Alexandra Boltasseva, Purdue University
Dragomir Neshev, Australian National University
Jie Yao, University of California Berkeley
Xiaobo Yin, University of Colorado Boulder
Symposium Support NKT Photonics, Inc.
HH2: New Metaphotonic Designs and Fabrications II
Monday PM, November 30, 2015
Hynes, Level 2, Room 204
2:30 AM - *HH2.01
On the Macroscopic Description of Optical Stress in Metamaterials
Che-Ting Chan 1 Shubo Wang 1 Wujiong Sun 1 2 Jack Ng 3
1Hong Kong Univ of Samp;T Kowloon Hong Kong2State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics, Key Laboratory of Micro and Nano Photonic Structures (Ministry of Education), and Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Fudan University Shanghai China3Department of Physics and Institute of Computational and Theoretical Studies, Hong Kong Baptist University Hong Kong Hong KongShow Abstract
In the area of metamaterial research, it is frequently assumed that effective medium parameters provide all the information necessary to determine the light-matter interaction. But even if the effective medium parameters can describe faithfully how the material can manipulate wave in the long wavelength limit, can the same set of parameters describe faithfully how the wave can manipulate the material? It is known that the total electromagnetic induced force acting on a metamaterial can be calculated using the Maxwell stress tensor if the light scattering property of the metamaterial can be described by standard effective medium parameters. However, we show that the optical stress inside a metamaterial systems cannot be determined by the information of effective permittivity and permeability and it can only be correctly calculated using the Helmholtz stress tensor which takes into account of electrostrictive and magnetostrictive effects. Using multiple scattering theory, we derived for the first time the analytical formulas for electrostrictive/magnetostrictive tensors for two dimensional all dielectric metamaterial systems, which are found to depend explicitly on the symmetry of the underlying lattice of the metamaterial as well as a local effective wave vector. These analytical results enable us to calculate light-induced body forces inside a composite system using the Helmholtz stress tensor within the effective medium formalism in the sense that the fields used in the stress tensor are those obtained by solving the macroscopic Maxwell equation with the microstructure of the metamaterial replaced by an effective medium. The optical stress induced by an external light source at the boundary of two metamaterials is also subtle. We investigate the optical stress induced at the interface formed by two kinds of metamaterials and it is found that the stress is strongly affected by the electrostriction and magnetostriction effects. We show that the symmetry of the underlying lattice can dramatically influence interface stress to the extent the optical stress in the interfacial area is in fact "indeterminate", in the sense for given values of effective permittivity and permeability, the interfacial stress is unknown unless we know the microscopic details or their manifestations through electrostrictive tensors. Related to this problem, we find that light in a negative-index material background in general does not pull an object immersed in it.
3:00 AM - HH2.02
Graphene-Enabled Active Metamaterials
Osman Balci 1 Ertugrul Karademir 2 Semih Cakmakyapan 3 Nurbek Kakenov 1 Emre Ozan Polat 4 Seung Hyun Hur 5 Ekmel Ozbay 1 Coskun Kocabas 1
1Bilkent University Ankara Turkey2Trinity College Dublin Ireland3University of California LA Los Angeles United States4University of Glasgow Glasgow United Kingdom5University of Ulsan Ulsan Korea (the Republic of)Show Abstract
Metamaterials bring subwavelength resonating structures to overcome the limitations of conventional matter. The realization of active metadevices requires electrically reconfigurable components operating over a broad spectrum with a wide dynamic range. The existing capability of metamaterials, however, is not sufficient to realize this goal. Here, using large area graphene capacitors incorporated with metallic split ring resonators, we demonstrated electrically controlled metadevices on large-area flexible substrates. In this device architecture, metallic resonators are capacitively coupled to the graphene electrodes that introduce voltage-controlled dissipation. Electrostatic tuning of charge density on graphene in the order of 1014 cm-2 enabled us to switch the resonance behavior of the split ring resonators by 50 dB with an operation voltage of 2V. Large modulation depth, simple device architecture, and mechanical flexibility are the key attributes of the graphene-enabled metadevices that could find a wide range of applications ranging from active signal processing to switchable cloaking.
3:15 AM - HH2.03
Enhancing Optical Signals of Chiral Metamaterials via Nonlinear Excitation
Sean P Rodrigues 1 Yonghao Cui 1 Shoufeng Lan 1 Lei Kang 1 Wenshan Cai 1
1Georgia Inst of Technology Atlanta United StatesShow Abstract
As natural chiral materials demonstrate limited circularly dichroic contrasts, enhancement of these polarization dependent signals has long been the focus of chiral metamaterial research. By manipulating the geometric chirality of resonant plasmonic nanostructures, we are capable of enhancing light confinement to amplify chiral modified, nonlinear signals from quantum emitters. The metamaterial demonstrates a linear transmission contrast of 0.5 between left and right circular polarizations and a 20× contrast between second harmonic responses from the two incident polarizations. Nonlinear and linear response images probed with circularly polarized lights show strongly defined contrast. As a second set of experimentation, the chiral center of the metamaterial is opened, providing direct access to place emitters to occupy the most light-confining and chirally sensitive regions. The resulting two-photon emission profiles from circularly polarized excitation displays mirrored symmetry for the two hybrid enantiomer structures. The efficiency of the nonlinear signal directly correlates to the chiral resonance of the linear regime. The nonlinear emission signal is enhanced by 40× that of the emitters not embedded in the metamaterial and displays a 3× contrast for the opposite circular polarization. Such manipulations of nonlinear signals with metamaterials open pathways for diverse applications where chiral selective signals are monitored, processed, and analyzed.
3:30 AM - HH2.04
Tunable Metasurfaces Based on Selective Modification of Phase Change Materials
Shuyan Zhang 2 Jura Rensberg 1 You Zhou 2 Jochen Kerbusch 3 Shriram Ramanathan 2 Carsten Ronning 1 Federico Capasso 2 Mikhail Kats 2 4
1Friedrich-Schiller-Universitauml;t Jena Jena Germany2Harvard University Cambridge United States3Helmholts-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf Dresden Germany4University of Wisconsin Madison United StatesShow Abstract
Tunable optical metamaterials and metasurfaces are an emerging frontier, with promising applications including optical modulation, routing, and beam steering. Dynamic control in such meta-devices can be achieved by incorporating active media, e.g. liquid crystals or phase change materials, into the optical structures. Vanadium dioxide (VO2), a prototypical phase change material, has a thermally induced insulator-metal transition that results in a considerable change in its optical properties. It has been shown that the complex refractive index of VO2 changes drastically during phase transition.
Here we demonstrate tunable metasurfaces created using defect engineering via ion irradiation through lithographically defined masks, which locally modifies the phase transition properties on a subwavelength scale. Our metasurfaces consist of irradiated and unirradiated (intrinsic) VO2 regions in a square checkerboard arrangement on a sapphire substrate. The phase transition properties of the metasurface are determined by the ion fluence and the duty cycle of the irradiated regions. Naively one might expect the reflectance of our metasurface to be the average of the reflectance values of the irradiated and intrinsic VO2. Instead we observe an effective response of the metasurfaces, with an “effective phase transition temperature” between the phase transition temperature of the irradiated and intrinsic VO2. This is due to the subwavelength nature of our patterned features. Hence we can treat the patterned VO2 film as an effective medium which has a well-defined temperature- and wavelength-dependent complex refractive index. We apply effective medium theory to model the behavior of our metasurfaces, and observe good agreement with the experimental results. By combining defect engineering with electron-beam lithographic patterning techniques, we can design effective media with engineered anisotropy and gradient indices. Our approach will be broadly applicable to the development of tunable optical meta-devices.
4:15 AM - *HH2.05
Nano-Optomechanical Dielectric Metasurfaces Reconfigurable with Light
Artemios Karvounis 1 Jun-Yu Ou 1 Davide Piccinotti 1 Weiping Wu 1 Eric Plum 1 Kevin F. MacDonald 1 Nikolay I. Zheludev 1 2
1Univ of Southampton Southampton United Kingdom2Nanyang Technological University Singapore SingaporeShow Abstract
We report on the realization of ultrathin free-standing all-dielectric metasurfaces, with sharply resonant optical properties in the near-infrared (telecoms) wavelength range, in which the optical forces generated among constituent elements are sufficient to induce reversible nanoscale structural deformation. With mechanical Eigenfrequencies in the hundreds of megahertz range, the optomechanical response of such structures provides for fast, strongly nonlinear tuning of optical properties at µW/µm2 intensities.
