Madhu Chinthavali, Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Robert Kaplar, Sandia National Laboratories
Martin Kuball, University of Bristol
Tetsuya Takeuchi, Meijo University
RR2: GaN Power Devices II
Monday PM, November 30, 2015
Hynes, Level 3, Room 306
2:30 AM - *RR2.01
Near-Junction Microfluidic Cooling for Wide Bandgap Devices
Avram Bar-Cohen 1 J. Maurer 1 Abirami Sivananthan 1
1DARPA-MTO Arlington United StatesShow Abstract
Wide-bandgap materials are poised to revolutionize power electronics, offering higher efficiency, reliability, and output power in a broad range of energy conversion and RF power amplifier (PA) devices. Gallium nitride (GaN) is emerging as the wide bandgap material of choice for both industrial and defense applications but thermal impediments present a significant bottleneck to realization of the full potential enabled by the GaN material properties. Traditional “remote cooling” solutions, which rely on thermal conduction and spreading through low thermal conductivity substrates and across multiple interfaces, are incapable of limiting device junction temperature rise. Recent “embedded cooling” efforts, largely funded by Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Microsystems Technology Office (DARPA-MTO), have focused on reduction of the near-junction thermal resistance through the use of diamond substrates and efficient removal of the dissipated power with convective and evaporative microfluidics.
This paper will first motivate the need for advanced thermal management in GaN PAs. Attention will then turn to the accomplishments of the DARPA Near-Junction Thermal Transport (NJTT) program, including the thermal and electrical characteristics of GaN epitaxial layers bonded to bulk diamond, GaN with directly grown polycrystalline diamond as a replacement for the native substrate, and GaN on a native substrate with diamond-filled vias. The paper will then turn to on-going research in the DARPA ICECool program, which further enhances the performance of GaN PAs through intra-chip microfluidic cooling and the thermal and electrical co-design necessary to design high power GaN PAs.
3:00 AM - *RR2.02
Power Switching Transistors Based on GaN and AlGaN Channels
Siddharth Rajan 1 Ting-Hsiang Hung 1 Saurabh Bajaj 1 Fatih Akyol 1 Sriram Krishnamoorthy 1
1The Ohio State University Columbus United StatesShow Abstract
The III-Nitride material system has the potential to create a new generation of highly efficient compact power electronics. In this work we will describe our work towards understanding the device physics of metal-insulator-semiconductor III-Nitride transistors with enhancement mode operation. Fundamental properties of III-Nitride materials, such as polarization and doping, make it challenging to achieve enhancement mode devices with good performance. We will first present our work on AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator high electron mobility field effect transistors, focusing on our theoretical and experimental work to understand the effect of interface states on electrostatics, transport, and threshold voltage stability in such devices. We will discuss our demonstration of interface charge density engineering  leading to the demonstration of normally off transistors  with high current density. We will then show that high threshold voltage and efficient device performance can be simultaneously achieved using ultra wide band gap AlGaN as the channel material . A calculation of theoretical figures of merit for such devices taking into account the effects of electron scattering in the channel and breakdown field  will be presented to compare resistance and switching losses in ultra wide band gap AlGaN devices with those in GaN. Finally, we will discuss our work on experimentally realizing device structures based on ultra wide band gap materials, and our approach to improving electron transport and contacts in such devices.
 Esposto M, et al, Appl. Phys. Lett. , 99, 133503 (2011).
 Hung, TH, et al, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 072105 (2013)
 Hung TH, et al, Appl. Phys. Lett. , 162104 (2011).
 Hung, TH, et al, IEEE Elec. Dev. Lett., 35 (3), 99. 312-314 (2014)
 Bajaj, S, et al, Appl. Phys. Lett. 105.26, 263503, (2014)
3:30 AM - RR2.03
Polarization and Two Dimensional Electron Gas Visualization in AlGaN/GaN Heterostructure
Kotaro Hirose 1 Norimichi Chinone 1 Yasunori Goto 2 Yasuo Cho 1
1Tohoku Univ Sendai Japan2Toyota Motor Corporation Toyota JapanShow Abstract
Application of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) to power controlling devices is highly expected. AlGaN/GaN HEMT has excellent features for managing large electrical power: high breakdown voltage, high electron mobility, low on-state resistance, low switching losses and high thermal conductivity. It is now generally recognized that two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) is one of the key factor which determine the electrical property of AlGaN/GaN HEMT. The polarization in AlGaN/GaN heterostructure plays important roles in forming 2DEG. Thus, 2DEG and polarization are crucial factors of evaluation.
