposited to create a 37nm thick, amorphous, non-stoichiometric silicon-rich layer of silica sandwiched between conductive electrodes. We report on the material changes leading to reversible resistive switching in silicon suboxide using secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and conductive atomic force microscopy (cAFM). Analysis with a range of techniques serves to highlight the broad dynamics of device behaviour, and supports the model of an ionic and defect-dependent switching mechanism which relies upon the presence of nanoscale grain boundaries within the amorphous silica switching layer.
9:00 AM - UU3.06
Influence of Ga Substitution on Glass Forming Ability of Zr69.5Al7.5minus;xGaxCu12Ni11 and Ce75Al25-xGax Metallic Glass Compositions
Rajiv kumar Mandal 1 R S Tiwari 2 Devinder Singh 3 Dharmendra Singh 4
1IIT(BHU) Varanasi Varanasi India2BHU Varanasi India3Panjab University Chandigarh India4BHU Varanasi IndiaShow Abstract
Our recent research accomplishments led us believe that Ga substitution on Al sites need not permit it to remain in trivalent state only. The monovalent Ga atom, has atomic radius is greater than that of trivalent one. In contrast, pentavalent state of Ga has atomic radius smaller than that of trivalent one. The change of valency of Ga in metallic glass composition will lead to change in geometry of main cluster that promotes glass forming ability of the melt. Further, the mixed states of Ga may facilitate formation of clusters of different types leading to phase separation in the melt and thereby in metallic glasses. Keeping these in mind we have recently investigated two such compositions. They refer to Zr69.5Al7.5minus;xGaxCu12Ni11 and Ce75Al25-xGax metallic glass compositions. The purpose of this presentation will be to bring out aforesaid features after Ga substitution on the nature of glass forming ability based on our studies on these alloy systems.
The first part of the presentation deals with the behavior of Zr69.5Al7.5minus;xGaxCu12Ni11 (x = 0, 1.5, 7.5 at.%) alloys. A comparison between their nanohardness and reduced elastic modulus values of the as-synthesized glassy phase with their nanocomposites has been made. The indentation characteristics of a novel Ga substituted glass composition corresponding to x = 7.5 have shown significant improvement in regard to hardness and elastic modulus. The evidence of pile up has been observed in case of as-synthesized glassy ribbons. The load (P) versus depth (h) curves for as-synthesized melt-spun ribbons displayed the presence of displacement burst, which are known as pop-ins. The amount of energy per unit volume required for the shear band formation in glassy state has been estimated based on the pop-ins observed in P-h curve. This seems to decrease with Ga addition. Based on transmission electron microscopic observations of indented glassy specimen, the possibility of nanocrystallization has been ruled out.
The glass forming ability and indentation characteristics of melt-spun Ce75Al25-xGax (x = 0, 2, 4 and 6 at.%) metallic glasses will also be presented. The substitution of Ga decreases the glass transition temperature, while increases the supercooled liquid region. The small amount of Ga substitution has led to appearance of second diffuse halos in the X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern. The observation of phase separation is thus asserted. The transmission electron microscopic images led us to conclude the formation of nano-amorphous domains after Ga substitution in a glassy matrix. The load dependent hardness behaviour of metallic glasses with and without Ga substitution has been studied. The substitution of Ga improves the microhardness property of Ce-Al alloy. The formation of shear bands around the indentation periphery has been observed. The value of yield strength and Meyer exponent of these alloys has been compared.
9:00 AM - UU3.07
Crystallization of Ni-P Fabricated by Electroless Deposition: Microscopic Mechanism
Xun Zhan 1 Frank Ernst 1
1Case Western Reserve University Shaker Heights USAShow Abstract
We investigate the crystallization of an amorphous eutectic Ni-P alloy, fabricated by electroless deposition as a 10 um thick continuous layer. The purpose of this work is to obtain a detailed understanding of the microscopic mechanisms of crystallization and phase formation upon heating. To this end, we combine a variety of complimentary characterization techniques. DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) during isothermal and isochronal heating reveals the crystallization kinetics. XRD (X-ray diffractometry) provides quantitative information on phase composition as a function of tempering time. Conventional-, high-resolution-, and analytical TEM (transmission electron microscopy) and TEM-based electron diffraction provide high-spatial-resolution information on phase nucleation and spatial distribution of atom species, particularly the crystallography of the nucleating crystalline phases (Ni3P and Ni) and the spatial distribution of phosphorus in the partially and completely crystallized alloy. Our results confirm earlier observations, according to which crystallization proceeds by formation of barrel-shaped grains. Internally, these exhibit a radial microstructure of of slightly misoriented subgrains of Ni3P containing Ni needles with unique ORs (orientation relationships) to Ni3P. However, the preferred Ni-Ni3P ORs we observe differ from those reported in the literature. Combining our observations on the structure and microstructure of partially and completely crystallized Ni-P with the observed crystallization kinetics leads to a new model for the microscopic mechanism of crystallization. This may be useful for understanding the effect of ternary alloying elements on the crystallization behavior and temperature.
9:00 AM - UU3.08
Characterizing Amorphous V-Zr Thin Films
Daniel M King 1 2 Amelia Liu 3 Gregory R Lumpkin 1 Michael Cortie 2 Simon C Middleburgh 1
1Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation Kirrawee DC Australia2University of Technology Sydney Australia3Monash University Melbourne AustraliaShow Abstract
V-Zr amorphous thin films potentially have a number of applications as coatings for components subject to aggressive chemical and physical conditions. In this work V-Zr thin films were produced by magnetron sputtering at room temperature and were subsequently characterized and modelled; using atomic scale techniques, to understand the alloys&’ stability and the relationship the amorphous material has to the crystalline Zr, V and V2Zr phases.