4:45 AM - HH2.06
Super-Cell Chirality in Gap-Plasmonic Metasurfaces
Amr Shaltout 1 Jingjing Liu 1 Alexander V. Kildishev 1 Vladimir Shalaev 1
1Purdue West Lafayette United StatesShow Abstract
We present a novel methodology to implement metasurfaces that realize the optical properties of chiral media which possess differential operation with respect to left- (LCP) and right-circular polarization (RCP). Chirality is very recurrent in biological media and organic compounds. These compounds have molecules which don&’t superimpose onto their mirror image lifting the degeneracy between LCP and RCP causing the chiroptical response. Thus, generating and sensing optical chirality is valuable to stereochemistry and molecular biology in addition to its electrodynamic applications. However, the chiroptical effect is generally weak in natural crystals and detectable only when strong phase differences between LCP and RCP accumulate over a long optical path. Strong chiroptical effects have been demonstrated in metamaterials using 3D nano-structures with broken mirror symmetry. Yet, they are complicated to implement because they require fabrication of multi-layers with angular rotations of nano-structures along successive layers. Here, we present a simplistic and efficient technique to produce chiroptical effects with gap-plasmonic metasurfaces. A planar array of metallic antennas is fabricated on top of a metallic film reflector and spaced by a dielectric layer. The metal\dielectric\metal sandwich excites slow gap-plasmonic waves that cause a significant phase and polarization change to the back-reflected beam. As a result of antennas&’ anisotropy, the metasurface responds differently to RCP and LCP. Through introducing a phase-shift between the reflected LCP and RCP components of light, the metasurface performs the chiral response of rotating polarization angle (PA) around propagation direction. We implement two metasurfaces that rotate PA of linearly polarized light by 450and -450, respectively. The structure doesn&’t require using complex chiral antennas. We use simple rectangular antennas, and the chiral response is obtained through superposition of reflected beam from a 16-antennas supercell by careful design of location and orientation of each antenna. We obtain a chiral effect that depends on the supercell structure rather than the properties of composite materials. Therefore, the operation is very tolerant against fabrication inaccuracies and\or temperature effects, and high quality results are experimentally obtained. Thus, gap-plasmonic metasurfaces can provide simple, compact and efficient technology for applications include bio-sensing, DNA structural analysis, crystallography, and secure quantum communications.
5:00 AM - HH2.07
Bound State in the Continuum Optical Devices
Boubacar Kante 1
1Univ of California-San Diego La Jolla United StatesShow Abstract
Symmetries play a fundamental role in physics and devices physics. In this talk, I will discuss the fundamental role of symmetries at the nanoscale resonant level in constructing nanophotonics optical devices. I will in particular discuss the possibility to construct new optical modes that do not decay despite residing the continuum of radiation modes. These modes, called bound states in the continuum, are very peculiar modes with topological properties that can enhance the functionality of nanophotonics optical devices. Their design, fabrication and characterization will be presented.
5:15 AM - HH2.08
Visible-Frequency Hyperbolic Metasurface
Robert C. Devlin 1 Alexander A. High 3 2 Alan M. Dibos 1 Mark Polking 3 Dominik C Wild 2 Janos C Perczel 4 Nathalie P de Leon 3 2 Mikhail D Lukin 2 Hongkun Park 3 2
1Harvard University Cambridge United States2Harvard University Cambridge United States3Harvard University Cambridge United States4Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge United StatesShow Abstract
Metamaterials are artificial media that produce optical phenomena not present in naturally occurring materials. However, three-dimensional (3D) metamaterials suffer from extreme propagation losses, limiting their utility. Two-dimensional (2D) metasurfaces and, in particular, hyperbolic metasurfaces (HMSs) for propagating surface plasmon polaritons, have the potential to alleviate this problem. Because SPPs are guided at a metal-dielectric interface (rather than passing through metals), these HMSs have been predicted to have lower loss while still exhibiting phenomena observed in 3D metamaterials.
We report the first experimental realization of a hyperbolic metasurface  formed by lithography and etching nanostructures into sputter-deposited, single-crystalline silver films. The resulting devices display broadband negative refraction and diffraction-free propagation. Additionaly, we find that the HMS exhibits strong, dispersion-dependent spin-orbit coupling, enabling polarization- and wavelength-dependent routing of chiral SPPs. Because we begin with extremely low-loss silver films[1,2], the measured propagation distances of up to 30 mu;m in the HMS shows that the 2D nature of our devices coupled with the single-crystalline silver films offers a substantial, one to two orders of magnitude improvement over 3D metamaterials. These results provide tools for implementing high-performance plasmonic nanostructures with widespread conventional and quantum optics applications.
 Alexander High*, Robert C. Devlin*, Alan Dibos, Mark Polking, Dominik S. Wild, Janos Perczel, Nathalie P. de Leon, Mikhail D. Lukin and Hongkun Park. Visible-frequency hyperbolic metasurface. Nature522, 192-196 (2015). *equal contribution.
 S. Kolkowitz*, A. Safira*, A. A. High, R. C. Devlin, S. Choi, Q. P. Unterreithmeier, D. Patterson, A. S. Zibrov, V. E. Manucharyan, H. Park, M. D. Lukin. Probing Johnson noise and ballistic transport in normal metals with a single-spin qubit. Science347, 1129 (2015)
5:30 AM - HH2.09
Multifunctional Multiwavelength QD-Nanoparticle Integrated All-Dielectric Optical Circuits: On Chip Focusing and Guiding
Swarnabha Chattaraj 1 Anupam Madhukar 2 3
1University of Southern California Los Angeles United States2University of Southern California Los Angeles United States3University of Southern California Los Angeles United StatesShow Abstract
Optical metamaterials are being exploited to manipulate light on the nanoscale but integrating such metamaterial structures with a nanoscale source such as a quantum dot (QD) to gain integrated multiple functions such as enhancement of QD excitation and/ or emission rates and directing the emitted photons on to a waveguide in an on-chip optical system remains a challenge. Past efforts have been largely focused on individual functions such as: (i) enhancement of excitation and/ or emission rates via incorporation of the QD in a photonic cavity ;(ii) guiding of the emitted photons via appropriate placement of the QD by an antenna directed towards (iii) a lossless waveguide. Here we propose and analyze a novel design that incorporates these multiple functions simultaneously at multiple wavelengths into an architecture comprising a QD in a coupled dielectric nanoparticle resonator based optical circuit.
We realize these multiple functions by tailoring the wavelengths of the magnetic and electric multipole modes in high index dielectric nanoparticles as a function of size, shape and material parameters to control their coupling to the electronic states in the QD at the designed excitation and emission wavelengths. The optical response of the system is analytically modeled using the multipole expansion method  based on classical electromagnetism. We present specific results for a system comprising TiO2 nanoparticle optical resonators and a QD excited at 532nm and emitting at 980nm. The nanoparticle radius and separations are chosen such that the magnetic hexapole (TE3,1) mode is in resonance at the excitation wavelength of 532nm to provide local electric field enhancement at the QD while simultaneously the magnetic dipole (TE1,1) and electric dipole (TM1,1) modes are in resonance at the QD emission at 980nm to provide guiding. In this case we find a 20-25 fold enhancement of electric field intensity at the QD at the excitation wavelength along with simultaneous Purcell enhancement, guiding and on-chip lossless propagation at the emission wavelength. The different functionalities in our design show sufficient robustness with respect to fabrication tolerances such as nanoparticle positions which, along with the inherent lossless nature of the dielectric material makes the design suitable for scaling. Our generic analysis of the multipole resonances and light-matter interactions makes this approach readily applicable to optimization of dielectric materials and architectures relevant to optical and other wavelength regimes.
 S. Buckley et.al. Rep. Prog. Phys. 75, 126503 (2012).
 A. E. Krasnok et.al. Optic Express 20, 20599 (2012).
 A. Yariv, et.al. Optic Letters 24,11 (1999).
 J. M. Gerardy et.al. Phys. Rev. B 25, 6 (1982).
HH1: New Metaphotonic Designs and Fabrications I
Monday AM, November 30, 2015
Hynes, Level 2, Room 204
9:15 AM - HH1.01
Investigating Bright and Dark Plasmons with All k Vectors and All k Vectors and Energies with Multiprobe Excitation and Scattering/Collection Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy
Rimma Dekhter 2 Aaron Lewis 1
1The Hebrew University of Jerusalem Jerusalem Israel2Nanonics Imaging Jerusalem IsraelShow Abstract
New apertured and apertureless methods will be described with relationship to the excitation and detection of dark and bright surface plasmon polaritons. The methods are based on interrogating meta surfaces with multiple probes. As has been very elegantly demonstrated by Xifeng Ren et al, [Applied Physics Letters 98, 201113 (2011)] an apertured Near-field Scanning Optical Microscopy (NSOM) probe acts as a point source of surface plasmon polaritons with a deterministic position and minimum requirement for the light source. On the other hand Dobman et al, [Adv. Optical Mater. 2014, DOI: 10.1002/adom.201400237 ] have shown that a second type of bound surface plasmon polariton, that cannot be excited from the far-field, propagates well across a metasurface. Such a bound plasmon polariton can only be excited, if light is used, from a near-field probe which produces all k vectors. Furthermore, point excitation of plasmons without background light and with all k vectors and all energies also will be reported using tunneling probes incorporated into a multiprobe system with scattering or collection NSOM for mapping the transport of plasmon polariton propagation on a variety of meta surfaces. All of these probes are constructed to allow for contact of one probe with another which is readily accomplished.