Techniques for device evaluation are important for effective development of high performance device at low cost. Scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy (SNDM) is one of candidates of evaluation techniques for analyzing carrier distribution and polarization. SNDM measures the variation of capacitance between sample and conductive tip responding to the applied ac voltage and can detect carrier polarity, density, and polarity of polarization. SNDM has such high capacitance variation sensitivity of 10minus;22 F that the detailed profile of carrier and polarization distribution can be measured.
2DEG is observed by measuring the variation of depletion layer thickness of Schottky contact formed between tip and sample. Moreover, polarization can be observed by measuring the variation of capacitance due to nonlinear dielectric response related to the nonlinear dielectric constant whose sign is determined from polarization polarity.
AlGaN, GaN, and buffer layer thicknesses of the sample were 30nm, 1.6mu;m, and 2.4mu;m, respectively. The Al composition ratio in AlGaN was 30%. These layers were epitaxially grown on Si substrate. AlGaN layer and GaN layer have their own spontaneous polarization Psp. In addition, the lattice mismatch between GaN layer and AlGaN layer causes piezo-induced polarization in AlGaN layer . The acquired SNDM data showed the direction of AlGaN polarization and that of the GaN polarization were same and the magnitude of polarization of AlGaN was larger than that of GaN. At the GaN layer, the signal value near the AlGaN/GaN interface went down from minus;50 Hz/V to minus;300 Hz/V. The difference of these signal values 250 Hz/V was caused by 2DEG. The half width of the 2DEG profile was about 10 nm, which means that the range of signal influenced by 2DEG was 10 nm. When the tip is near 2DEG, an electric field arrive at 2DEG from the tip because there are no carriers that block electric field in undoped AlGaN layer and undoped GaN layer. It is reasonable to assume that the half width is slightly thicker than real 2DEG thickness. Thus, we concluded that SNDM has a useful tool for evaluating the 2DEG and polarization distribution in AlGaN/GaN heterostructure.
 Y. Cho, A. Kirihara, and T. Saeki: Rev. Sci. Instrum., vol. 67, p. 2297, 1996.
 O. Ambacher et al.: J. Appl. Phys., vol. 85, p. 3222, 1999.
3:45 AM -
4:30 AM - *RR2.05
Oh Thatrsquo;s SiC, Yes We GaN!
Shashank Krishnamurthy 1
1United Technologies Research Center East Hartford United StatesShow Abstract
The emergence of wide band gap semiconductor devices has pushed the boundaries of power converter operation. The devices enable the user to increase the switching frequency of power converters while maintaining high efficiency. Potential operation at higher temperatures allows the user to further reduce the size and weight of such conversion systems. The talk will attempt to present the state of the art in wide band gap devices, the challenges associated with designing with such devices and its adoption in power conversion equipment.
5:00 AM - RR2.06
Lowering Contact Resistances on AlGaN/GaN HEMT Structures by Introducing Uneven AlGaN Layers: Effects of Configuration and Size of Lateral Patterns
Yusuke Takei 1 Tomohiro Shimoda 1 Wataru Saito 2 Kuniyuki Kakushima 1 Hitoshi Wakabayashi 1 Kazuo Tsutsui 1 Hiroshi Iwai 1
1Tokyo Institute of Technology Yokohama-shi Japan2Toshiba Corporation Kawasaki-shi JapanShow Abstract
AlGaN/GaN HEMTs attract lots of attention for high frequency and power applications owing to high mobility of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). However, one important issue concerning these devices is the formation of ohmic contacts with low contact resistance. Since contact metal layers are usually deposited on an insulating AlGaN layer, beneath which a 2DEG is induced, current pathways need to be formed through the AlGaN layer. On the other hand, thinning the AlGaN layer leads to a decrease in 2DEG concentration induced by the large polarization in the AlGaN layer. These properties result in an inherent tradeoff involving the AlGaN layer thickness. Recently, we proposed a new technique to reduce contact resistance overcoming the inherent tradeoff, in which uneven AlGaN layer structures were intentionally introduced . In this technique, fringing effects at the edges of lateral patterns of the uneven structure are expected to play an important role. In this study, effects of scaling down of various lateral patterns on reduction of contact resistances are discussed.
An AlGaN/GaN heterostructure grown on a Si(111) wafer for HEMT applications was used as a substrate. The thickness and composition of the AlGaN layer was 30 nm and Al0.25Ga0.75N. Contact resistances were evaluated by the TLM method. The uneven structures were formed by laterally partial etching of the AlGaN layer, in which thin AlGaN regions (5 nm in thickness) and thick AlGaN regions (30 nm in thickness) coexist with particular periodic lateral patterns. The thin AlGaN regions were formed by Cl2/BCl3/Ar RIE. The uneven structures were formed under contact metal layers composed of Mo/Al/Ti (35/60/15nm). The lateral patterns, such as parallel line/space stripe configurations or dot matrix configurations, whose feature size was from a few hundreds nm to 5 µm were formed by electron beam lithography or photo lithography. Finally, annealing was carried out in N2 ambient.
