Liangbing Hu, University of Maryland
Liwei Chen, Suzhou Institute of Nanotech and Nanobionics, CAS
Jennifer Rupp, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Venkataraman Thangadurai, University of Calgary
ET01.01: Session I
Monday AM, November 26, 2018
Hynes, Level 3, Room 310
8:00 AM - ET01.01.01
Mechanism of High Ionic Conduction Paths in Composite Solid Electrolyte
Feifei Shi1,Yi Cui1
Stanford University1Show Abstract
As one of the most promising next-generation batteries, all-solid-state lithium battery is well known for its superior advantage of high energy density and nonflammability, as well as its intrinsic drawback poor ionic conductivity of solid electrolyte. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the ion conduction mechanism in solid electrolyte for optimized design to enhance ionic conductivity. Recently, composite solid electrolyte with aligned interface has been reported to achieve one order of magnitude enhancement on ionic conductivity. However, the mechanism accounting for the enhanced ionic conductivity at solid/solid interfaces remains unclear.
Here we unveil the diffusion path of the lithium in the composite electrolyte by tracking labeled lithium isotope, characterizing polymer crystal structure with both hard and soft X-ray diffraction, and mapping the electronic structure of lithium by electron spectroscopy. Further understanding of the correlation between interface structure and ion conduction mechanism has been obtained, which enables new solid electrolyte design with better ionic conductivity.
The work was supported by the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Vehicle Technologies of the US Department of Energy under the Battery 500 Consortium program.
8:15 AM - ET01.01.02
State-of-Charge-Dependent Space-Charge-Layer Formation in Solid-State Batteries
Michael Swift1,Yue Qi1
Michigan State University1Show Abstract
As all-solid-state lithium ion batteries develop as an alternative to traditional liquid-electrolyte cells, a thorough theoretical understanding of the driving forces behind battery operation is needed. We present a model of potential profiles in a generic all-solid-state battery, and apply the model to the Li/LiPON/LixCoO2 system. The potentials yield valuable information about lithium distribution and transport, including the nature of electrical double layers which form at interfaces. The results suggest design rules to minimize interfacial lithium barriers and optimize device performance.
8:30 AM - ET01.01.03
Mapping LLZO Grains and Grain Boundaries Through a Simple Thermal Etching Technique
Masumi Sato1,Regina Garcia-Mendez1,Jeff Sakamoto1
University of Michigan1Show Abstract
LLZO is one of the most promising solid-state electrolytes due to its electrochemical and chemical stability against metallic Li and high ionic conductivity (1 mS cm-1) at room temperature. However, it has been reported that Li metal still propagates along LLZO grain boundaries above a critical current density (CCD) (1).
It is known that the chemistry of grain boundaries and grains are typically different. In this study, we assume the same is true for polycrystalline LLZO. We hypothesize that grain boundaries etch faster than grains, thus enabling a technique to visualize and study the microstructure of LLZO. The proposed technique does not requiring extensive sample preparation such as what is required for electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD). Variables such as temperature, dwell time, atmosphere and flow rate were tuned to optimize the thermal etching method while maintaining phase purity, e.g., not decomposing LLZO grains.
Al-LLZO pellets were densified by rapid induction hot pressing, followed by grinding and polishing. Surface heat treatment was conducted to reduce the concentration of Li2CO3 and LiOH layers that readily form after LLZO is exposed to air (2) before thermal etching. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was used to see the grain boundaries and determine the grain size of the surface of the thermal etched LLZO pellets and X-Ray Diffraction to analyze phase purity. EBSD was conducted to confirm that the features observed in thermally etched LLZO surface correspond to grain boundaries. Additionally, TGA-Mass Spectrometry was used to correlate the mass loss to the chemistry of the volatilized compounds during thermal etching of LLZO. Furthermore, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were conducted to evaluate that the ionic conductivity of LLZO remains unchanged after completing the thermal etching process.
It is believed that the thermal etching method developed and optimized in this work can be used as a simple technique to examine the microstructure of LLZO and perhaps other polycrystalline electrolytes.