9:30 AM - *HH1.02
Spinoptical Gradient Metasurfaces
Erez Hasman 1
1Technion-Israel Inst. of Technology Haifa IsraelShow Abstract
Photonic gradient metasurfaces are ultrathin electromagnetic wave-molding metamaterials that provide a route for realizing flat optics. Recently, we reported on a novel class of metasurfaces - spinoptical metamaterials - which gives rise to a spin-controlled dispersion due to the optical Rashba effect. The optical spin as an additional degree of freedom offers controlled manipulation of spontaneous emission, absorption, scattering, and surface-wave excitation. Spin-symmetry breaking in nanoscale structures caused by spin-orbit interaction, leading to a new branch in optics - spinoptics is presented. The spin-based effects offer an unprecedented ability to control light and its polarization state in nanometer-scale optical devices, thereby facilitating a variety of applications related to nano-photonics. However, the up-to-date metasurface design, manifested by imprinting the required phase profile for a single, on-demand light manipulation functionality, is not compatible with the desired goal of multifunctional flat optics. Here, we report on a generic concept to control multifunctional optics by disordered (random) gradient metasurfaces with a custom-tailored geometric phase. This approach combines the peculiar ability of random patterns to support extraordinary information capacity, and the polarization helicity control in the geometric phase mechanism, simply implemented in a two-dimensional structured matter by imprinting optical antenna patterns. By manipulating the local orientations of the nanoantennas, we generate multiple wavefronts with different functionalities via mixed random antenna groups, where each group controls a different phase function. Disordered gradient metasurfaces broaden the applicability of flat optics as they offer all-optical manipulation by multitask wavefront shaping via a single ultrathin nanoscale photonic device.
10:00 AM - HH1.03
On-Chip CMOS-Compatible All-Dielectric Zero-Index Metamaterial
Yang Li 1 Orad Reshef 1 Mei Yin 1 2 Philip Alejandro Munoz 1 Daryl I Vulis 1 Shota Kita 1 Marko Loncar 1 Eric Mazur 1
1Harvard Univ Cambridge United States2Peking University Beijing ChinaShow Abstract
On-chip metamaterials with a refractive index of zero shows extreme physical properties such as infinite phase velocity and wavelength. It also has several potential integrated-photonics-related applications including super-couplers, surface emitting lasers, and phase-mismatch-free nonlinear optics. Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform received much attention recently due to its compatibility with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology, which makes the mass production of photonic devices reliable. Current implementations of on-chip SOI-based zero-index metamaterials involve either metallic structures or high aspect-ratio silicon pillars, which require many processing steps, and is complicated to integrate with other photonic devices on a standard SOI wafer. Additionally, metamaterials involving metallic structures cost highly.
Here, we design an on-chip zero-index metamaterial consisting of square array of air-holes in the 220-nm thick top-silicon layer of a standard SOI wafer. This structure can be fabricated through the single-step E-beam lithography and fully-etching, which reduces the processing steps and the fabrication difficulties significantly.
Simulated effective permittivity and permeability cross zero simultaneously and linearly at the design wavelength of 1550 nm, with a finite effective impedance. Computed band structure shows that this epsilon-and-mu-zero behavior corresponds to a Dirac-cone dispersion at the center of the Brillouin zone (Gamma point), indicating a relatively isotropic zero index. This Dirac-cone dispersion is formed by the degeneracy between a quadrupole mode and two degenerate dipole modes at the Gamma point. All these results indicate that the zero index of this metamaterial is low-loss, isotropic and with a good impedance matching to free space and standard optical waveguides.
To directly demonstrate the zero index of this metamaterial, we plan to measure the refraction of a prism made of this metamaterial. We also plan to retrieve the complex index and impedance of the metamaterial from the complex transmission and reflection coefficients measured using on-chip Mach-Zehnder-interferometer-based setups.
In conclusion, we demonstrate an on-chip CMOS-compatible all-dielectric metamaterial with a low-loss, isotropic, and impedance-matched zero index at 1.55 um.
10:30 AM - HH1.05
Froehlich Resonance in an AsSb-AlGaAs Metamaterial
Vladimir V. Chaldyshev 1 2 Vitalii Ushanov 1 Valerii Preobrazhenskii 3 Mihail Putyato 3 Boris R. Semyagin 3
1Ioffe Institute Saint Petersburg Russian Federation2Peter the Great St.Petersburg Polytechnic University Saint Petersburg Russian Federation3Institute of Semiconductor Physics Novosibirsk Russian FederationShow Abstract
When an array of small metallic particles is embedded into a dielectric matrix one should expect a pole in the polarizability of the medium at certain energy, when the negative real part of the dielectric function of the metal compensates the double value of the positive real part of the dielectric function of the surrounding dielectric material. This gives rise to so called Froehlich resonance in the optical properties of such metamaterial.
We investigated a resonance in optical absorption, which originates from localized plasmon excitations in a self-organized system of metal AsSb nanoparticles embedded in a semiconductor AlGaAs matrix.
The AsSb-GaAlAs metamaterial was produced by a low-temperature molecular-beam epitaxy on the (001) GaAs substrates followed by a high-temperature annealing. Our transmission electron microscopy study revealed a system of almost spherical AsSb inclusions in the crystalline AlGaAs matrix. The diameter of the inclusions was 4-7, 5-8 and 6-9 nm after annealing at 400, 500 and 600C, correspondingly. The filling factor was constantly 0.17%.
The Froehlich plasmon resonance in our metamaterial was revealed at 1.48 eV with a bandwidth of 0.18 eV. The absorption coefficient within the resonant band was as large as 9000 cm-1. No significant changes in the parameters of the resonance have been observed for different particle sizes, which is consistent with Mie scattering theory. In theoretical calculations we used well documented data for the dielectric properties of AlGaAs and Drude model for the electron system of the metal AsSb nanoinclusions. A reasonably good description was achieved with plasmon resonance energy of 7.38 eV and damping time of 3 fs in bulk AsSb, which were fitting parameters of the model.
10:45 AM - HH1.06
Conformal, Macroscopic Crystalline Nanoparticle Sheets Assembled with DNA
Jessie Ku 1 Michael Ross 1 George C. Schatz 1 Chad A. Mirkin 1
1Northwestern University Evanston United StatesShow Abstract
Relative placement of nanoparticles allows for fine-tuning of plasmonic, electronic, and magnetic interactions at the nanoscale. DNA-programmable assembly is a powerful means for controlling nanoparticle placement in extended crystalline materials imparting independent control over lattice size, spacing, and composition. Investigations into light-programmable matter interactions of these nanoparticle assemblies demonstrate great promise for engineering three-dimensional metamaterials by utilizing the precise materials tunability of this technique. However, these nanoparticle superlattices previously existed either as mu;m-scale aggregates or epitaxially grown structures bound to a substrate.
The desire to integrate these nanoparticle assemblies into higher order constructs has led to the investigation of transferable nanoparticle superlattice materials. We describe a novel method for synthesizing freestanding and transferrable nanoparticle superlattice sheets made through DNA-programmable techniques to flat, curved, or dimpled substrates without sacrificing the control over lattice symmetry and parameter afforded by the DNA-programmable technique. Grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering and optical spectroscopy studies performed on these novel materials suggest preservation of nanoparticle superlattice ordering through the sheet synthesis process as well as large area uniformity. Moreover, these remarkable silica-embedded structures can withstand harsh chemical, physical, and mechanical conditions—an important discovery that will likely increase their utility.
This technique will provide an avenue for researchers to consider using such nanoparticle superlattices for a wide variety of sensor, cloaking, and light manipulating studies and devices.
11:30 AM - *HH1.07
Salient Features of Mu-Near-Zero (MNZ) Metastructures: Theoretical and Experimental Results
Joao S Marcos 2 Mario G Silveirinha 2 Nader Engheta 1
1Univ of Pennsylvania Philadelphia United States2University of Coimbra Coimbra PortugalShow Abstract
In 2006 we introduced the concept of epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) structure and its supercoupling effects [M. G. Silveirinha and N. Engheta, “Tunneling of Electromagnetic Energy through Sub-Wavelength Channels and Bends Using Epsilon-Near-Zero (ENZ) Materials”, Phys. Rev. Lett., 97, 157403 (2006). Since then numerous properties of ENZ materials have been investigated extensively, and also expanded to include other extreme scenarios. One of the interesting paradigms of such extreme metamaterials are the structures in which the relative permeability attains near-zero values, while the permittivity exhibits conventional positive values. Such engineered mu-near-zero (MNZ) materials offer an interesting platform for wave-matter interaction with exciting features. In the present work, we show, both theoretically and experimentally in the microwave domain, how the supercoupling phenomenon between highly mismatched waveguide sections is different from that of the ENZ scenario. One major difference is the required height of the MNZ transition channel, which needs to be disproportionaly wider than the height of the input and output waveguides, contrary to the ENZ case where the ENZ channel had to be much narrower. Importantly, in the MNZ regime the electromagnetic field in the channel is dominantly magnetic. This offers an interesting possibility for tailoring and enhancing the radiation by small magnetic emitters, which is usually weaker than that of electric dipole emitters for which the ENZ structure is suitable. We will present our theoretical results and experimental verification of the MNZ supercoupling effects using the microwave waveguides with the transition region constructed to exhibit MNZ response. There are other intringuing features specific to the MNZ structures, which will be discussed in the presentation.