In the case of flat AlGaN structures (not uneven structures), the lowest contact resistance was obtained at an AlGaN thickness of around 10 nm. For the uneven structures with stripe configuration parallel to current flow, contact resistances were much smaller than the reference value for the 10 nm thick flat AlGaN structure. In particular pattern size regions, the resistance was fond to be inversely proportional to pattern density per unit area, indicating fringing effects. In the case of the stripe with 700 nm width, the contact resistance was reduced to 30% of the reference. The mechanism of contact resistance reduction is discussed along with the effects of pattern configuration and pattern size.
 Y. Takei et al., Physica Status Solidi A, DOI 10.1002/pssa.201431645, (2015).
5:15 AM - RR2.07
Study of Temperature Dependent Electrical Characteristics of Graphene/AlGaN/GaN Schottky Contacts
Rajendra Singh 1 Ashutosh Kumar 1 R. Khashid 2 Arindham Ghosh 2 Vikram Kumar 1
1IIT-Delhi New Delhi India2IISc Bangalore IndiaShow Abstract
Graphene has received lot of attention in the last few years due to its extraordinary electrical, optical, mechanical and thermal properties, opening the gate for potential applications in electronic and optoelectronic devices. Hence it is important to investigate the properties of graphene/semiconductor interfaces in order to understand their nature and functionality.
In the present work, electrical properties of graphene/AlGaN/GaN systems have been investigated in the temperature range 80-300 K. AlGaN/GaN heterostructures grown on Si by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) are used for the present study. 2DEG is formed at the interface of 24 nm Al0.25.GaN0.75 barrier layer and 500 nm GaN layer. Low surface roughness (RMS=0.5 nm) revealed good surface quality of the heterostructures. Sheet resistance and 2DEG sheet carrier concentration are found to be 384 ohm/sq and 1.1 × 1013 cm-2, respectively. Four layer Ti/Al/Ti/Au contacts pads deposited onto this structure using e-beam evaporation served as Ohmic contacts. Another pad of SiO2/Cr/Au (50/5/50 nm) is sputtered for graphene transfer, as the contact from graphene is taken via Au. Single layer grapheme (SLG) is transferred in such a way that one side of graphene is in contact with AlGaN/GaN surface while other side is in contact with Au pad. Self-adaptive contacts are established between graphene-AlGaN/GaN and graphene-Au. Raman measurements are performed on selected graphene layers prior to its transfer. The intensity ratio of G and 2D peaks revealed the presence of single layer graphene (SLG). Rectifying nature of I-V characteristics at each temperature indicates that graphene act as Schottky contact on AlGaN/GaN. Due to difference in work function of graphene (4.6 eV) and electron affinity of AlXGaN1-X/GaN (2.7 eV for x=0.25), a Schottky contact with barrier height equal to 1.9 eV should be formed theoretically as predicted by the Schottky-Mott model. However, experimental values of SBHs are always lower than the predicted values due to existence of interface states, barrier inhomogeneities, and surface modifications during device processing. In the present case, ideality factor (#414;) and Schottky barrier height (SBH) are calculated at 300 K using thermionic emission theory and found to be equal to 1.7 and 0.70 eV, respectively. On lowering the temperature to 80 K, ideality factor increases to 4.5 while SBH decreases to 0.2 eV. The increase in ideality factor and decrease in SBH on lowering the temperatures are attributed to the existence of barrier inhomogeneities as well as presence of other current transport mechanisms apart from the thermionic emission process. This kind of study can potentially be useful for electronic and optoelectronic devices for energy efficiency applications.
5:30 AM - *RR2.08
Polarization-Engineered Wide-Bandgap Power Electronic Devices
Debdeep Jena 1 2
1Cornell University Ithaca United States2University of Notre Dame Notre Dame United StatesShow Abstract
Introduction: Since 1990s, increasing the energy bandgaps of semiconductor materials from ~1eV in Si and GaAs to ~3.4 eV in GaN and SiC has created new revolutionary applications arenas in high-speed and high-power RF electronics and in solid-state lighting and lasers. Much of the current device technologies exploit the large energy bandgaps of GaN and SiC. We present a few preliminary structures that exploit electronic polarization to exceed the conventional power electronics figures of merit and initial experimental demonstrations of the new physics in action.