Atomic scale modelling using density functional theory was used to investigate three compositions in the V-Zr system: equimolar VZr, the V rich V2Zr and Zr rich VZr2 compositions. Amorphous supercells were created and minimised under constant pressure with a variety of starting densities and supercell sizes. We find that the simulation conditions are pivotal in reproducing the experimentally observed structure. Bulk X-ray diffraction techniques were used as a first check to compare experiment and theory with encouraging results.
Ensembles of electron nanodifraction patterns were collected from the three formulations of amorphous V-Zr films. The electron beam was tuned to the diameter of the nearest-neighbour clusters. In this geometry, and collecting diffraction patterns from sub-4 nm thick regions, angular correlations in the diffraction patterns reflect the symmetries of nearest-neighbour polyhedra.  An angular autocorrelation technique was used to quantify the statistical incidence of symmetries in the diffraction patterns of each specimen as a function of the scattering angle. It was found that the symmetries in the diffracted intensities from all the films could not be explained by BCC local ordering alone, but required the presence of more complex intermetallic local ordering, such as the C15 Laves phase (V2Zr). The experimental data matched simulations from the amorphous supercells.
 A. C. Y. Liu, M. J. Neish, G. Stokol, G. A. Buckley, L. A. Smillie, M. D. de Jonge, R. T. Ott, M. J. Kramer, and L. Bourgeois, Phys. Rev. Lett., 110, 205505 (2013)
9:00 AM - UU3.09
Correlation between Structural Variation and Thermophysical Properties of Amorphous Metal
Chae Woo Ryu 1 Eun Soo Park 1 Dong-Hee Kang 2 Geun Woo Lee 2 3
1Seoul National University Seoul Korea (the Republic of)2Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science Daejeon Korea (the Republic of)3University of Science and Technology Daejeon Korea (the Republic of)Show Abstract
The stability of undercooled liquids against crystallization is affected by initial viscosity of the stable liquids, viscosity change of the melt due to temperature drop, free energy difference between undercooled liquids and crystalline phases, liquid/solid interface energy, bulk density, non-uniform nucleation, cooling rate of particle and so many other factors. If the cooling rate is fast enough that diffusion among the atoms is limited, the amorphous phase is uniformly solidified. This behavior is called glass transition behavior, and several metallic alloys with such behavior have been discovered, which can be vitrified with only radiative cooling. For example, containerless high-temperature/high-vacuum electrostatic levitation (ESL) technique, which could minimize heterogeneous sites, is useful for investigation of the undercooled liquid behavior. In particular, several high glass-forming alloys, whose cooling rate is fast enough that diffusion among the atoms is limited, can be vitrified with only radiative cooling in these ESL. In this study, we measured the thermo-physical properties and Time-Temperature-Transformation (TTT) diagram for the crystallization of various amorphous metal system from liquid temperature to glass transition temperature, using ESL technique. After that, we analyzed atomic scale structural change of the samples with high energy X-ray scattering experiments to understand the influence of compositional change on glass-forming ability. Indeed, these results could provide a clear understanding of the exceptional stability against crystallization in amorphous metal based on kinetic, thermodynamic and structural principles. Undercooled liquids&’ thermophysical properties and their own structure variation have a pronounced influence on the glass forming ability and knowledge on it is essential in understanding more precisely the crystallization mechanism of amorphous metal.
9:00 AM - UU3.10
Measurement of the Metastable Liquid Miscibility Gap in Pd-Ni-P Bulk Metallic Glasses
Wenzhao Zhou 1 Z.D Wu 1 Y.F Lo 1 H.W Kui 1
1The Chinese University of Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong KongShow Abstract
Recently, by using the techniques of HREM, HAADF and EDX line mapping, it  was found that Pd-Ni-P bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) undergo amorphous phase separation (APS). Later, by using small angle X-ray scattering method, it  was confirmed that the observed APS is consistent with a spinodal mechanism. It is not clear, however, why Pd-Ni-P BMGs, an alloy system of negative heat of mixing, undergo amorphous spinodal decomposition (ASD). In this work, we attempt to measure the metastable liquid miscibility gap by employing the same technique as described in .
 S. Lan, Y.L. Yip, M.T. Lau, H.W. Kui, J. Non-Crystalline Solids 358 (2012) 1298-1302.
 Z.D. Wu, X.H. Lu, Z.H. Wu, H.W. Kui, J. Non-Crystalline Solids 385 (2014) 40-46.
9:00 AM - UU3.11
Finite Size and Surface Effects in a Finite Element Model of Amorphous Plasticity
David Fernandez Castellanos 1 Stefan Sandfeld 1 Michael Zaiser 1
1Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg Famp;#252;rth GermanyShow Abstract
A key challenge for understanding plasticity in amorphous materials is the link between microscopic (i.e., atomistic) and macroscale behaviour (i.e., the scale of the sample). To establish this link, it is useful to coarse-grain the microscopic details and construct a mesoscopic model which tries to capture important aspects from the atomistic scale without fully resolving the atomic motions, being thus computationally efficient. The common approach taken in mesoscale descriptions of amorphous plasticity is to consider plastic activity as a sequence of spatially and temporally localized events, known as shear transformations, which correspond to local rearrangements of atoms within the bulk material in response to the locally acting shear stress. This rearrangement in turn induces an internal (eigen-) stress field which - together with external stresses - determines the spatial and temporal pattern of shear transformation events which characterizes the plastic deformation dynamics of the amorphous structure. We present a mesoscale approach to amorphous plasticity based on a finite element framework with quasistatic, athermal dynamics analogous to lattice based models proposed in the literature, which use the (periodically continued) elastic Green's function of an infinite body to calculate internal stresses in systems with periodic boundary conditions.