12:00 PM - *HH1.08
Topological Light at Metamaterial Surfaces
Shuang Zhang 1 Mark Lawrence
1Univ of Birmingham Birmingham United KingdomShow Abstract
Metamaterials have become one of the most exciting fields in optics due to their exotic optical properties and important applications that are not attainable from naturally occurring materials. In particular, broken symmetry in metamaterials can lead to extremely strong effects of anisotropy (broken rotational symmetry), chirality and bianisotropy (broken mirror symmetry), which go far beyond the properties of nature materials. In this talk, I will show that by combining chirality with strong anisotropy, new topological order emerges in metamaterials leading topologically protected photonic surface states that are immune from scattering by defects and sharp edges. In addition, I will talk about our recent works on optical metasurfaces, a new type of structured surfaces showing well controlled abrupt phase discontinuities for circularly polarized incident light arising from Berry phase. A number of novel device applications have been realized based on the Berry phase metasurfaces: a dual polarity metalens that can functions either as a convex or a concave lens, a helicity switchable unidirectional surface plasmon polariton coupler, and high definition, high efficiency holograms. Finally, I will show that extending the concept of Berry phase to harmonic generations can lead to continuous phase control over the local nonlinear polarizability, which goes beyond the conventional poling technique that only manipulate the sign of the nonlinear coefficient, i.e. binary phase profile.
12:30 PM - HH1.09
Optical Metamaterials Go Reconfigurable at Visible and Ultraviolet Frequencies
Johann Toudert 1 Alexander Cuadrado 1 Rosalia Serna 1
1Instituto de Oacute;ptica, CSIC Madrid SpainShow Abstract
Optical metamaterials provide novel ways of manipulating light, allowing effects such as negative refraction,1 optical phase tuning,2 off-specular reflection following generalized Snell-Descartes laws,2 enhancement of the quantum yield of light emitters and tuning of their radiation spectrum and pattern,3 near-perfect optical absorption,4 topological optical darkness.5 These optical meta-effects open the way to the development of lightweight and ultracompact photonic solutions including: flat optical components, data encryption media, integrated high efficiency lighting and optically-monitored sensors.
Most of the existing optical metamaterials operate in the near infrared to radiofrequency range and are based on noble metal plasmonic structures. Making them suitable for the visible or ultraviolet ranges is a still challenging task, since it demands a nanoscale structuration at the limit of lithography techniques. In addition, tomorrow&’s photonic solutions appeal at the development of the so-called “reconfigurable metamaterials”6 presenting reversibly switchable optical meta-effects under external excitation. Achieving reconfigurability together with optical meta-effects in the visible and ultraviolet requires to identify and properly assemble nano-elements, beyond the rather inert noble metals and even beyond plasmonic elements.
In this presentation, we first identify the most promising non-conventional nano-elements for building reconfigurable metamaterials at visible and ultraviolet frequencies. We make a special emphasis on those whose dielectric function is sensitive to external parameters (light, magnetic field, heat, pressure, chemical agentshellip;). Among them, semi-metallic nano-elements (Bi, Ga, Sb) are especially relevant due to: i) their solid-liquid phase transition that can be activated by thermostatic, laser, Joule or plasmonic heating, ii) the strong dielectric contrast between the solid interband polaritonic phase and liquid plasmonic phase in the ultraviolet and visible. We focus the second part of the presentation on the demonstration of optical meta-effects and reconfigurability in metamaterials built from nano-Bi.
1 Naik, G. et al.; Demonstration of Al:ZnO as a plasmonic component for near-infrared metamaterials. PNAS 2011, 109, 8834
2 Yu, N. et al.; Light propagation with phase discontinuities: Generalized laws of reflection and refraction. Science 2011, 334, 333
3 Yang, T.B. et al.; Real-time tunable lasing from plasmonic nanocavity arrays, Nature Comm.2015, 6, 1-7
4 Hägglund, C. et al.; Self-Assembly Based Plasmonic Arrays Tuned by Atomic Layer Deposition for Extreme Visible Light Absorption, Nano Lett., 2013, 13, 3352
5 Kravets, V.G. et al.; Singular phase nano-optics in plasmonic metamaterials for label-free single-molecule detection. Nature Mater. 2013, 12, 304
6 Turpin, J.; Reconfigurable and tunable metamaterials: a review of the theory and applications, Int. Journ. Ant. Prop. 2014, 429837
12:45 PM - HH1.10
Symmetry Control for Scale-Up Synthesis of Optical Metamaterials in Solution
Sui Yang 1 2 Xingjie Ni 1 Xiaobo Yin 1 Boubacar Kante 1 Yuan Wang 1 Xiang Zhang 1 2
1Univ of California-Berkeley Berkeley United States2Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Berkeley United StatesShow Abstract
Metamaterials, designed composite structures with unprecedented properties and applications, have emerged as a new frontier of science and technology. As the properties of metamaterials are primarily from their structures rather than their chemical constituents, controlling geometrical effects such as symmetry and spatial arrangements play fundamental roles in metamaterials research. Metamaterial with designed symmetry that can be realized by top-down fabrication methods such as lithography, but often result in planar and small-scale metamaterials. In contrast, self-assembly approaches, may offer advantages of large scalability and cost effectiveness. However, there are significant challenges in achieving controlled assembly symmetries of metamaterials in large scale due to constraints of thermodynamics and crystal lattice mismatching between designed composites. Here we show a scalable synthesis route that enables high level control of spatial assembly symmetries, creating large-scale metamaterials with desired properties. Combing optical physics and materials chemistry, we demonstrate scalable assembly of non-trivial broken symmetries in metamaterials by optical feedback strategy. Moreover, by rational engineering symmetry configurations and coupling of unit cells, three dimensional (3D) isotropic optical negative index metamaterials can be scalable fabricated that is of paramount importance for applications such as superlens and transformation optics. Our method not only offers a scalable and sustainable manufacturing technique for 3D metamaterials, but also provides a platform for studying symmetry-based physics and applications.
Alexandra Boltasseva, Purdue University
Dragomir Neshev, Australian National University
Jie Yao, University of California Berkeley
Xiaobo Yin, University of Colorado Boulder
Symposium Support NKT Photonics, Inc.
HH4: New Materials for Plasmon and Metaphotonics
Tuesday PM, December 01, 2015
Hynes, Level 2, Room 204
2:30 AM - *HH4.01
Metal/dielectric Multilayer Metamaterials: Flat Lenses, LEDs and Wave Attractors
Albert Polman 1
1FOM Institute AMOLF Amsterdam NetherlandsShow Abstract
Planar metal/dielectric multilayer geometries provide a unique platform to engineer the dispersion of light in many different ways. We present a novel geometry to realize a flat lens composed of a single-periodic metal/dielectric multilayer stack. We use the hyperbolic dispersion of a multilayer composed of very thin layers as a starting point, and gradually increase the layer thicknesses. We find that fully angle-independent dispersion can be achieved (wavelength 354 nm) for a multilayer composed of 53 nm silver and 25 nm titanium dioxide films, characterized by an omnidirectional negative refractive index n=-1.
Confocal and near-field microscopy show that such a thin multilayer slab acts as a flat lens, with unique features such as a submicron thickness, the absence of an optical axis and a lens-image separation of only 350 nm. The experimental data are in good agreement with analytical Green&’s tensor calculations of the focus profile above the metamaterial lens. We use analytical field calculations to calculate the direction of the Poynting vector, taking into account losses and dispersion, and find that the unit-cell and time-averaged Poynting vector of all individual harmonics of the Bloch wave are oriented in the same direction. The image is formed by the coherent superposition of refracted light from multiple harmonics in the metamaterial.
We show that by replacing the Ag layer by a transparent conducting oxide film the lens can be made to operate anywhere in the UV, visible, and near-IR spectral range. Specifically, we show that using aluminium-doped ZnO a flat lens can be made operating in the infrared telecom range near 1.5 micron. The electrical tunability of the focusing characteristics will be presented as well. The new design presented here provides the simplest flat lens geometry proposed to date.
Inspired by the versatility and elegance of the multilayer design, we present a dielectric multilayer material that serves as anti-reflection coating for stratified media, by matching the modal field profiles across the interface, thus solving the impedance matching problem often found with layered metamaterials. We then show how a dielectric multilayer structure can act as an angular filter, which can be used to control the emission characteristics of a light-emitting diode. Finally, we show how a layered metamaterial combined with a special cavity design creates a wave-attracting cavity resonance at optical frequencies. We show that for circularly polarized light the plasmonic spin-Hall effect can be exploited to achieve a deterministic wave attractor for light emitters in the cavities&’ near field
3:00 AM - HH4.02
Plasmofluidic Device for On-Chip Concentration, Manipulation and Sensing of Particles Using TiN Plasmonic Nanoantenna Array
Justus C Ndukaife 1 Agbai George Agwu Nnanna 1 Steven T Wereley 1 Vladimir M. Shalaev 1 Alexandra Boltasseva 1
1Purdue University West Lafayette United StatesShow Abstract
Plasmonics, which offers unparalleled capability for light confinement and guiding at the sub-wavelength scale, is an emerging technology for realization of compact devices for a wide range of applications in biosensing, energy conversion, nanofabrication, nanoscale resolution imaging and enhancement of spontaneous emission. Advances in materials synthesis has paved way for the realization of alternative plasmonic materials. Among the alternative plasmonic materials, transition metal nitrides such as TiN and ZrN have attracted significant attention owing to their plasmonic resonance at visible and NIR wavelengths, and robust physical properties including high melting point, which make them promising for devices that operate under harsh conditions.1 We expand on the photonic devices employing alternative plasmonic materials by exploring their applications for realization of novel plasmofluidic devices.