Prior and current work: The strong spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization fields in III-nitride semiconductor heterostructures is central to the realization of Al(Ga)N/GaN high-electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) on Silicon, which is currently being intensively investigated for ~600 Volt power electronics. Looking beyond, a pertinent question is - can one exceed the breakdown voltage - on resistance limits of GaN by combining heterostructures with polarization? To that end, we have investigated several vertical heterostructures on bulk GaN substrates with very low dislocation densities to exploit polarization effects1,2 to exceed conventional figures of merit of breakdown and on-resistance. The results achieved are highly revealing not just about the effects of polarization, but of bulk GaN itself. For example, p-n junctions with ideality factors close to unity are realized for the first time in GaN, and leakage currents at ~ nA/cm2 levels are measured due to the exponential dependence of leakage currents on the energy bandgap. P-i-n diodes with breakdown voltages in the 1-2 kV range are realized, and non-destructive avalanche breakdown is observed. When the traditional impurity-doped p-n junction is replaced by polarization-induced doping using graded AlGaN, enhanced performance with fundamental changes in transport mechanism is observed. The impurity and polarization doped high-voltage devices have distinct spectral emission, which helps probe the high-field transport mechanisms in these power devices, something that is difficult in Silicon and SiC due to their indirect bandgaps.
RR1: GaN Power Devices I
Monday AM, November 30, 2015
Hynes, Level 3, Room 306
9:30 AM - *RR1.01
GaN Power Devices for Vehicles
Tetsu Kachi 1
1Toyota Central Ramp;D Laboratories Aichi JapanShow Abstract
Recently, power conversion systems in vehicles are of increasing importance with the development of hybrid or electric vehicles (HV/EVs). Higher efficiency in these systems will contribute to energy-saving society in future. Wide-bandgap semiconductors such as GaN are expected as material of new-generation power devices for HV/EVs. There are mainly two major classes of power conversion system in vehicles, such as high-power modules and medium-power modules. A boost converter which is connected to a high voltage battery and a 3-phase inverter for motor driving are classified as high-power modules. GaN vertical power devices are strong candidates for these modules. There are following requirements of performance of the devices in this module: the breakdown voltage of 1.2 kV, the current capability of more than 200 A per device and the specific on resistance of less than 2 m#8486;middot;cm2 beyond the performance of Si-IGBTs. To satisfy these demands, large diameter of high-quality GaN wafer and low carrier concentration control by epitaxial growth are desired. Recently, quality of GaN substrate is improving and pn-diodes over 3kV breakdown voltage and MOSFETs over 1.5kV breakdown voltage have been reported. Lower carrier concentration than 1×1016 cm-3 is also required for 1kV breakdown voltage. For this requirement, reduction of residual carbons in the epitaxial layer which compensate Si donors and deteriorate electron mobility is a large issue of MOCVD growth. Other issues to be solved still remain in the fabrication process of the GaN vertical device. On the other hand, down converters for a low voltage source and a charging system are classified as medium-power modules. High-frequency operation over several hundred kHz and high current density are required as performance of devices though desired breakdown voltage is lower than 600V. GaN lateral power devices are suitable for this category. AlGaN/GaN HFETs on Si substrates are the main stream of the GaN lateral devices. Normally-off operation and current collapse free operation are achieved and they are applied to inverters or converters in industrial systems. For automotive applications, reliability of the device is strongly required, which is under investigation now. At the meeting, the GaN vertical device for high-power modules and issues in the fabrication process will be presented mainly.
10:00 AM - RR1.02
P-Channel AlGaN/GaN MOSFETs for Normally-Off Operation
Shunsuke Kubota 1 Rei Kayanuma 1 Akira Nakajima 2 Shin-ichi Nishizawa 2 Hiromichi Ohashi 1 Kuniyuki Kakushima 1 Hitoshi Wakabayashi 1 Kazuo Tsutsui 1
1Tokyo Institute of Technology Yokohama-shi Japan2National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) Tsukuba-shi JapanShow Abstract
GaN-based N-channel (N-ch) devices, especially heterojunction field effect transistors (HFETs) utilizing 2D electron gas (2DEG), was demonstrated to have a merit of significant footprint reduction compere to that of Si-based lateral devices . This property is useful for integrated circuit applications. In addition, P-channel (P-ch) HFETs using 2D hole gas (2DHG) are also needed to realize gate drive circuits, hence, to integrate power converter system on one GaN chip . In previous work , N-ch and P-ch HFETs with normally-on operation were developed on one GaN chip. A problem was that normally-off operation of P-ch HFETs, desirable for the gate drive applications, was not realized so far. The normally-off operation was reported only for MESFETs , however, MOSFETs are desirable due to their low gate leakage. In this abstract, we report GaN-based P-ch MOSFETs for the first time.