The tensorial finite element formulation allows us to analyze a rich variety of collective phenomena such as strain localization and strain avalanches, comparing and benchmarking our results against the established lattice models. The main advantage of the finite element method over these models is that the FEM approach provides natural access to analysing the effects of surfaces and boundary constraints, and hence to physical mechanisms leading to finite size effects which cannot be captured by models which employ periodic boundary conditions. We analyse the results for the deformation behavior of 2D amorphous specimens under non-trivial loadings, such as shear or bending, and analyse the influence of strain gradients, surfaces, and finite size effects. We find that we can conceptually envisage systems with free surfaces as consisting of two distinct regions: an interior “bulk-like” domain where plastic activity evolves essentially as observed in a periodic system, and another “surface-dominated” domain where the interactions between shear transformations are suppressed and deformation behaviour is controlled by surface constraints and external tractions. We quantitatively analyse the deformation behaviour arising from the interplay of surface and bulk (statistical) size effects in 2D and present some preliminary results for 3D specimens.
9:00 AM - UU3.12
Shear-Induced Mixing during Co-Deformation of Crystalline-Amorphous Nanolaminates Observed by Atom Probe Tomography and TEM
Dierk Raabe 2 Wei Guo 2 Jiahao Yao 3 Jochen Schneider 1 Eric Jagle 2 Pyuck-Pa Choi 2 Aleksander Kostka 2
1RWTH Aachen University Aachen Germany2Max Planck Institut famp;#252;r Eisenforschung Damp;#252;sseldorf Germany3Institute of Metal Research Shenyang ChinaShow Abstract
Deformation of ductile crystalline-amorphous nanolaminates is not well understood due to the complex interplay of interface mechanics, shear banding and deformation-driven chemical mixing. Here we present indentation experiments on 10 nm nanocrystalline Cu / 100 nm amorphous CuZr model multilayers to study these mechanisms down to the atomic scale. By using correlative atom probe tomography and transmission electron microscopy we find that crystallographic slip bands in the Cu layers coincide with non-crystallographic shear bands in the amorphous CuZr layers. Dislocations from the crystalline layers drag Cu atoms across the interface into the CuZr layers. Also, crystalline Cu blocks are sheared into the CuZr layers. In these sheared and thus Cu enriched zones the initially amorphous CuZr layer is rendered into an amorphous plus crystalline nanocomposite.
9:00 AM - UU3.13
X-Ray Diffraction Study of Spinodal Pd-Ni-P Bulk Metallic Glasses
Yin Fung Lo 1 Zhen Duo Wu 1 Wen Zhao Zhou 1 Hin Wing Kui 1
1Chinese University of Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong KongShow Abstract
The alloy system, Pd-Ni-P, has a negative heat of mixing. It is therefore somewhat surprising that Pd-Ni-P bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) undergo amorphous phase separation (ASD) [1, 2]. An attempt has been made to measure the metastable liquid miscibility (MLMG) of undercooled molten Pd-Ni-P. In this work, X-ray diffraction method is employed to characterize undercooled specimens that have entered into the MLMG.
 S. Lan, Y.L. Yip, M.T. Lau, H.W. Kui, J. Non-Crystlline Solids 358 (2012) 1298-1302.
 Z.D. Wu, X.H. Lu, Z.H. Wu, H.W. Kui, J. Non-Crystalline Solids 385 (2014) 40-46.
9:00 AM - UU3.14
Notch Toughness of Bulk Metallic Glasses: Notch Root Radius Sensitivity
Wen Chen 1 Ze Liu 1 2 Jittisa Ketkaew 1 Rodrigo Miguel Ojeda Mota 1 Jan Schroers 1 2
1Yale University New HAVEN USA2Center for Research on Interface Structures and Phenomena (CRISP), Yale University New Haven USAShow Abstract
A novel method is introduced to determine notch toughness of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs). Through thermoplastic forming of BMGs combined with Si photolithography, unprecedented control in fabricating BMG notch toughness samples can be achieved and many extrinsic influences (e.g., cooling rate, casting defects) can be drastically reduced. Our approach allows us to precisely vary the notch root radius with a high precision of ~ 1 mu;m. In order to systematically study the effect of notch root radius on the notch toughness of BMGs, notches with a broad range of radii from 3 mu;m to 380 mu;m are introduced into the test specimens. Through this method, we have fabricated ~ 100 samples with different notch radii (ρ = 3, 10, 25, 50, 100, 150, 230, 380 mu;m) in two different BMG systems, i.e., Zr44Ti11Cu10Ni10Be25 and Pd43Cu27Ni10P20 BMGs. We found that there exists a critical notch radius, ρc, above which the apparent notch toughness scales linearly with ρ1/2. With decreasing notch radius below ρc, the notch toughness retains almost constant rather than degrading. However, this critical notch radius varies in the two different investigated BMGs that exhibit distinct toughness behavior. Such observed phenomenon can be well explained within the framework of characteristic critical distance theory and is similar to previously reported for crystalline metals, ceramics, and polymers, although the mechanistic origins are different. Our finding also suggests that BMGs can be highly tolerant to sharp flaws.
9:00 AM - UU3.15
Characterization of Minute Crystalline Phases and the Mechanical Properties of Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glasses
Takao Onishi 1 Ryuji Tamura 1
1Tokyo University of Science Kastushika-ku JapanShow Abstract
The presence of minute crystalline phases in metallic glasses is unfavorable for the reliable understanding of the intrinsic properties of the bulk metallic glasses(BMG) . However, the detail of the sample characterization has often been omitted in the literature. In this study, the amorphous state of the Zr-Al-Cu-(Ni,Fe) BMG are thoroughly investigated using high intensity 50mu;m X-ray beam with a 2-dimensional detector in order to probe possible existence of minute crystalline phases that are not detectable by conventional X-ray equipments. So far, the results have shown that a small amount of crystalline phases exists in the cross section of most of the Zr-based BMG that were prepared in a conventional method. Experiments are currently being undertaken to fabricate Zr-based BMG without minute crystalline phases to perform further measurements such as mechanical properties. The detail of the results will be presented at the poster.