(1) E. J. Cheng et al., Electrochim. Acta, 2017, 223, 85-91
(2) A. Sharafi et al., J. Mater. Chem. A, 2017, 5, 13475
8:45 AM - ET01.01.04
Bottleneck of Diffusion and Inductive Effects in Li10Ge1−xSnxP2S12
Thorben Krauskopf1,Sean Culver1,Wolfgang Zeier1
Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen1Show Abstract
Solid state electrolytes are currently being intensively investigated for the possible application in solid-state batteries.1 Among all known solid Li+ conductors, Li10GeP2S12 (LGPS) is one of the most promising candidates due to its unrivaled high ionic conductivity of 12 mScm−1 and successful implementation into solid state batteries.2,3 Therefore, there is a great interest to further optimize the Li+ mobility and to reduce the costly germanium content using different doping strategies in related structures. Unfortunately, increasing the Sn fraction in Li10Ge1−xSnxP2S12 leads − counter to chemical intuition − to a reduction in the ionic conductivity.4
The present work reveals the structural and lattice dynamical reasons for the observed behavior.5 Solid solutions of Li10Ge1−xSnxP2S12 were synthesized and structural changes and their resulting impacts on the Li+ transport property were investigated using a combination of structural refinements, ultrasonic speed-of-sound measurements and AC impedance spectroscopy. It is shown that while the lattice volume and the c/a ratio of the compounds increase with increasing Sn4+ fraction, the ionic conductivity decreases. Taking a deeper look into the local bonding properties reveals that a bottleneck of the diffusion channels along the z-direction tightens. In addition, a softening of the lattice with the more polarizable Sn4+ cation was observed similar to other classes of litihum and sodium thiophosphate solid electrolytes.6,7 But in this case the softening of the anion backbone leads to stronger Li+ - S2− Coulombic interactions, that can be understood with the concept of inductive effects. Overall this work demonstrates, that chemical intuition can struggle in the understanding of structure property relationships and that a deeper look into the local bonding properties is necessary for the future design of solid electrolytes.
1 J. Janek and W. G. Zeier, Nat. Energy, 2016, 1, 16141.
2 N. Kamaya, K. Homma, Y. Yamakawa, M. Hirayama, R. Kanno, M. Yonemura, T. Kamiyama, Y. Kato, S. Hama and K. Kawamoto, Nat. Mater., 2011, 10, 682–686.
3 W. Zhang, T. Leichtweiß, S. P. Culver, R. Koerver, D. Das, D. A. Weber, W. G. Zeier and J. Janek, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 2017, 9, 35888–35896.
4 Y. Kato, R. Saito, M. Sakano, A. Mitsui, M. Hirayama and R. Kanno, J. Power Sources, 2014, 271, 60–64.
5 T. Krauskopf, S. P. Culver and W. G. Zeier, Chem. Mater., 2018, 30, 1791–1798.
6 T. Krauskopf, C. Pompe, M. A. Kraft and W. G. Zeier, Chem. Mater., 2017, 29, 8859–8869.
7 M. A. Kraft, S. P. Culver, M. Calderon, F. Böcher, T. Krauskopf, A. Senyshyn, C. Dietrich, A. Zevalkink, J. Janek and W. G. Zeier, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2017, 139, 10909–10918.
9:00 AM - ET01.01.05
Interfacial Effects on Storage and Transport in Batteries
Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research1Show Abstract
After a brief introduction into the bulk situation, ionic and electronic charge carrier distribution is discussed for various interfaces of interest in batteries (electrode/electrolyte; electrode/passivation layer; passivation layer/electrolyte; boundaries within electrode, electrolyte or passivation phases; solid electrolyte grain boundaries). Modified carrier concentrations are of significant influence on charge transport (conductivity) and transfer (transfer resistance) and hence indirectly for the storage behavior.
However, space charge zones can be also of great significance for the storage directly. The extreme case is met if the abrupt contact of two phases allows for storing Li or Na in a job-sharing way even if none of the two phases allows for storage isolatedly. This is relevant the more so since this storage can be extremely fast. Thermodynamics and kinetics of this storage mode are set out in greater detail [1-4].
Finally, heterointerfaces are also of enormous relevance for the internal circuitry of electrodes. Even for ideal interfaces the distribution topology of electronic or ionic current collecting phases is—as will be discussed in the context of the wiring-length concept—decisive for the network efficiency .
 C.-C. Chen and J. Maier, Nature Energy 3 (2018) 102.
 C.-C. Chen, L.-J. Fu, and J. Maier, Nature 536 (2016) 159.
 C.-C. Chen and J. Maier, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 19 (2017) 6379.
 C.-C. Chen, E. Navickas, J. Fleig, and J. Maier, Adv. Funct. Mater. 28 (2018) 1705999.