The polarization-junction wafers with p-GaN/i-GaN/AlGaN/i-GaN structure grown on sapphire substrates were used for the fabrication. To realize them, we have developed polarization-junction wafers with a GaN/AlGaN/GaN double-hetero structure  grown on sapphire substrate. The upper GaN (000-1)/AlGaN (0001) and the bottom AlGaN (000-1)/GaN (0001) interface have negative and positive polarization charges, which automatically induce high-density 2DHG and 2DEG (~1013 cm-2). The MOS gates were fabricated between source and drain electrodes by recess etching of the top p-GaN layer by RIE and the following deposition of SiO2 by PECVD and gate electrodes of TiN/Ti by sputtering. Source and drain electrodes made of Au/Ni were formed to contact to the 2DHG. The devices with 30-nm-thick SiO2 gate insulator, channel recess length of 10 µm and channel width of 100 mu;m were fabricated.
The fabricated MOSFETs exhibited negative threshold voltage (Vth) of -0.8 V, in which transconductance (gm) of -0.2 mS/mm was obtained. The normally-off operations were observed on the P-ch MOSFETs probably due to positive fixed charge in SiO2 and smaller work function of Ti than that of GaN. Furthermore, gate leakage current was reduced to less than 3.2×10-4 mA/mm at ±5 V of gate voltage. These results indicate a potential of applications to power ICs made of GaN-based CMOS.
 N.-Q. Zhang et al., IEEE Electron Device Lett., vol.20, no. 9, pp. 421-423, 2000.
 T. Zimmermann et al., IEEE Electron Device Lett., vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 450-452, 2004.
 A. Nakajima et al., in Proc. ISPSD, pp.241-244, 2014.
 H. Hahn et al., IEEE Trans. Electron Dev., vol.60, no.10, pp.3005-3011, 2013.
 A. Nakajima et al., Appl. Phys. Express, vol. 3, no. 12, p. 121004, 2010.
10:15 AM - RR1.03
Performance Enhancement in AlGaN/GaN HEMT Characteristics with the Implementation of Dynamic Body Bias Technique
Isra Mahaboob 1 Jeffrey Leathersich 1 Jonathan Marini 1 John Bulmer 1 Neil Newman 1 Fatemeh Shahedipour-Sandvik 1
1SUNY Polytechnic Institute Albany United StatesShow Abstract
In the last 2 decades, AlGaN/GaN based high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) have emerged as one of the most promising technology platform for high power/high frequency applications due their superior material properties such as large bandgap energy, high breakdown electric field, high saturation drift velocity, excellent electron mobility and large sheet carrier concentrations. In addition to this, AlGaN/GaN heterostructures have excellent interface properties due to the presence of large polarization fields and conduction band offset which enable great performance of these devices. Despite these advantages, there exist several performance challenges which make these devices non-ideal power switches. In the ON-state, a commonly seen issue is the degradation of the saturation drain current and in the OFF-state, a major source of power loss is the subthreshold leakage current. To counter these issues, and to utilize the full potential of this technology, we have investigated the implementation of a device design technique which can dynamically mitigate the performance challenges during both ON and OFF states of the device operation. In this technique, the body terminal is connected to the GaN channel layer of the AlGaN/GaN HEMT structure to control the body potential of the device. A similar technique has been successfully implemented in silicon technology and is popularly known as “dynamic body bias technique". In CMOS technology, the device performance challenges which emerged with technology scaling, active/stand-by power losses, speed and reliability concerns were successfully addressed with the implementation of this technique.
In our work, we report the implementation of dynamic body bias technique in AlGaN/GaN HEMTs for the first time. The role of the body potential in controlling the performance characteristics of HEMTs is been experimentally and theoretically studied in both ON and OFF states of the device. The HEMT structure used for fabrication is epitaxially grown in our lab using metal organic chemical vapor deposition technique. To incorporate the body terminal, additional mask layers are added to the conventional HEMT design. The current - voltage characteristics of the fabricated HEMTs show modulation of the drain current with the change in the magnitude and polarity of the applied body bias. In the ON-state, application of negative body bias is shown to improve the saturation drain current and in the OFF-state, application of positive body bias is shown to improve the subthreshold drain-leakage current. The modulation in the drain current is attributed to the resultant conduction band and electric field profile across the GaN channel region with the applied body bias. We will further discuss a comprehensive study of the experimental results, mechanism involved and a physics-based modelling of the HEMT device with body bias using Synopsys Sentaurus TCAD.