Q.S Zhang et al. Acta Materialia 58 (2010)904-909
9:00 AM - UU3.16
Influence of Minor Element Substitution on Glass Transition Temperature in Platinum-Based Bulk Metallic Glass
Hamed Kazemi 1 Ludger Weber 1
1Ecole Polytechnique Famp;#233;damp;#233;rale de Lausanne, EPFL Lausanne SwitzerlandShow Abstract
It is generally assumed that the glass transition temperature, Tg, of a bulk metallic glass, BMG, is only a shallow function of the composition. We give evidence for several metallic glasses derived from quarternary (Pt+TM)66B24(Si+Ge)10 systems exhibiting strong changes of Tg (from 570 K to 650K) with varying the type of TM(=transition metal) used, resulting in virtually unchanged reduced glass transition temperature over a wide range of compositions.
The access to a wide range of Tg with minor levels of substitution opens the door to investigate whether the Tg can be shifted with regard to the critical fictive temperature, Tfc, or whether the latter stays put relative to the Tg. As proposed by Kumar et al.1, the relative position of these two temperatures essentially defines whether a BMG will be ductile, brittle or cooling-rate sensitive in its mechanical behavior.
We further present mechanical properties derived from 3-point bending test, microhardness and elastic constants from elastic wave measurements.
1. Kumar, G., Neibecker, P., Liu, Y. H. & Schroers, J. Critical fictive temperature for plasticity in metallic glasses. Nat. Commun.4, 1536 (2013).
9:00 AM - UU3.17
Size and Strain Rate Effect on Compressive Deformation of Metallic Glass Spherical Nanoparticles
Jinwoo Kim 1 Eun Soo Park 1
1Seoul National University Seoul Korea (the Republic of)Show Abstract
Mechanical properties in nano-sized metallic glasses have been widely investigated to clearly understand the fundamental deformation mechanism of metallic glasses. In particular, the change of yield strength and the occurrence of deformation mode transition (heterogeneous to homogeneous) with sample size reduction have been reported in previous experimental studies through the nano-pillar test results. Research on nano-mechanical responses of metallic glasses could lead to an in-depth understanding of the deformation mechanism related to the nucleation and propagation of shear bands. However, during the pillar fabrication using focused ion beam for nano-pillar test, Ga+ ion beam damage on pillar surface is difficult to avoid and the fabrication takes relatively long for multiple pillar preparations. To avoid these drawbacks of nano-pillar tests, in the present study we performed nano-compression tests of metallic glass nanoparticles prepared by FIB-less method. In our experiments, metallic glass nanoparticles have been fabricated by the selective dissolution technique from phase separated metallic glasses. From the two-amorphous alloys with droplet structure, the reactive matrix phase has been selectively dissolved by chemical process. The shape of the remaining particle phases was clearly spherical, and the sizes of fabricated particles have distribution in 40~500 nm diameter range. The effect of particle size and strain rate on mechanical properties of fabricated amorphous particles has been investigated from the compression test using in-situ compression tester with electron microscope imaging. Due to the distinct morphology of particles compared to that of nano-pillars, the stress-strain relations from particle compression test results are derived based on contact mechanics theory and contact area calculation. From the stress-strain curves and in-situ electron microscope video, we confirmed the metallic glass nanoparticles are not fractured at high strain over 50% and have favorable condition for homogenous-like deformation at strain rate near ~10-3 s-1 based on modified Griffith criterion. These results provide us with insights on evaluation of nano-mechanical properties and understanding of fundamental deformation mechanism of metallic glasses.
9:00 AM - UU3.18
In-Situ SAXS Study on Thermally Activated Growth Behavior in Phase Separating Metallic Glass
Jinwoo Kim 1 Eun Soo Park 1
1Seoul National University Seoul Korea (the Republic of)Show Abstract
It is well known that applications of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) for structural materials are limited by their brittleness in spite of desirable mechanical properties such as high yield strength, high elastic limit, and relatively low elastic modulus. To overcome this drawback, various composite microstructures with structural heterogeneity of micrometer to nanometer scale in the amorphous matrix have been developed. The heterogeneity can result in nucleation of multiple shear bands and interruption of their propagation, which can lead to enhanced plasticity. In the present study, in order to precisely control the amorphous heterogeneities or amorphous 2nd phases in the amorphous matrix, thermally activated growth behaviors of secondary amorphous phases in Cu-(Zr,Hf)-Al-(Y,Gd) phase separating metallic glasses have been investigated using in-situ heating SAXS experiment and additional intensive structural analysis. From the combination of two ternary systems, Cu-(Zr,Hf)-Al and Cu-(Y,Gd)-Al, phase separating metallic glasses with two distinct amorphous phases were fabricated in Cu-(Zr,Hf)-Al-(Y,Gd) quaternary system. Experimentally, the growth behavior of secondary amorphous phase was investigated by SAXS analysis at elevated temperature near first Tg and Tx. Also, the chemical composition of 2nd phase was evaluated using alloy contrast variation (ACV) method from comparison of SAXS/SANS patterns of various alloy compositions. From the results, the relationship between the composition/size of 2nd phases and the mechanical properties in the phase separating metallic glasses was analyzed. This provides us with a fruitful idea on how to control the properties of metallic glass composites from manipulating the 2nd phases in nanometer scale.