 C. Zhu, R. E. Usiskin, Y. Yu, and J. Maier, Science 358 (2017) eaao2808.
9:30 AM - ET01.01.06
Sussing out Important Parameters for Cathode Coatings in All-Solid-State Batteries
Samsung Electronics1Show Abstract
Recent computation and experimental works have discovered a remarkable array of materials with superionic conductivities that rival or exceed the conductivity of conventional liquid electrolytes such as Li and Na conducting NASICON-type oxides, Li garnets, sulfides and thiophosphate materials. Unfortunately, the high ionic conductivity often is associated with a penalty of high impedance at interfaces between electrolyte and electrodes; this interfacial impedance can dominate the internal resistance in many systems. High impedance is found both in thiophosphate electrolytes in contact with oxide cathodes and during high temperature processing of oxide electrolytes co-sintered with oxide cathodes. Because of the necessity of maintaining low interfacial impedance for high power applications, we have focused on understanding the reactions occurring at the various interfaces. This talk will focus on the application of cathode coatings discovered by computational thermodynamic methods. Experimental evidences of interfacial products and degradation phenomena gathered via electrochemical, spectroscopic, and TEM analysis will be compared to predictions. We use these results to identify the factors that contribute most to forming stable interfaces and easy processing for use in high voltage all solid state battery systems.
10:30 AM - ET01.01.07
Nanoscale Composite Polymer Electrolyte Batteries
Stanford University1Show Abstract
Solid polymer electrolyte has excellent processibility although its ionic conductivity and mechanical strength needs to be improved. Here I will present our recent progress on nanoscale design of using nanomaterials to form composite polymer electrolyte to improve both ionic conductivity and mechanical strength. Nanomaterials include nanowires and porous anodized alumina. Organic-organic composite electrolyte is also explored. We use successfully these solid electrolytes for Li metal batteries.
11:00 AM - ET01.01.08
Fabrication of Advanced Composite Cathodes in All-Solid-State Batteries Using 3D Reconstruction Analysis and Complementary Wet-Based Process
Sungjun Choi1,2,Wo Dum Jung1,Minjae Jeon1,Seong-Min Kim1,Ji-Su Kim1,Byung-Kook Kim1,Byoung-In Sang2,Hyoungchul Kim1
Korea Institute of Science and Technology1,Hanyang University2Show Abstract
Next-generation Li-ion battery (LIB) applications such as electric vehicles, unmanned aerial vehicles, energy storage systems, and integrated power devices for the Internet of Things require the development of technologies that allow the storage of electrical energy at safer and higher energy densities over a wider range of operating temperatures. In this context, all-solid-state battery (ASSB) technologies have the advantage of eliminating the organic electrolyte from the existing secondary battery in addition to incorporating solid-state materials for all components, thereby meeting all requirements for next-generation LIB applications. The composite cathode of an ASSB composed of various solid-state components (i.e., the active material, electrolyte, conductive additive, and etc.) requires a dense microstructure and highly-percolated solid-state interface different from that of a conventional liquid-electrolyte-based Li-ion battery. Indeed, the preparation of such a system is particularly challenging.
In this study, quantitative analyses of composite cathodes by three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction analysis were performed beyond the existing qualitative analysis, and their microstructures and reaction interfaces were successfully analyzed. Interestingly, various quantitative values of structure properties (such as the volume ratio, connectivity, tortuosity, and pore formation) associated with material optimization and process development were predicted, and they were found to result in limited electrochemical charge/discharge performances. We also verified that the effective two-phase boundaries (TPBs) were significantly suppressed to ~23% of the total TPB, due to component dispersion and packing issues. In addition, we have developed a pore decomposition process (PDP) that tracks the origins of pore structures using quantitative values of a 3D reconstruction structure. The solid electrolyte and cathode active material showed a noticeable difference in the ratio of induced pore volume: 43% of the total pore from solid electrolyte and 56% from active material. To solve the observed problems such as formation of pores, we adopted a wet-synthesis process of sulfide solid electrolyte on fabricating composite cathode. The introduction of a new wet-based solid electrolyte improved the microstructure of the composite cathode by eliminating pores, increasing interfacial contact area, and mitigating inhomogeneous mixing. Therefore, the enhanced microstructure provide a better ionic conduction pathway, resulting in higher electrochemical cell performance. The pore formation, the powder characteristics, and the process optimization of composite cathode are closely related, and the quantitative analysis results from 3D reconstruction process provide relevant insights.