10:30 AM - RR1.04
High-Resistance GaN-Based Buffer Layer Grown by the Polarization Doping Method
Lian Zhang 1 2 Yun Zhang 1 2 Xuecheng Wei 1 2 Ning Zhang 1 2 Junxi Wang 1 2 Jinmin Li 1 2
1Research and Development Center for Semiconductor Lighting, Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing China2Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing ChinaShow Abstract
A high-resistance (HR) buffer layer is critical for GaN-based HEMTs to suppress the drain current leakage. A typical method to obtain the HR buffer layers is the acceptor impurity doping that is able to compensate the background electrons in the buffer layers. However, the intentional acceptor impurity doping may result in current collapse in GaN-based HEMTs. To address this issue, we used the polarization doping method to achieve high resistance without introducing any acceptor impurity in the GaN-based buffer layer. The polarization doping is realized in aluminum-composition-graded AlGaN layer structures that can create holes by the polarization field. This polarization doping method paves a way for achieving HR buffer layer without impurities for high performance GaN-based HEMTs.
In this work, three samples of 3-mu;m-thick unintentionally doped (UD) GaN layers are deposited on c-plane sapphire substrates by MOCVD. One is left as a GaN buffer layer, named Sample A. On the other two GaN layers, 200-nm-thick UD AlGaN layers with Al composition grading from 0.04 to 0 and 0.08 to 0, respectively, are regrown, named Sample B and Sample C. The Al composition grading is realized through reducing the TMAl molar flow linearly, while the TMGa molar flow was increased linearly.
The mechanism of the polarization doping is explained as follows. For the Ga-face Alx2Ga1-x2N layer grown on Alx1Ga1-x1N layer (x1>x2), there is 2DHG at the interface due to different polarization charge in the two layers. Consequently, when the interface of the abrupt hetero-junction is instead of a layer with Al composition grading from x1to x2, 2DHG will spread to the whole graded layer, and form 3DHG. According to the non-linear formulas from Fiorentini, the concentration of the polarization-induced 3DHG is
ρ=4.169E13*Δx /d cm-3 (1)
Where Δx =x1-x2, d is the thickness of the graded AlGaN layer. The ΔxAl of the Sample B is 4%, so the polarization-induced 3DHG density is 0.82E17/cm3. When ΔxAl is increased to 8%, for the Sample C, the concentration of the polarization-induced 3DHG is increased to 1.65E17/cm3. These 3DHG are expected to compensate the background electrons in the buffer layers.
The square resistance (Rsh) of the Sample A is 3.94×103 Omega;/#9633;. While for the Sample B, the Rsh is remarkably enhanced to 1.23×104 Omega;/#9633;, three times higher than the Rsh of the Sample A. We ascribe this improvement to the 3DHG induced by the polarization field in the graded AlGaN layer. Part of background electrons are compensated by the polarization-induced 3DHG, hence the resistance is increased. When the Al composition degree is further increased to 8% (Sample C), Rsh is further increased to 2.89×104 Omega;/#9633;. The likely reason is that the concentration of the polarization-induced 3DHG is increased with the Al composition degree increasing, more background electrons are compensated.
10:45 AM - RR1.05
Experimental Characterization of Inverse Piezoelectric Strain in GaN HEMTs
Kevin Robert Bagnall 1 Sameer Joglekar 1 Tomas Palacios 1 Evelyn Wang 1
1MIT Cambridge United StatesShow Abstract
Due to the wide bandgap and high electron mobility of gallium nitride (GaN), GaN-based high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) are one of the most exciting technologies for radio-frequency (RF) and power electronics applications. However, the high power densities and high operating voltages of GaN HEMTs often lead to reliability concerns due to elevated channel temperatures and mechanical degradation. As suggested by modeling and experimental studies, the inverse piezoelectric (IPE) effect may induce stresses and strains in the device barrier and buffer that result in cracking and pit formation. Despite the importance of the inverse piezoelectric effect in the reliability of GaN HEMTs, there are only a few experimental studies in literature that report stress and strain measurements on devices under bias. In these previous studies, the application of an off-state bias positively shifted the E2 high and negatively shifted the A1 (LO) Raman peaks of GaN in the gate-drain region. However, varying assumptions about how the Raman peaks shifts are correlated to the stress and strain components resulted in inconsistent conclusions about the stress/strain state.