9:00 AM - UU3.19
Mechanical Behavior of an Fe-Based Structural Amorphous Metal with W Nanoparticle Additions
I-Chung Cheng 1 James Kelly 2 Olivia Graeve 2 Andrea Hodge 3
1University of Southern California Los Angeles USA2University of California, San Diego La Jolla USA3University of Southern California Los Angeles USAShow Abstract
A structural amorphous metal (SAM) containing 0 to 30 vol% of W nanoparticles was tested by several techniques, including micro-bending tests. The density values reached up to 10.98 g/cc with the addition of W nano particles. Nanoindentation tests were performed in order to study the compositional effects on the hardness and modulus. Indentation mapping results show a significant increase in hardness values in the areas surrounding the W particles. Extensive analysis was performed around the nanoparticles in order to study if and how the nanoparticles could aid in crack deflection and improve the fracture toughness.
9:00 AM - UU3.20
Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Thermal Rejuvenation of Ternary Amorphous Alloy
Masato Wakeda 1 Narumasa Miyazaki 1 Junji Saida 2 Shigenobu Ogata 1 3
1Osaka Univ. Toyonaka Japan2Tohoku Univ. Sendai Japan3Kyoto Univ. Kyoto JapanShow Abstract
Rejuvenation is a structural excitation of glassy systems. Rejuvenation increases free volume and potential energy, and is one of the promising approaches to improve the deformability of amorphous metals, which generally exhibit brittle fracture. We here focus on the rejuvenation of ternary amorphous metal induced by thermal loading process. Using molecular dynamics techniques and embedded-atom method interatomic potentials, a ZrCuAl amorphous alloy model was constructed via melt-quenching process. Subsequent thermal loading simulations composed of reheating, isothermal annealing, and requenching were then conducted with various annealing temperatures and final quenching rates. Based on change in potential energy and volume during the thermal loading process, we evaluated level of aging and rejuvenation induced by the thermal loading; aging decreases and rejuvenation increases potential energy and volume. It is observed that the thermal loading induces rejuvenation when an annealing temperature is higher than a critical temperature Tc (Tc is higher than the glass transition temperature Tg) and a cooling rate after isothermal annealing is higher than that of initial melt-quenching process. This is because that erasing of the past aging history by heating at sufficiently high temperature is required to realize thermal rejuvenation. Moreover, a higher quenching suppressing aging during final quenching process is another necessary condition for thermal rejuvenation. We drew a rejuvenation map with respect to both annealing temperature and final cooling rates. The level of rejuvenation increases with increasing quenching rate and annealing temperature up to 1.3Tg. Changes in properties induced by rejuvenation were also investigated; aging increases and rejuvenation decreases topological short-range and medium-range order and elastic constants of amorphous metals. Our results could be useful information when we apply rejuvenation as a practical tool to control properties of amorphous metals.
9:00 AM - UU3.21
Influence of Wheel Surface Velocity on Wheel Side Surface Quality of Amorphous Ribbon in Planar Flow Casting
Ryo Sasaki 1 Yuichi Sato 1
1Tohoku university Sendai JapanShow Abstract
Today, demand of electric power is expanded with population growth. We must effectively use electric power to build a sustainable society. When electric power comes to user from the generation plant, energy loss occurs in the transformer. Total energy loss is divided into iron loss and copper loss. Amorphous alloy gets much attention because of reduction in this iron loss. Planar Flow Casting (PFC) is well known as an industrial technique for rapid quenching to produce the amorphous ribbon used mainly as soft magnetic materials
However, this amorphous ribbon has defect called air pocket. The air pocket is considered to be formed by air layer induced by wheel revolution. The air pocket is concave defect and roles to make high the iron loss in electric energy loss. So, the purpose of our study is to investigate the influence of process parameters on the formation of the air pocket in order to fabricate more efficient amorphous ribbon in PFC process.
In PFC process, molten alloy is impinged strongly on rotating wheel at small gap between nozzle and wheel surface less than 1mm by high gas pressure to form wide amorphous ribbon. Applying the small gap results in the planar flow of molten alloy ejected from the nozzle, though the molten alloy is impinged strongly onto a wheel surface to get high cooling rate. Main process parameters are ejection gas pressure, gap between nozzle and wheel surface, and wheel surface velocity. We focus on wheel surface velocity, because it is a most convenient process parameter in operating PFC process. Clear differences in the size of the air pockets were apparent in casting under changing only wheel surface velocity. We would like to explain the influence of wheel surface velocity on the formation of air pockets.
9:00 AM - UU3.22
Fabrication of Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glass Matrix Composites with Network Architecture
Jein Lee 1 Eun Soo Park 1 Valentina Naglieri 2 Amy Wat 2 Robert Ritchie 2 3
1Seoul National University Seoul Korea (the Republic of)2University of California, Berkeley Berkeley USA3Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Berkeley USAShow Abstract
In the past decades, there has been a large amount of scientific and industrial interest in metal matrix composites as a way to improve mechanical properties compared to the unreinforced alloys. Recently, new perspectives with 3D network reinforcement have been opened by the availability of ceramic scaffolds produced by freeze-casting of ceramic suspensions. Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) have high yield strength and elastic strain limit combined with a good corrosion resistance. However, lack of macroscopic ductility could be an important drawback in many applications. The introduction of secondary phase into the glassy matrix encourages the formation of multiple shear bands and interferes with the propagating shear band, which delay failure and improve the toughness of the BMGs. In this study, Innovative BMG/ceramic composites produced by reactive infiltration of the melt into ceramic scaffolds prepared by freeze-casting technique. The ZrCuAgAlBe alloy system with the highest GFA in Zr-based BMGs was selected as a matrix because an interfacial reaction can deteriorate thermal stability of glassy matrix. The microstructure, including interfacial wetting behavior and interfacial adhesion between the scaffolds and the matrix, and mechanical properties of the BMG composites were systematically investigated.