Plasmofluidics, which is the synergy between optofluidics and plasmonics enables new possibilities in micro and nanofluidics including particle manipulation, sorting, sensing and ultrasensitive spectroscopy on a lab-on-a-chip platform.2 We report a plasmofluidic device for on-chip concentration and sensing of particles in a self-contained lab-on-a-chip platform using arrays of plasmonic TiN nanoantennas.
The device comprise plasmonic nanoantennas fabricated on a glass substrate (coated with a thin layer of electrically conducting TiN film). The plasmonic nanoantennas comprise of TiN nanodisks with diameter of 270 nm, lattice spacing of 370 nm and thickness of 30 nm. An ITO-coated glass substrate is placed over the substrate having the plasmonic nanoantennas, with a 90 µm thick microfluidic channel in between. Illumination of the plasmonic nanoantennas with a 1064 nm NIR laser source results in collective photo-induced heating of the nanodisks, which in turn induces local inhomogeneities in the fluid&’s electrical properties. When an AC electric field is applied, a large-scale vortex is induced. The vortex rapidly captures and transports the suspended particles with high throughput towards the surface of the TiN nanoantennas where they are captured by local electric field effects. Trapping of particles in this device configuration is shown to occur in seconds effectively beating the diffusion limit. Our TiN-based plasmofluidic device provide an all-in-one multipurpose integrated analytical platform for capture, transport, trapping, sorting and label-free sensing of analytes.
1. Boltasseva, A. & Shalaev, V. M. Materials science. All that glitters need not be gold. Science347, 1308-10 (2015).
2. Ndukaife, J. C. et al. Photothermal heating enabled by plasmonic nanostructures for electrokinetic manipulation and sorting of particles. ACS Nano8, 9035-43 (2014).
3:15 AM - HH4.03
Metal Oxides for Near Infrared Plasmonic Applications
Heungsoo Kim 1 Eric Witte Breckenfeld 1 Nick Charipar 1 Mike Osofsky 1 Alberto Pique 1
1Naval Research Laboratory Washington United StatesShow Abstract
Noble metals such as Au and Ag have been used traditionally as metallic components in plasmonic and metamaterial devices in the visible spectral range because of the relatively low optical losses. However, conventional metals with high carrier concentrations are not suitable for near infrared (IR) plasmonic applications due to their relatively large optical losses, which are detrimental to the performance of plasmonic devices. Thus, it is necessary to develop less metallic materials (i.e., lower carrier concentrations) as an alternative for traditional metals in the near IR. Doped metal oxides have been recognized as low loss metallic components for plasmonic and metamaterials applications in the near IR because they offer a tunable carrier density in the range up to 1021 cm-3. The zero-cross-over permittivity values of these metal oxides can easily be tuned by adjusting carrier density through doping in the range from 1.3 µm to 3 µm with a relatively lower optical losses compared to what is achievable with conventional metals in the near IR. We have investigated various types of metal oxides, such as Al-doped ZnO, Ga-doped ZnO, Sn-doped In2O3, and VO2 using pulsed laser deposition. We will present details on the synthesis and optimization of these metal oxides along with tunable plasmonic devices based on these materials.
This work was funded by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) through the Naval Research Laboratory Basic Research Program.
3:30 AM - HH4.04
Defect Engineering of VO2 Enables Temperature-Tunable Meta-Devices
Jura Rensberg 2 Shuyan Zhang 1 You Zhou 1 Alexander S. McLeod 3 Christian Schwarz 2 Michael Goldflam 3 Ronny Nawrodt 2 Mengkun Liu 4 3 Jochen Kerbusch 5 Shriram Ramanathan 1 Dmitri Basov 3 Federico Capasso 1 Carsten Ronning 2 Mikhail Kats 6 1
1Harvard University Cambridge United States2Friedrich-Schiller-Universitauml;t Jena Germany3University of California - San Diego La Jolla United States4Stoney Brook University Stoney Brook United States5Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf Dresden Germany6University of Wisconsin Madison United StatesShow Abstract
Metamaterials enable unprecedented flexibility in manipulating electromagnetic waves. The optical response of most metamaterials is static, modified only by adjusting the geometric parameters of the constituent building blocks. Many functionalities of metamaterials may be greatly enhanced by hybridizing these materials with functional matter, like phase-change materials, where the dielectric properties can be controlled in real-time by an external stimulus such as an applied electric field, light, mechanical stress or temperature.
One of the most widely studied phase change materials is vanadium dioxide (VO2), which exhibits a reversible insulator to metal transition (IMT) as the temperature is increased above a critical temperature TC ~ 68°C. The low-temperature insulating phase of VO2 is considered to be a Mott-Peierls insulator wherein both electron-electron correlations and dimerization of vanadium ions contribute to the opening of an insulating gap. Thus, the IMT is very sensitive to the stability of the electron hybridization and therefore on electronic doping, structural defects and lattice strain, making ion beam irradiation a particularly effective technique to modify the IMT.
We demonstrate how ion beam irradiation can be used to modify and engineer the VO2 phase transition via the intentional creation of defects and lattice damage (“defect engineering”). Rutherford backscattering spectrcoscopy and optical measurements show, that the presence of a small amount of structural defects caused by ion irradiation significantly decreases the transition temperature - even below room temperature - of the irradiated regions. Unlike existing means to modify the IMT via doping during growth, ion beam irradiation can be combined with lithographic patterning to create complex optical meta-devices with designer phase transitions. Using this approach we demonstrate ultra-thin (thickness ~ lambda;/100) temperature-tunable perfect absorbers and reconfigurable polarizers for the mid-infrared.
4:15 AM - *HH4.05
Metal-Semiconductor Integrated Nonlinear Metasurfaces
Igal Brener 1 Omri Wolf 1
1Sandia National Laboratories Los Alamos United StatesShow Abstract
Metasurfaces, the 2D equivalent of metamaterials, offer new functionality for the manipulation and study of light and light-matter interaction. Incorporating and taking advantage of optical nonlinearities in metasurfaces further expands the available toolbox because it facilitates access to light at different frequencies. Until recently, studies of nonlinearities in metasurfaces utilized the intrinsic nonlinearity associated with the metal used to construct the individual units in the metasurface array. Here, we will discuss a new approach that combines a highly nonlinear material with the field enhancing and light manipulation properties of metamaterial nanocavities. This combination allows for a much higher effective nonlinearity, can be dynamically tuned and it can span most of the IR wavelength range. As an example we fabricate a phased array metasurface based on second harmonic generation from metallic nanoresonators strongly coupled to intersubband transitions in semiconductor quantum wells. We realize a mid-infrared source with an arbitrary beam shape and polarization, having a total thickness of less than one micron. Using III-Nitrides semiconductor heterostructures, we scaled these highly nonlinear metasurfaces to the near-infrared.
4:45 AM - HH4.06
Plasmonic Array of Nanoparticles Fabricated from Epitaxial Thin Films of Titanium Nitride
Shunsuke Murai 1 Koji Fujita 1 Yohei Daido 1 Ryuichiro Yasuhara 1 Katsuhisa Tanaka 1 Ryosuke Kamakura 1
1Kyoto University Kyoto JapanShow Abstract
As the expansion of fundamental and application research in plasmonics, there is an increasing demand on better materials. In addition to the demand for lowering optical loss, another important and required property is the processability. Although gold and silver show excellent plasmonic responses, they cannot be nanostructured with selective dry etching techniques. This limitation makes the fabrication of nanostructures of gold and silver complex and tricky. Titanium nitride (TiN) has been proven to be a promising material having the compatibility with nanofabrication techniques . TiN, which is composed of abundant elements of titanium and nitrogen, has gold-like optical properties together with a high thermal stability and a mechanical toughness. The thin-film fabrication techniques have been established for TiN because of its technological and industrial importance.
In this study, we have fabricated two-dimensional diffractive arrays of TiN nanoparticles by taking advantage of its compatibility with nanofabrication technique. High-quality, epitaxial thin films of TiN were prepared by using a pulsed laser deposition method. The thin films prepared were structured to the arrays of nanoparticles with the pitch of 400 nm by the combination of nanoimprint lithography and reactive ion etching. The choice of periodic array comes from its ability to support collective plasmonic mode; thanks to the periodicity on the order of lightwaves, the localized surface plasmon polaritons excited on each nanoparticles are coupled through diffraction . The collective mode is associated with the intense field spatially extended in the plane of the array, so that it is advantageous for many optical applications including fluorescence enhancement, surface-enhanced Raman scattering, and solar cells. The results of optical transmission indicate that the arrays support the collective plasmonic modes. Numerical simulation visualizes the intense fields accumulated both in the nanoparticles and in between the particles, confirming that the collective mode originates from the simultaneous excitation of localized surface plasmon polaritons and diffraction.