In this study, we determined the nature of the IPE stress/strain state in GaN HEMTs under bias with high precision micro-Raman spectroscopy, simple physical arguments, and electro-mechanical modeling. Micro-Raman spectroscopy measurements were conducted on GaN HEMTs with a confocal micro-Raman system (LabRAM HR800, Horiba Jobin-Yavon) capable of a spatial and spectral resolution as low as 1 µm and 0.02 cm-1, respectively. Using the phonon deformation potentials to relate the change in Raman peak positions and strain results in overestimation of the normal strains (~10-3) and corresponding electric field component along the z-axis (~1 MV/cm). Based on group theoretical arguments and first principles calculations in the literature for other III-V semiconductors, we believe that the high electric field in the GaN buffer could be negatively shifting the A1 (LO) Raman peak apart from the inverse piezoelectric effect. Assuming a simple linear relationship between the change in A1 (LO) peak position and the electric field due to this effect allows one to recover normal strains of ~10-4 and an electric field of 0.3 MV/cm as expected for this device at a particular bias. This explanation yields strain values consistent with measurements of the E2 high and E2 low Raman peaks, which are not affected by the electric field apart from the inverse piezoelectric effect. We believe these results provide important physical insights into the inverse piezoelectric stress/strain state in GaN HEMTs under bias and provide a consistent explanation for some of the discrepancies in the literature. This will help to enrich our understanding of the use of the pinched-off state as a reference in micro-Raman thermography and to validate complex electro-mechanical models for reliability prediction.
11:30 AM - *RR1.06
Dependencies of Dynamic On-State Resistance Increase in GaN Power Switching Transistors
Joachim Wurfl 1 Oliver Hilt 1 Eldad Bahat-Treidel 1 Nasser Badawi 2 Jan Boecker 2 Sibylle Dieckerhoff 2
1Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut fuuml;r Houml;chstfrequenztechnik Berlin Germany2Technical University of Berlin Berlin GermanyShow Abstract
AlGaN/GaN HEMTs are promising candidates for switching power transistors because of their high off-state breakdown strength combined with excellent channel conductivity at on-state. These features relate to the particular physical properties of GaN in combination with its heterostructure material AlGaN. GaN power switching transistors are known to outperform competing Si devices in terms of the static on-state resistance (Ron) at a given breakdown voltage by about two orders of magnitude. If the device are turned on the remaining on-state resistance Ron determines device losses to a large extend. Devices having low Ron values should therefor show better switching efficiencies. However, a low static on-state resistance is of practical interest only if this value is maintained also upon dynamic switching. Any increase of Ron significantly compromises power switching performance. In GaN devices the on-state resistance can deviate from its static (DC) value upon operating the devices in a dynamic mode. This effect is referred to as a “dynamic on-state resistance increase”. It is caused either by dynamic switching of the devices or by single event switching from one bias level to another, for example from an off-state bias condition to on-state. Physically, this effect can be interpreted as temporary charging of regions close to the device channel (trapping) during device operation at a certain bias level. If the bias level changes rapidly, these temporary charges cannot respond that fast and, due to the request for overall charge neutrality in the device, lead to a temporary change of the channel electron density. In consequence, electron transport in the channel region immediately after switching from one condition to another condition is impeded as long as the trap population is adjusting.
The dynamic on-state resistance (Ron_dyn) usually increases with operation voltage and can exceed its static value by more than two orders of magnitude. Recent investigations showed that the dynamic performance of GaN power switching devices has a quite complex dependency on device biasing and timing of switching events. These dependencies have now been analyzed in more detail and will be presented in this invited paper.
It has been found that operating the devices at off-state for longer time intervals may gradually increase internal charge trapping which in-turn increases dynamic on-state resistance immediately after the switching event. In contrast, device operation at on-state usually leads to de-trapping and to a reduction of adverse dynamic effects. Thus, during continuous switching an effective dynamic on-state resistance appears which relates to the superposition of off-state trapping and on-state de-trapping mechanisms.
12:00 PM - RR1.07
Trapping Effect Analysis of AlGaN/InGaN/GaN Heterostructure by Conductance-Frequency Measurement
Apurba Chakraborty 2 Saptarsi Ghosh 1 Partha Mukhopadhyay 1 Syed Mukullika Dinara 1 Ankush Bag 1 Mihir Kumar Mahata 1 Rahul Kumar 1 Subhashis Das 1 Sanjay K Jana 1 Shubhankar Majumdar 1 Dhrubes Biswas 1 2
1IIT Kharagpur Kharagpur India2Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur IndiaShow Abstract
For last two decade, different kind of device structures like AlGaN/GaN, AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN or AlGaN/InGaN/GaN are studied extensively to find out superior performance. Various reliability issues like current collapse, self-heating effect and converge electric field, are main obstacle in successful commercialization of these devices. AlGaN/InGaN/GaN HEMT has shown superior electron confinement and current collapse characteristics. But, no further study has been made so far to see the trapping effect in this structure. Here in this brief, we have shown that the AlGaN/InGaN/GaN is more immune to trapping effect owing to Fermi level elevation than conventional AlGaN/GaN structure. We found that the InGaN based structure is free from interface trapping effect, whereas the conventional single heterostructure suffers from two kinds of trap states with density ~ 1012 .