9:00 AM - UU3.23
Effect of High Pressure Torsion Process on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Bulk Metallic Glass Composites
Jein Lee 1 Hyun Seok Oh 1 Eun Soo Park 1 Jin Kyu Lee 2 Koichi Tsuchiya 3
1Seoul National University Seoul Korea (the Republic of)2Kongju National University Kongju Korea (the Republic of)3National Institute for Materials Science, Japan Tsukuba JapanShow Abstract
Mechanical treatments, such as hot-and cold-working, are commonly used to optimize mechanical properties for polycrystalline metals, and there has long been interest in exploring similar possibilities for metallic glasses. For example, various mechanical treatments such as cold rolling or shot peening have been introduced to alter the glassy structure including structural anisotropy, dilatation and formation of free volume, which cause to improve plasticity of monolithic metallic glasses. High pressure torsion (HPT), in which a disk-shaped sample is deformed by torsional straining under pressure, has shown to be an efficient technique for grain refinement in the nanometer regime in various materials thereby significantly enhancing mechanical properties such as micro-hardness, tensile strength and ductility. Contrary to crystalline materials, it is recently proposed that HPT process can cause structural rejuvenation and mechanical softening of bulk metallic glasses, but there are still limited approaches to understand the effect of HPT on BMGs. In this study, spark plasma sintered BMG and their composites were subjected to a large amount of deformation by HPT process which enables us to apply severe deformation for brittle materials. As a result, HPT process increases the structural disordering and amount of excess free volume in the amorphous structure which suggests structural rejuvenation by heavy deformation. Interestingly, the tendency of rejuvenation changes by depending on the characteristics of secondary phases in BMG composites. Furthermore, the variations of thermal property and mechanical behavior of BMG and their composites after HPT process were systematically investigated. The understanding built-up from this study will be used to explain the successful control of following properties as well as microstructure in various BMG and their composites by severe plastic deformation technique.
9:00 AM - UU3.24
Influence of Pressure and Temperature of Hot Isostatic Press Treatment on Porosity in Bulk Amorphous Alloy Castings
Amit Prakash Srivastava 1 Mingning Tong 1 David J Browne 1
1University College Dublin Dublin IrelandShow Abstract
Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIPping) was employed in an attempt to reduce the micro-porosity in bulk metallic glass (BMG) castings. A zirconium/copper-based alloy, shown to be very suitable for multi-scale tooling applications, was studied. Specimens in the form of rods were produced using arc melting and a drop casting technique, and their amorphous nature confirmed using X-ray diffraction. Isothermal and non-isothermal analyses were carried out using a differential scanning calorimeter to characterize the super cooled liquid region of the alloy. The resultant data were used to select the range of process parameters for use in the HIP treatment of the cast alloy. Porosity in the BMG samples was characterized by metallography, optical microscopy and quantitative image analysis. The area fraction of porosity in the as-cast BMG was found to be around 0.01%. Samples in the form of discs were cut from the cast BMG rods and subjected to HIPing at temperatures within their supercooled liquid range. The HIP experiments were dedicated to study the individual effects of pressure, temperature and time on porosity of BMG samples, in terms of the spatial and size distribution of pores. Post-HIP samples were found to be still amorphous, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Significant reduction in area fraction (by an order of magnitude) and number density of pores was achieved as the result of treating the BMG samples with HIP. Our findings confirm that HIP is an effective treatment to reduce significantly porosity levels in BMGs while also keeping the alloy amorphous.
UU1: Metallic Glasses
Monday AM, December 01, 2014
Sheraton, 2nd Floor, Republic B
9:30 AM - *UU1.02
Dynamics and Structure of Bulk Metallic Glass Forming Alloys
Li He 1 Jason Maldonis 1 Pei Zhang 1 Matt Besser 2 Matt Kramer 2 Paul Voyles 1
1University of Wisconsin, Madison Madison USA2Ames Lab Ames USAShow Abstract
Nanometer-scale structure in the solid state and dynamics in the supercooled liquid state are expected to have major effects on bulk metallic glass properties and process of the glass transition. We have measured aspects of both structure and dynamics using coherent electron nanodiffraction. We have developed the electron scattering equivalent of photon correlation spectroscopy, a technique we call electron correlation microscopy, which uses time-resolved nanodiffraction to measure the a relaxation time of glass-forming alloys heated into the supercooled liquid above Tg in the electron microscope. Experiments on Pd40Ni40P20 show an average tau;α varying from 25 s to 10 s between Tg and Tg + 25 K, consistent with previous measurements. Analysis of single coherent speckles suggests a broad distribution of relaxation times from different nanoscale regions of the glass.
We have used fluctuation electron microscopy, another coherent nanodiffraction technique, to study the static structure of Zr-Cu-Al BMGs. Experiments on Zr50Cu45Al5 and Zr50Cu35Al15 show a correlation between the thermal stability of nanoscale structure in the as-quenched state and glass-forming ability. Zr50Cu35Al15 is the poorer glass former, and it shows weaker icosahedral-like nanoscale order and more stable crystal-like nanoscale order than Zr50Cu45Al5, the better glass former.