This study experimentally verified that the processing of TiN thin films with the nanoimprint lithography and reactive ion etching is a powerful and versatile way of preparing plasmonic nanostructure.
 G. V. Naik, J. Kim, and A. Boltasseva, Opt. Mater. Express 1, 1090 (2011).
 G. Vecchi, V. Giannini, and J. G. Rivas, Physical Review B 80, 201401(R) (2009).
5:00 AM - HH4.07
Titanium Nitride as a Tunable Metal for Plasmonic Applications
Christine M. Zgrabik 1 Evelyn Hu 1
1Harvard University Cambridge United StatesShow Abstract
Transition metal nitrides have recently garnered much interest as alternative materials for robust plasmonic device architecture including applications in solar absorbers, heat-assisted magnetic recording, photothermal cancer therapies, etc. Titanium nitride (TiN) is one such potential candidate with proof of concept demonstrations in several of these areas. One advantage of the transition metal nitrides is that their optical properties are tunable according to the deposition conditions. The controlled achievement of tunability, however, is also a challenge. Although the formation of TiN has been the subject of numerous previous studies, a thorough analysis of the deposition parameters necessary to form metallic TiN films optimized for plasmonic applications has not been demonstrated. Similarly, such TiN films have not been subjected to detailed optical measurements which could be used in FDTD device simulations to optimize plasmonic device designs.
To be able to design, simulate and build robust and optimal device structures, we have conducted a systematic and thorough examination of the effect of varied substrates, temperatures, and reactive gas compositions on sputtered TiN thin films with a specific focus on the resulting optical properties at visible to NIR frequencies. We measured the optical properties of each film via spectroscopic ellipsometry with more “metallic” films demonstrating a larger negative value of the real part of the permittivity. We have correlated these optical measurements with both the films&’ deposition conditions and microstructures; the different deposition conditions have resulted in TiN films with different optical responses. By sputtering under different conditions we are able to tune the value of the permittivity from small positive values, through small and moderate negative values, and finally all of the way to large negative values which are comparable to those measured in gold.
In summary, we have performed an initial optimization of sputtered TiN films with desirable plasmonic behavior on a variety of commonly used substrates and are now able to tune the films over a wide range of values of permittivity at longer visible into near-IR wavelengths. Initial plasmonic demonstrations have proven the films to be of high optical quality.
5:30 AM - HH4.09
Ultraviolet Plasmonics Based on Morphology-Controlled Rhodium Nanostructures
Xiao Zhang 1 Fernando Moreno 3 Henry Everitt 2 Jie Liu 1
1Duke Univ Durham United States2Army Aviation and Missile RDamp;E Center Redstone Arsenal United States3University of Cantabria Santander SpainShow Abstract
Exciting collective oscillations of conduction electrons in metal nanostructures by electromagnetic fields, known as localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), provides an important approach to manipulate light in sub-wavelength spaces. With the unique capability of LSPR to strongly interact with resonant photons and overcome diffraction limit, plasmonic metal nanostructures have been employed in many applications, including surface-enhanced spectroscopy, high-resolution microscopy, optoelectronics and photocatalysis. Au nanostructures have been extensively studied as plasmonic materials, which exhibit excellent plasmonic effects and stability in different environments. Their resonant frequencies, however, are limited in the visible and near-infrared (NIR) regions, due to the existence of interband transitions. As the application of plasmonic nanostructures extending to the ultraviolet (UV) region, a counterpart of Au that can be operate in UV is desired but not available until our recent experimental and theoretical “re-exploration” of Rh nanostructures. Rh, a noble metal with excellent stability, has been widely used as catalyst, but little attention has been paid to its plasmonic properties. Thus, a systematic investigation of structure-property relationship of Rh nanostructures and UV plasmonic properties is needed. This presentation reports our recent progress on Rh-based UV plasmonic materials. We developed modified polyol methods with both seedless and seed-mediated protocols to synthesize Rh nanostructures. By tuning the reaction conditions, Rh nanostructures with well-defined shapes and tunable sizes were successfully synthesized. Their plasmonic properties were studied by spectroscopic methods as well as theoretical simulations. UV-vis extinction spectroscopy revealed the existence of LSPR in the Rh nanostructures and showed the shift of resonant frequencies with different sizes, which is in good agreement with our collaborators&’ simulations. The plasmonic properties of these Rh nanostructures were also studied by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. The UV plasmonic Rh nanostructures and the understanding of structure-property relationship could benefit both fundamental study and practical use of UV plasmonic materials.
HH5: Poster Session: Optical Metamaterials
Tuesday PM, December 01, 2015
Hynes, Level 1, Hall B
9:00 AM - HH5.01
Broadband Optical Modulation with Indium-Tin-Oxide Nanorod Arrays
Peijun Guo 1 Richard D Schaller 2 3 Leonidas E. Ocola 2 Robert P. H. Chang 1
1Northwestern University Evanston United States2Argonne National Laboratory Argonne United States3Northwestern University Evanston United StatesShow Abstract
All optical control of light holds great promises for optical switching, photonic circuits, telecommunication and molecular sensing. Ideally light modulation schemes would possess wide spectral range, large tunability, small optical losses, material stability, and ultrafast modulation speeds. However, combining all these merits simultaneously in practical operation is still very challenging. Here we report a lossless, super-broadband and enhanced optical modulation enabled by indium-tin-oxide nanorod arrays (ITO-NRAs). Large modulation of differential and absolute transmissions of ITO-NRA in the ultraviolet to visible (UV-vis) range was achieved by pumping at its metallic, near-infrared (NIR) localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) wavelength. The spectral feature is easily tunable by sample geometry design, and the ITO-NRA shows extremely high pump fluence tolerance due to its chemical stability and high melting point. The optical modulation exhibits both an ultrafast, sub-picosecond component and a slow, multi-nanosecond component. The spatially uniform ITO-NRA also exhibits highly coherent acoustic vibrations at gigahertz (GHz) frequency that further expands the modulation bandwidths. Our work brings new opportunities for active optical control via alternative plasmonic materials.
9:00 AM - HH5.02
Novel IR Active Plasmonic Core/Shell Nanostructured Arrays
Akram Khosroabadi 1 Palash Gangopadhyay 1 Robert A Norwood 1
1The University of Arizona Tucson United StatesShow Abstract
Metal and metal oxide electrodes play a significant role in many cutting edge applications including photonics, membranes, biological supports, sensing, electrochromics, and in various green technologies, such as, photocatalytics, Li-ion batteries and photovoltaics. There is strong interest in the ability to create one-dimensional nanoscale metal and metal oxide electrode structures that provide high surface area, tunability of the electrode - organic interfaces, and low tortuosity for improved electron / hole transport characteristics. Interest in patterning polymer based nanodevices and creating sub-100 nm metal and transparent conducting oxide (TCO) based nanostructured electrodes (NSEs) has led us to modify the traditional imprint lithography technique to enable synthesis of an array of sub-30 nm diameter polymer nanostructures. In this approach, a hard e-beam lithographed Si or SiC master is used to directly imprint a large area nanopattern onto polyacrylonitrile (PAN) film. The PAN film is then cured at ~ 200 °C to synthesize nanostructures. Large area nanostructured hybrid silver and indium tin oxide (ITO) arrays with feature sizes below 100 nm have been fabricated. The optical and electrical properties of these core shell electrodes including the surface plasmon frequency can be tuned by suitably changing the dielectrics and their dimensions. The surface plasmon wavelength of the nanopillar Ag changes from 650nm to 690nm depending on the dimensions of the pillars. Adding layers of ITO to the structure shifts the resonance wavelength toward the infrared region by an amount depending on the sequence and thickness of the layers in the structure. Quantum confinement of the free carriers in ITO is expected within the 30nm thick shell and contributes significantly in the overall optical and electrical properties. The NSITO is more transparent across the entire spectrum and shows lower specular reflection. The band edge of the NSITO is red shifted and shows a second smaller optical band gap ~3.25 eV in addition to bulk optical band gap at 3.55 eV. Recently we have shown that the optical band gap can be fine tuned by changing the shell thickness on the sidewall. NSITO also shows lower specular reflection and calculated carrier concentration is ~ 5 - 6 times larger than the flat ITO sample and a strong function of the shell thickness.We developed an array of electrodes with traditional SiO2 / Ag multi-layer configuration within the nanorods in different orders. Expectedly the optical characteristics of these electrodes are strong functions of geometry of the layers and surrounding dielectrics and can be explained using traditional hybrid plasmonic model based on Drude model. Detailed FDTD modeling and electrical characterization indicate that by changing the layer dielectrics optical and electrical properties can be modified.