11:15 AM - ET01.01.09
Effect of Microstructure on the Critical Current of Li7La3Zr2O12
Army Research Laboratory1Show Abstract
Li-ion conducting solid-state batteries based on a Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) solid-state electrolyte combined with a Li-metal anode have attracted considerable attention because they offer the advantages of higher energy and enhanced safety compared to the current Li-ion batteries. One of the major issues the with Li/LLZO system is determining what LLZO microstructural variables influence the critical current (current at which lithium dendrites/filaments form on charging). For a single-phase material the major microstructural variables are porosity and grain size. For a solid-state electrolyte a high relative density is required thus, the major microstructural variable is the grain size. It is the purpose of this presentation to discuss the effect of grain size (5 to 600 mm) on the room temperature critical current of LLZO and by examining the effect of grain size on ionic conductivity and fracture toughness and determine which of these properties has a major influence on the critical current for hot-pressed high relative density (>97%) Li6.25Al0.25La3Zr2O12.
11:30 AM - ET01.01.10
Phase-Field Simulations of Lithium Dendrite Growth with Open-Source Software
Zijian Hong1,Venkatasubramanian Viswanathan1
Carnegie Mellon University1Show Abstract
Dendrite growth is a long-standing challenge that has limited the applications of rechargeable lithium metal electrodes. Here, we have developed a grand potential based nonlinear phase-field model to study the electrodeposition of lithium as relevant for a lithium metal anode, using open-source software package MOOSE. The dynamic morphological evolution under large/small overpotential is studied in 2-dimensions, revealing important dendrite growth/stable deposition patterns. The corresponding temporal-spatial distributions of ion concentration, overpotential and driving force are studied, which demonstrate an intimate, dynamic competition between ion transport and electrochemical reactions, resulting in vastly different growth patterns. Given the importance of morphological evolution for lithium metal electrodes, wide-spread applications of phase-field models have been limited in part due to in-house or proprietary software. In order to spur growth of this field, we utilize an open-source software package and make all files free available online to enable future studies to study the many unsolved aspects related to morphology evolution for lithium metal electrodes.
11:45 AM - ET01.01.11
Crosslinked Poly(tetrahydrofuran) as a Loosely-Coordinating Solid Polymer Electrolyte
David Mackanic1,Yi Cui1,Zhenan Bao1
Stanford University1Show Abstract
Solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) promise to improve the safety and performance of lithium ion batteries (LIBs). However, the low ionic conductivity and transference number of conventional poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) based SPEs preclude their widespread implementation. Herein, we introduce crosslinked poly(tetrahydrofuran) (xPTHF) as a promising polymer matrix for “beyond PEO” SPEs. The crosslinking procedure creates thermally stable, mechanically robust membranes for use in LIBs. Molecular Dynamics and Density Functional Theory (DFT) simulations accompanied by 7Li NMR measurements show that the lower spatial concentration of oxygen atoms in the xPTHF backbone leads to loosened O-Li+ coordination. This weakened interaction enhances ion transport; xPTHF has a high lithium transference number of 0.53 and higher lithium conductivity than a xPEO SPE of the same length at room temperature. We demonstrate that organic additives further weaken the O-Li+ interaction, enabling room temperature ionic conductivity of 1.2*10-4 S cm-1 with 18 wt.% DMF in xPTHF. In a solid state LIB application, neat xPTHF SPEs cycle with near theoretical capacity for 100 cycles at 70 oC, with rate capability up to 1C. The plasticized xPTHF SPEs operate at room temperature while maintaining respectable rate capability and capacity. The novel PTHF system demonstrated here represents an exciting platform for future studies involving SPEs.
ET01.02: Session II
Monday PM, November 26, 2018
Hynes, Level 3, Room 310
1:30 PM - ET01.02.01
Band Edge Considerations for Interfacial Stability Between Sulfide Solid Electrolytes and Li Metal Anodes
Haesun Park1,Donald Siegel1
Univ of Michigan1Show Abstract
Despite their high energy density, Li metal anodes have not been successfully commercialized due to dendritic Li plating during charging. However, recent developments in Li-ion conducting solid electrolytes have rekindled interest in the use of Li metal anodes. In particular, sulfide solid electrolytes (SSEs) are attractive materials due to their high ionic conductivities, low grain boundary resistance, and mechanical strength. However, SSEs are readily reduced by Li metal, calling into question their viability. Here, the interfacial stability between SSE and Li metal anodes is investigated computationally using the concept of band edge alignment. First-principles calculations were performed using many body perturbation theory to evaluate the position of the conduction band minimum (CBM) in various SSEs. These levels are compared with the Li/Li+ electrochemical potential in order to evaluate the likelihood charge injection (i.e., reduction) from Li anodes. Our calculations reveal that reduction by Li is preferred for Li10GeP2S12 , Li10SnP2S12, Li3PS4, Li4GeS4, and Li4SnS4. Although the position of the CBM is sensitive to the surface features of the SSE, varying the surface composition appears to be insufficient to prevent reduction. In addition to predicting CBM positions, the full band gaps of several SSEs were evaluated. Band gap values range from 4.0 eV in Li10SnP2S12 to 4.8eV in Li3PS4. Finally, we discuss the implications of our findings for interfacial reactions between SSEs and Li metal.