10:00 AM - UU1.03
Short- and Medium-Range Order in Cu-Zr Bulk Metallic Glasses
Jerome Zemp 1 Massimo Celino 2 Bernd Schoenfeld 1 Joerg F. Loeffler 1
1ETH Zurich Zurich Switzerland2ENEA Rome ItalyShow Abstract
The effects of thermo-mechanical treatments on the short- and medium-range order in Cu64Zr36 bulk metallic glasses were investigated by Molecular Dynamics simulations. In the first part of this talk, we will present investigations of structure-specific nearest-neighbor histograms and bond-angle distributions to highlight the unique role of Cu-centered icosahedra as compared to other types of Voronoi polyhedra. We find that in both, the glassy and supercooled liquid temperature regime, only icosahedra reveal a distinct tendency to form superclusters. The spatial distribution and interconnectivity of the icosahedra were also studied as a function of cooling rate and compared to a homogeneous icosahedral distribution. In the second part, we will present our studies on shear-band structure upon uniaxial deformation of the sample. During deformation the icosahedral fraction reduces and the superclusters become partially destructed. Via determination of an effective disorder temperature and investigations of the corresponding mean-square displacements, we are able to characterize the liquid-like structure of the shear band. This structural information is then used to discuss the enhancement of the self-diffusion coefficient in the shear band in comparison to that of the remaining matrix.
10:15 AM - UU1.04
An Atomic-Scale Description of Mechanical Relaxation Dynamics in Glasses
Michael Atzmon 1 JongDoo Ju 2
1Univ Michigan Ann Arbor USA2University of Michigan Ann Arbor USAShow Abstract
The dynamic-mechanical response of glasses provides important insights into atomic transport mechanisms. Relaxation processes involve a range of relaxation times, but their spectrum cannot be obtained explicitly from the data. Most previous studies assumed relaxation kinetics to be described by a stretched exponent, which amounts to an a priori assumption about the spectrum shape. We have recently been able to compute spectra from quasi-static anelastic relaxation data for a metallic glass, using nonlinear least-squares fits . These spectra exhibited distinct peaks corresponding to an atomically-quantized hierarchy of shear transformation zones (STZs). We use these spectra to simulate the frequency-dependent loss modulus . We show that the high-frequency (or low-temperature) tail observed in experiment corresponds to the same STZ mechanism as the rest of the curve: both a and b relaxations are due to STZs -- the tail is due to small, and therefore fast, STZs, which are reversible due to the small volume fraction they occupy. Many authors have shown that the time-temperature superposition principle was obeyed by loss-modulus curves measured at varying temperatures, yielding a single apparent activation energy. We show that this method yields Arrhenius behavior even for a broad range of STZ activation energies, and is thus not a reliable indicator. These results likely apply to any glass that does not exhibit intramolecular relaxations. Finally, we computed relaxation-time spectra from published frequency-dependent loss moduli for a metallic glass . Using simulated data with noise, we validated the method by showing that the assumed input spectrum can be recovered. Arrhenius behavior is obtained for each STZ size, further confirming the STZ model. Above Tg, the typically high apparent activation energy is shown to be an artifact of the temperature dependence of the high-frequency shear modulus.
This work has been funded by NSF Grant DMR-1307884.
1) J.D. Ju, D. Jang, A. Nwankpa, and M. Atzmon: J. Appl. Phys. 109, 053522 (2011).
2) J. D. Ju and M. Atzmon, MRS Comm., doi:10.1557/mrc.2014.12, Published online 12 May 2014.
3) J. D. Ju and M. Atzmon, Acta Mater.74, 183 (2014).
10:30 AM - UU1.05
Correlation among Atomic Mobility, Mechanical Properties and Structural State in Bulk Metallic Glass: Case of a Zr56Co28Al16
Jean-Marc Pelletier 1 Jichao Qiao 1
1INSA-Lyon Villeurbanne FranceShow Abstract
There is a clear interest, for bulk metallic glasses, in the atomic mobility is very sensitive to structural changes occurring during annealing or deformation. It is well known that amorphous materials are in out of equilibrium state below the glass transition temperature Tg. Modifications of enthalpy and entropy are induced by various treatments. For instance, annealing can induce physical aging, i.e. structural relaxation or even crystallization (when annealing time is long enough or annealing temperature high enough) and then an increase of short range order (SRL) or long range order (LRO). On the other hand, it is remarkable that plastic deformation (irreversible deformation) can increase the disorder in amorphous materials.
In the current work, the dynamic mechanical properties of Zr56Co28Al16 bulk metallic glass have been investigated by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and nanoindentation technique. The influence of structural relaxation, plastic deformation and crystalline phases on atomic mobility in Zr56Co28Al16 bulk metallic glass has been analyzed. In the amorphous state, dynamic mechanical properties of Zr56Co28Al16 amorphous alloy are similar to that observed in other based bulk metallic glasses. At low temperature, the material is mainly elastic and driving frequency has no influence. In contrast, in the glass transition region, the visco-elastic component becomes very large. Then frequency has a major effect on the mechanical response. It has also been shown that the atomic mobility can be evaluated through the value of the loss factor. The atomic mobility increases by increasing the loss factor. Results are interpreted using a physical model, based on the existence of defects in the material, called quasi-point defects. Atomic mobility is reduced by structural relaxation or formation of quasi-crystalline or crystalline phases. In contrast, plastic deformation, introduced by cold rolling, increases the concentration of defects and therefore enhances the atomic mobility. The concentration of defects is evaluated by DMA and nanoindentation tests in the framework of the quasi-point defects theory.
11:15 AM - *UU1.06
A Predictive Topological Model for Bulk Metallic Glasses
K. J Laws 1 Daniel Miracle 2 M. Ferry 1
1UNSW Sydney Australia2Wright-Patterson AFB Wright-Patterson AFB USAShow Abstract
Great progress has been made in understanding the atomic structure of metallic glasses, but there is still no clear connection between atomic structure and glass-forming ability. By adding three new concepts to the efficient cluster packing model, we show that glass-forming ability can be predicted from simple topology - the relative size and concentrations of atoms that make up a glass structure. This model distinguishes between topologies that cannot form glasses, topologies where marginal glasses can form, and specific topologies where bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are most likely. The new concepts providing this predictive capability will be described and validated by comparing with previously known BMGs, and by predicting new BMGs. This model is not fully predictive, and still lacks a description of the chemical contribution to glass formation.