9:00 AM - HH5.03
An Improved Invisibility Cloak Using a New Scatter-Cancellation/Transform Hybrid Model
Gadi Licht 1
1George Washington University Ashburn United StatesShow Abstract
Invisibility cloaks have potential uses ranging from masking objects from light to shielding objects from shockwaves. To be cloaked, an incident wave is reassembled to continue onward as if there was no disruption by, or to, the object. Any wave type may be cloaked as long as materials with the appropriate characteristic wave interactions are made available. Invisibility cloaks are advancing, but are limited by their mathematical representations.
Currently, there are two principal, fundamentally different, approaches for the mathematical representation of a cloak. One is termed transform cloaking, and the other approach is scatter-cancellation cloaking. Each approach can only provide a partial approximation to the perfect cloak in real world applications. Transform cloaking bends a wave around an object. Scatter-cancellation cloaking uses the scattering off of many bodies to negate the incident wave perturbation. Scatter-cancellation cloaking operates more effectively at smaller scales, and is more effective over a wider wavelength range, but is shape-constrained. Transform cloaking can function for any size or shape object; however, while theoretically better for individual frequencies, it is problematic to approximate with real world materials. Challenges to the construction of transform cloaks arise from the continuous mapping function used to bend the wave by compressing the cloak/object space. For example, this compression would require materials with unrealistically high and rapidly varying indices of refraction. Here, a synergistic, combination of these approaches is proposed and demonstrated.
A novel hybrid cloak model is designed by optimizing the position and properties of intrusions embedded in a cloaking space composed of a matrix of shells surrounding the object. Variation of the intrusion geometry, density and spatial location is used to optimize the scattering contribution to the cloaking efficacy. Variation of the index of refraction within individual shells is used to optimize and control the transform contribution to the cloaking efficacy. The resultant hybrid cloak was analyzed for phase shifts; time delays for the exit wave to arrive beyond the cloaking region and to reach a steady state; and the extent of wave scattering. The combined cloak is compatible and transferable to real world material characteristics and outperformed each separate model alone.
9:00 AM - HH5.04
Study of Exciton-Plasmon Coupling by a Combination of Optical Spectroscopy and Cyclic Voltammetry Techniques
Vanessa Nicole Peters 1 Mikhail Noginov 1
1Norfolk State Univ Norfolk United StatesShow Abstract
The research field of strong exciton-plasmon coupling has drawn much interest over the last decade. The strong coupling leads to formation of split hybridized energy states, which are different from those of constituent components. Traditionally, strong coupling is studied by means of optical spectroscopy, which combines features of both (hybridized) HOMO and LUMO molecular states. In order to decouple contributions of HOMO and LUMO to the overall spectra, we combined optical spectroscopy with cyclic voltammetry -the electrochemistry technique that probes the oxidation and reduction potentials (e.g. transitions between the HOMO and the "vacuum" states).
Experimentally, we have studied interaction of highly concentrated dye molecules with thick silver films and films of Ag nanoislands featuring strong surface plasmon resonance. (i) In thick Ag films, broadening and splitting of the HOMO state, which was observed in the cyclic voltammetry experiments, was also seen in the optical spectroscopy spectra. (ii) In Ag nanoisland samples, strong exciton-plasmon coupling manifested by Fano resonances observed in the reflection spectra. Lowering of the HOMO energy state (in comparison to that in thick Ag films) was observed in the cyclic voltammetry experiments. More experimental results and analysis will be presented at the conference.
The authors acknowledge NSF PREM grant DMR 1205457, NSF IGERT grant DGE 0966188, ARO grant W911NF-14-1-0639, and AFOSR grant FA9550-14-1-0221.
9:00 AM - HH5.06
Ultrasmooth Epitaxial Gold/Silver Thin Films for Low-Loss Plasmonic Metamaterials
Takashi Uchino 1 Vassili A Fedotov 2 Jun-Yu Ou 2 Tasuku Koiwa 1
1Tohoku Inst of Technology Sendai Japan2University of Southampton Southampton United KingdomShow Abstract
We will present a simple and robust crystal growth technique, which yields large area single-crystal films of silver ideally suited for fabricating high-finesse plasmonic metamaterials. The stacked gold/silver films with the total thickness of 140 nm were epitaxially grown on LiF substrates around 500°C by using a sputtering method. We confirmed the high quality of the thin films by measuring the surface roughness using scanning probe microscope (SPM) and the optical constants using ellipsometry.
Metamaterials are a class of artificial materials designed to interact with light in ways no natural materials can.1,2 Due to its resonant nature, the response of the metamaterials is very sensitive to the presence of dissipative losses in the metallic resonators. The losses are particularly strong in the plasmonic regime and are hampering the use of metamaterial devices for photonic applications. The several approaches to overcome the losses including the search for better plasmonic media among metallic alloys, semiconductors, and conductive oxides,3-5 as well as direct compensation of losses by combining metamaterials with various optical gain media6 were reported. Those solutions, however, aim to minimize Joule losses, while in practice dissipation rates are often much higher than expected from the Ohm&’s law alone. The additional significant drawback comes from surface roughness and grain boundary scattering due to polycrystalline nature of metal films,7 and therefore employing single-crystal of noble metals can make a major contribution to the improvement of plasmonic losses.
We demonstrated that single-crystal gold thin films grown on LiF substrates had smooth surfaces with root mean square (RMS) roughness of 0.2 nm and nanostructured metamaterials fabricated with these films had strong resonant response in the near-IR spectral range.8 In this work, we have developed a single-crystal silver thin film growth technique in order to reduce the losses further and extend the response wavelength. The SPM measurements showed the gold/silver films had remarkably smooth surfaces with RMS roughness less than 0.1 nm. The ellipsometry measurements showed that strong interband transitions occurred at the wavelength of 300 nm. The estimated quality factor of localized surface plasmon resonances from the measured optical constants is 20, which is two times larger than the single-crystal gold films on LiF substrates. We believe that this technique could make it readily accessible to both plasmonics and metamaterials communities.
 V. G. Veselago et al, Nature Mat. 5, 759 (2006).
 N. I. Zheludev, Science 328, 582 (2010).
 D. A. Bobb et al, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 151102 (2009).
 M. G. Blaber et al, J. Phys: Cond. Mat. 21, 144211 (2009).
 A. Boltasseva et al, Science 331, 290 (2011).
 S. M. Xiao et al, Nature 466, 735 (2010).
 M. Kuttge et al, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 113110 (2008).
 V. A. Fedotov et al, Optics Express, 20, 9545 (2012).
9:00 AM - HH5.07
Modifying the Fluorescence Spectra of Localized Emitters by Plasmonic Interferometry
Dongfang Li 1 Jing Feng 1 Pei Liu 2 Domenico Pacifici 1
1Brown Univ Providence United States2Brown University Providence United StatesShow Abstract
Plasmonic interferometers, which typically consist of slit-groove and hole-groove structures on a metallic film, have found a wide variety of applications, such as enhancement of light transmission through small apertures and label-free biosensing. In such devices, the scattering of light by nanostructures on the metallic surface may be employed for two distinct purposes: either the efficient coupling of free space light into surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modes, or the reverse process, in which SPPs are scattered into free space light. More recently, plasmonic interferometers have been proposed to engineer the radiation pattern of emitters (e.g., quantum dots and fluorescent molecules). For example, both slit-groove and hole-groove structures were applied to beam fluorescent emission based on the interference of the scattered light by the groove structures. In addition to coupling light into and out of free space, the groove structures can also act as a lossy mirror which reflects SPPs. In this way, we can identify two major optical paths in the emitter and plasmonic interferometer combination system: emitted light that directly propagates through the nanoaperture, and light scattered by the aperture itself, which propagates as an SPP initially towards the groove but is then reflected back towards the nanoaperture. Due to the interference of these two optical paths, the transmitted fluorescence spectra can be modified.
In this work, using a thin layer of trivalent chromium doped magnesium oxide (Cr3+:MgO) emitters on top of a metallic film, we systematically studied the spectral modification caused by a variety of plasmonic interferometer configurations. Nanostructures were first milled onto a thin silver film using a focused ion beam. A thin Cr3+:MgO emitter layer was then deposited on top of the silver. Initially, the transmitted fluorescence spectra through the slit-groove structure were measured and normalized by the reference spectrum from a single slit. Due to the interference of the directly emitted light and the reflected SPPs by the groove structure, clear spectral modification was observed, which could be modified by tuning the slit-groove distance. However, such spectral modifications are not strong considering the high losses upon reflection of the SPP. To further enhance the spectral modification, bull&’s eye structures with one-, two- and three-grooves were also studied, resulting in much stronger interference effects. We also note that the spectral modification is sensitive to the refractive index near the surface of the emitter layer. Therefore, the proposed emitter-coupled plasmonic interferometers have potential applications for biosensing and optical modulators.
9:00 AM - HH5.08
Tunable Impedance Properties of Bismuth Nanoparticles
Alexander Cuadrado 2 Johann Toudert 2 Braulio Garcia-Camara 1 Ricardo Vergaz 1 Javier Alda 3 Rosalia Serna 2
1Carlos III University of Madrid Leganeacute;s Spain2CSIC. Instituto de Oacute;ptica Madrid Spain3University Complutense of Madrid Madrid SpainShow Abstract
Since several years ago, light is considered as a new way for futuristic computation, overcoming current limitations of electronics . Researchers are currently working in the development and implementation of photonic devices that behave as a counterpart of electronic devices, in the so-called field of Metatronics . One of the main challenges of this field is the implementation of optical circuitry. In this sense, photonic equivalent resistors, capacitors and inductors are needed. Engheta and coworkers  showed that nanostructures with convenient effective optical properties present impedance properties similar to that of these lumped elements. However, the main handicap of these devices lies on their complex implementation as well as their passive properties.