AlGaN/GaN and AlGaN/InGaN/GaN structures are grown by Plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE). The conventional four probe Hall measurement has yielded 2DEG of 2.09x1013 cm-2 for AlGaN/InGaN/GaN structure and that for single heterostructure is 5.62x1012 cm-2. The HRXRD scan of (002) plane shows the In content in InGaN layer is 2%.
The trap energy state at the interface and at the surface of structure can be analysed by conductance measurement in depletion region and accumulation region voltage biases respectively. The extracted values from measured conductance curve of AlGaN/InGaN/GaN does not show any interface trapping effect as the time constant is very large (>100 s). But, the AlGaN/GaN structure suffers from two kinds of trap energy levels in -3.2 V to -4.8 V in depletion region. The interface trapping effect elimination for AlGaN/InGaN/GaN is mainly found due to the Fermi level shift from the conduction band minimum which can be seen in conduction band diagram. The higher 2DEG in the interface elevates the Fermi position and hence the trap energy states become dipper. The same effect is also expected to reduce the surface trapping effect in AlGaN/InGaN/GaN compare to AlGaN/GaN. The extracted values of surface trap states from the accumulation conductance behaviour of AlGaN/InGaN/GaN are found to be (5.87-4.39) in -0.8 V - 0 V which is at least two order less than that of AlGaN/GaN structure.
12:15 PM - RR1.08
Role of Bulk Traps on Intermodulation Distortion of AlGaN/GaN HEMT
Ankush Bag 1 Partha Mukhopadhyay 1 Shubhankar Majumdar 1 Dhrubes Biswas 1
1Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur Kharagpur IndiaShow Abstract
Traps in AlGaN/GaN HEMT is one of the most researched area due to its severe effect on performance degradations of high power electronic devices like distortions, noise generations, current collapse etc. The trapping of electrons occurred in three regions of the devices mainly: surface, barrier (AlGaN) and bulk (GaN). Most of the literatures have tried to focus on the effect of interface traps on the device performance considering both AlGaN and GaN together. However, the AlGaN and GaN traps have contributed individually on two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) confined in triangular potential well at the heterointerface. Linearity of a device is defined through modulation efficiency of 2DEG by gate bias at certain drain voltage. Suppression of third order Intermodulation Modulation Distortion (IMD-3) is necessary as it signifies the nonlinearity of the devices at microwave frequency. In this work, effect of both AlGaN and GaN traps has been studied in view of spectrum of IMD-3 for AlGaN/GaN HEMT on both Sapphire and Si (111) substrate for the first time. The results indicate effect of traps in GaN epilayer profoundly for HEMT on Si as compared HEMT on Sapphire substrates.
Al0.3Ga0.7N (20 nm)/GaN HEMT has been grown on Sapphire and Si(111) substrate by PAMBE. Drain current can be represented by power series expansion of gate bias by different gain factors (go,g1, g2.. ) for low frequencies. A two-tone source signal consisting of frequencies f1 and f2 produces third-order products at frequencies 2f2-f1 and 2f1-f2 which occurs adjacent to fundamental frequency f1 and f2. Amplification term describes the generated harmonics from IMD-3. The normalized indicates the generated IMD-3 for the device signifying its inherent non-linearity.
The CV characteristic provides information of the AlGaN and GaN barrier of the potential well by its accumulation and depletion regions respectively.Biasing range of the IMD3 spectrum has been determined considering the CV profile for both heterostructures. The normalized spectrum of IMD-3 delineates more distorted terms at depletion region with negative gate bias in case of HEMT on Si as compared to HEMT on Sapphire. Due to both high lattice and thermal expansion coefficient mismatch growth of GaN on Si, there is more effect of threading dislocations as compared to GaN on Sapphire. These dislocations cause for more traps and related distortion for HEMT on Si(111). Additionally, the 2DEG at the heterojunction is function of electron wave function in QW as per Schrodinger&’s equations. The wave functions generally penetrates more into comparatively low energy GaN epilayers than AlGaN. Therefore, effects of trapped electrons on confined 2DEG are more for GaN side of the triangular QW than AlGaN barrier. Spectrum of IMD-3 and CV profile confirmed more effects of trapped electron from GaN bulk side in case of GaN on Si than GaN on Sapphire.
12:30 PM - RR1.09
Electrical Degradation Mechanis