11:45 AM - *UU1.07
Glass Transition by Gelation
Richard E Baumer 2 1 Michael J Demkowicz 1
1MIT Cambridge USA2The Dow Chemical Company Midland USAShow Abstract
Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we show that glass transition in a model phase separating amorphous metal alloy—Cu50Nb50—occurs by gelation. Below the glass transition temperature , a percolating network of icosahedral short-range order (ISRO) forms along transitional zones between regions of compositional enrichment in the material. This ISRO network is mechanically stiff, halts coarsening of compositional medium range order (CMRO), and constrains the dynamics of surrounding atoms, leading to anomalous diffusion. This ISRO network and its influence on the physical properties of the system bears striking resemblance to gelation in colloidal systems, in which a system-spanning, dynamically arrested network of locally preferred structures imparts stiffness. Gelation may be relevant to glass transition and microalloying in more conventional bulk metallic glasses.
12:15 PM - UU1.08
Soft Spots and Their Structural Signature in a Metallic Glass
Jun Ding 1 Sylvain Patinet 1 2 Michael Falk 1 Yongqiang Cheng 3 Evan Ma 1
1Johns Hopkins University Baltimore USA2ESPCI/CNRS-UMR 7636/Univ. Paris 6 UPMC/Univ Paris France3Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge USAShow Abstract
In a three-dimensional model mimicking realistic Cu64Zr36 metallic glass, we demonstrate that quasilocalized low-frequency vibrational modes correlate strongly with fertile sites for shear transformations. We have also uncovered a direct link between these soft modes/spots and the local atomic packing structure: geometrically unfavored motifs (GUMs) constitute the most flexible local environments that encourage soft modes and high propensity for shear transformations, while local configurations preferred in this alloy, i.e., the full icosahedra (around Cu) and Z16 Kasper polyhedra (around Zr), contribute the least.
12:30 PM - UU1.09
Cluster-Assembled Metallic Glasses
Aras Kartouzian 1
1TU Mamp;#252;nchen Garching GermanyShow Abstract
Metallic glasses (MGs) have attracted vast interest due to their extraordinary properties. Despite the bulk of theoretical and experimental efforts, their atomic structure and its relation to their properties are only vaguely known and a general model to this end is still missing. In order to describe the arrangement of atoms in MGs, various cluster-based structural models have been suggested (e.g. “efficient cluster packing” and “cluster-plus-glue-atom”). Many research groups have demonstrated the appositeness of these models through theoretical simulations in combination with experimental structure analysis. The decisive step i.e. the determination of the link between the structure and properties of MGs is, however, still missing. Recently a bottom-up approach to the fabrication of MGs by deposition of alloy metal clusters from the gas phase was proposed. Cluster-assembled metallic glasses (CAMGs) could play a key role in in determination of the structure-property relation in MGs since the structures and properties of their building blocks (alloy metal clusters) can be determined in state-of-the-art cluster science labs. Although the way is stony and steep, the first attempt to tackle this challenge (performed on CuZr binary alloy) has proven very promising.
12:45 PM - UU1.10
About Activation Energy of Viscous Flow of Glass-Forming Materials
Michael I. Ojovan 1
1Imperial College London London United KingdomShow Abstract
An universal equation has been derived for the variable activation energy of viscous flow Q(T) of the generic Frenkel (or Eyring) equation of viscosity eta;(T)=A×exp(Q/RT) which has two constant asymptotes - high QH at low temperatures and low QL at high temperatures. Among different types of atomic mechanisms of viscous flow recent data on a viscous flow model based on network defects - broken bonds termed configurons - were analysed. The defect model used by many researchers states that higher the concentration of defects (e.g. configurons) the lower the viscosity. Additionally the defect model results in temperature relationship for viscosity eta;(T) which is a continuous function of temperature T both for glassy and liquid amorphous materials. The glass-liquid transition within configuron percolation theory (CPT) is treated as a percolation-type phase transition. It is accompanied by formation of percolation macroscopic clusters made up of configurons which are dynamic in nature. The characteristic linear size of dynamic clusters formed is given by correlation length which universally depends on formation Gibbs free energy of configurons Gd=Hdminus; TSd ., where Hd and Sd are the enthalpy and the entropy of formation. It becomes macroscopic large at glass transition temperature Tg. Fractal-type medium range order is characteristic for correlation length sizes and homogeneous and isotropic disordered state is characteristic for macroscopic sizes. A reduction of topological signature (Hausdorff dimensionality) occurs at glass transition for the disordered bonding lattice: the dimensionality reduces from 3 for glass to fractal 2.4minus; 2.8 for melt. This is the main signature change which differentiates a glass from a liquid. Namely the signature change is responsible for drastic changes of material behaviour at glass transition (see e.g. J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 382, 79 (2013)). The CPT gives in an universal viscosity equation eta;(T)=A1T[1+A2exp(B/RT)][1+Cexp(D/RT)] valid at all temperatures. We show that a particular result from CPT is the universal temperature relationship for the activation energy of viscous flow:
Thus Q(T) depends on asymptotic energies QL at high temperatures (for the liquid phase), QH at low temperatures (for the glassy phase) and entropy of configurons Sd. This equation has two asymptotes, namely Q(TH, and Q(T>>Tg) = QL. The equation for Q(T) practically coincides in the transition range of temperatures with Sanditov&’s equation (JETP, 110, 675 (2010)). In addition we propose a simple analytical approach which provides numerical values of thermodynamic parameters of bonds (e.g. Hd and Sd) in glass forming materials from four shear viscosity coefficient data at four temperatures, two of which should be below and other two above glass transition temperature. This method aims to replace earlier used complex fitting procedures for the nonlinear viscosity equations to experimental data.