Current research on semiconductor and semimetal nanostructures is showing new impressive properties, such as optical magnetism . In this work, we focus our attention on the impedance properties of bismuth (Bi) nanospheres. By a simulation tool implementing the finite elements method (COMSOL copy;), we observe that these nanoparticles have a remarkable capacitive impedance in the near-infrared part of the spectrum. Changing the particle size, the value of the impedance can be tuned through a wide spectral range. The simplicity of the structure and its fabrication makes it a good candidate as integrated nanocapacitor in potential optical circuits. In addition, by heating the nanoparticle over its melting point (T=2710C), its impedance changes fastly from purely capacitive to a purely inductive.
 D.A.B. Miller. Are optical transistors the logical next step? Nature Photon. 4, 3-5 (2010).
 H. Caglayan, S.-H. Hong, B. Edwards, C. R. Kagan, and N. Engheta. Near-Infrared Metatronic Nanocircuits by Design. Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 073904 (2013).
 Y. Sun, B. Edwards, A. Alugrave; and N. Engheta. Experimental realization of optical lumped nanocircuits at infrared wavelengths. Nature Mater.11, 208-212 (2012).
 J.M. Geffrin, B. García.Cámara, R. Goacute;mez- Medina, P. Albella, L.S. Froufe-Pérez, C. Eyraud, A. Litman, R. Vaillon, F. González, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, J.J. Sáenz, F. Moreno. Magnetic and electric coherence in forward-and back-scattered electromagnetic waves by a single dielectric subwavelength sphere. Nature Commum.3, 1171 (2012).
9:00 AM - HH5.09
Chiral Forces Associated with Transverse Spin of Locally Excited Chiral Surface Plasmon Polaritons
Hossein Alizadeh 1 Bjoern Reinhard 1
1Boston Univ Boston United StatesShow Abstract
Very recently sizable body of research has focused on transverse spin of evanescent electromagnetic waves. In beams that can be described by paraxial limit the spin angular momentum of light is a measure of its helicity and is either parallel or anti-parallel to the direction of propagation. In the case of non-paraxial or evanescent waves, however, fields with spinning axis transverse to the direction of propagation can exist. Here we calculate the transverse spin associated with a locally excited chiral surface plasmon polariton and show that it can exert chirality-specific forces on chiral objects of opposite handedness. We then comment on features of such a chiral force including the relative magnitudes of in-plane and out-of-plane forces.
9:00 AM - HH5.10
Three-Dimensional Plasmonic Waveguide Obtained Using Anodic Porous Alumina
Toshiaki Kondo 1 Takashi Yanagishita 1 Hideki Masuda 1
1Tokyo Metropolitan University Hachioji JapanShow Abstract
Formation of metal nanostructures has attracted attention due to unique optical properties based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Various functional optical devices consisting of metal nanostructures have been proposed, for example, waveguide, metamaterial and so on. The performances of the devices are dependent on the geometrical structures and the arrangements of the metal nanostructures. However, the efficient fabrcation process of the geometrically-controlled metal nanostructures has not been established.
To fabricate metal nanostructures, a template process using nanoporous materials is used to be used. Anodic porous alumina is well known as a typical nanoporous material. Anodic porous alumina is obtained by anodizing Al in an acidic electrolyte. Metal nanostructures are formed by electrodepositing metal into the nanoholes in the anodic porous alumina. One of the advantageous points of using the anodic porous alumina is controllability of geometrical structures. The diameter and arrangement of the nanoholes in the anodic porous alumina can be easily controlled by changing anodizing conditions. In addition, the nanoholes have high aspect ratio. Until now, we have reported the fabrication of metal nanostructures and its application to plasmonic devices [1,2]. In this presentation, the fabrication process of geometrically-controlled metal nanostructures (nanohole and coaxial nanocable) with high aspect ratio using the anodic porous alumina is described. By using anodization and electrodeposition process, the metal nanostructures with high aspect ratio could be obtained. In addition, the application of the structures to three-dimensional plasmonic waveguides is described. It was observed that the light was effectively propagated in the plasmonic waveguides. It is expected that this fabrication process based on the anodic porous alumina can be applied not only to fabricate the plasmonic waveguides but also to form metamaterials requiring geometrically-controlled metal nanostructures.
 T. Kondo, H. Masuda, K. Nishio, J. Phys. Chem. C, 117, 2531 (2013).
 T. Kondo, N. Kitagishi, T. Yanagishita, H. Masuda, Appl. Phys. Express, 8, 062002 (2015).
9:00 AM - HH5.11
Hyperbolic Metamaterials: Ultra-Anisotropic Materials for Bio-Nanophotonics
Giuseppe Strangi 1 2 Antonio De Luca 2
1Case Western Reserve University Cleveland United States2University of Calabria Rende ItalyShow Abstract
Hyperbolic metamaterials (HMM) are non-magnetic anisotropic nanostructures that can support highly confined wavevector modes in addition to surface plasmon modes within the structure due to hyperbolic dispersion. They feature hyperbolic (or indefinite) dispersion because one of their principal components has the opposite sign to the other two. Their properties include the strong enhancement of spontaneous emission, diverging density of states, negative refraction and enhanced superlensing effects. Such metamaterials represent the ultra-anisotropic limit of traditional uniaxial crystals, having dielectric properties in one direction (ε > 0) but metallic properties in the other (ε < 0) and supporting high-wavevector propagating waves (bulk plasmon modes) due to hyperbolic dispersion. Here, we report the excitation and collection of those modes at optical frequencies using grating coupling principle. The design, fabrication and characterization of grating-coupled HMMs (GCHMMs) in a wide wavelength range, from visible to near infrared are presented. HMMs have many promising applications due to the existence of high-k modes, a concept that has been theoretically and numerically investigated by many research groups. However, the experimental verification of their existence in a multilayer setup is challenging because the high modal indices and deep subwavelength confinement.
We will discuss current and potential applications of GCHMMs in nanophotonics and bio-medical research. To demonstrate the suitability of our structure for sensing applications, experiments have been performed using a flow cell-based 2D GCHMM. A maximum sensitivity of 30,000 nm per RIU is obtained at near IR wavelength range, which is highest sensitivity reported in conventional plasmonic sensors.
 Sreekanth, K. V., De Luca, A. and Strangi, G., “Negative refraction in graphene-based hyperbolic metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 103, 023107, 2013.
 K. V. Sreekanth, A. De Luca, and G. Strangi, “Experimental Demonstration of Surface and Bulk Plasmon Polaritons in Hypergratings” Scientific Reports (Nature Publishing) 3, 3291(2013)
 K. V. Sreekanth, K. Hari Krishna, A. De Luca and Giuseppe Strangi “Large Spontaneous Emission Rate Enhancement in Grating Coupled Hyperbolic Metamaterials” Scientific Reports (Nature Publishing) 4, 6340 (2014)
9:00 AM - HH5.12
Fabrication of a Metamaterial-Based Sensing Platform for Surface- and Tip-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy
Tyler Jamison Dill 1 Matthew Rozin 1 Andrea R Tao 1
1Univ of California-San Diego La Jolla United StatesShow Abstract
Plasmonic metamaterials are ideal platforms for enhanced Raman spectroscopy techniques that can be used to detect and identify molecules at extremely low concentrations. Engineered structures that localize optical fields enable chemical analysis with high sensitivity and at low detection levels, and can be designed to do so over large detection areas. Here, we present two metamaterial-like architectures designed for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) sensing. These architectures consist of colloidal Ag nanoparticles assembled on either a flat metal surface or an AFM tip. In both cases, a high quality plasmonic cavity is generated between the nanoparticle and the underlying metal film, where we locate our analyte. We demonstrate large-area SERS maps of patterned molecular monolayers with ~1 mu;m resolution and signal variance of < 10%. We also demonstrate sub-diffraction resolution TERS maps of monolayer-patterned surfaces with pattern features of ~0.6 mu;m.
9:00 AM - HH5.13
Optical Properties of Tungsten Doped Vanadium Dioixde Thin Films on Silicon
Robert Marvel 1 Tom Tiwald 2 Stuart K Earl 3 Bin Wang 4 Ann Roberts 3 Richard F Haglund 1
1Vanderbilt Univ Nashville United States2J.A. Woollam Lincoln United States3The University of Melbourne Melbourne Australia4The University of Oklahoma Norman United StatesShow Abstract
Phase change materials add functionality and increase the range of applications for metamaterial and plasmonic structures by allowing dynamic control of the optical properties. Vanadium dioxide (VO2) exhibits a structural phase transition at 67°C with a large change in optical and electrical properties. VO2 has been studied extensively as a model correlated electron system and has also been used for active plasmonic a