1:45 PM - ET01.02.02
New Liquid Synthesis of Solid-State Electrolytes for the Next Generation Batteries
Hui Wang1,Dominika A. Ziolkowska1,William Arnold1,Mahendra Sunkara1,Thad Druffel1
University of Louisville1Show Abstract
All-solid-state batteries (ASSBs) are intensively studied as next-generation lithium battery systems and have made remarkable progress in recent years. Lithium argyrodites are relatively new and very promising class of sulfide-based lithium ion superconductors. They prove their high ionic conductivities and suitable electrochemical stability. In general, more convenient manufacturing methods for solid state electrolytes synthesis and their coating processing are highly desirable. Since up-to-date melt-quenching and high-energy ball milling methods are the most common laboratory approaches, a study on the solution synthesis method is still a milestone.
In this study argyrodite Li7PS6 solid-state electrolyte was synthesized using new liquid synthesis approach. Similarly to the ball-milling methods, the molar ratio can be used to obtain this product, whereas the reaction time and homogeneity of the material is significantly improved. The total time of the preparation does not exceed 3 h. This argyrodite electrolyte has the best conductivity (0.11 mS cm-1 at RT) among argyrodite materials prepared by liquid method, the most probably due to its purity and homogeneity. This material is stable in the electrochemical window up to 5 V. The quick preparation, easy processing, and thin film casting from a liquid phase possibility makes Li7PS6 an attractive electrolyte candidate in the all-solid-state battery industry.
2:00 PM - ET01.02.03
New Solid State Na+ Ion Conducting Glassy Solid Electrolytes and Their Use in All-Solid-State Sodium Batteries
Iowa State University1Show Abstract
Recent challenges and problems of explosions and fires with organic liquid electrolyte based batteries has renewed interest in all solid state batteries which replace the highly conducting but also highly flammable and volatile organic liquid electrolyte with an all solid state electrolyte. There are many such solid electrolytes and one of particular interest due to its low cost of manufacturing are glassy solid electrolytes. In this talk, I will give an overview of glassy solid electrolytes with a particular emphasis on highly conducting sulfide-based chemistries and show recent results from our laboratory on using these solid electrolytes in new all solid state sodium batteries in their application for low cost safe high energy density storage for electrical grid application.
2:30 PM - ET01.02.04
Epitaxial Li4Ti5O12 Thin Film as Model System for Li-Ion Conductivity
Francesco Pagani1,2,Evelyn Stilp1,Reto Pfenninger2,3,Eduardo Cuervo Reyes1,Arndt Remhof1,Zoltan Balogh-Michels1,Antonia Neels1,Jordi Sastre Pellicer1,Michael Stiefel1,Max Döbeli2,Marta Rossell1,Rolf Erni1,Jennifer Rupp2,3,Corsin Battaglia1
Empa–Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology1,ETH Zürich2,Massachusetts Institute of Technology3Show Abstract
Thin-film all-solid-state batteries provide a model system for the fundamental study of Li-ion transport, defect chemistry , and electrochemical stability  and find applications in smart cards, sensors, and radio-frequency identification tags . Here we compare the Li-ion conductivity of epitaxial and polycrystalline Li4Ti5O12 thin films ( ≈ 125 nm thick) and investigate the impact of grain boundaries on Li-ion conductivity. Phase-pure epitaxial and polycrystalline Li4Ti5O12 thin films were grown on (111) oriented MgO substrates and on polycrystalline MgO, respectively, by pulsed laser deposition. The Li content across the films was quantified by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry calibrated by elastic recoil detection analysis. Transmission electron microscopy shows that the Li4Ti5O12 grows with no strain on the MgO(111) substrate. Using out-of-plane and in-plane X-ray diffraction, we prove epitaxy of Li4Ti5O12 on MgO(111) and characterize the polycrystalline film, quantifying texture and estimating an average in-plane grain size lower than 10 nm. Temperature dependent impedance spectroscopy measurements show that the epitaxial film behaves like an ideal Li-ion conductor that can be described by an equivalent parallel RC circuit with a DC conductivity of 1.73×10-4 S/cm at 300°C and activation energy of 0.79 eV. In contrast, the polycrystalline film exhibits a more complex frequency response, with contributions from the bulk and grain boundary processes, resulting in subdiffusive behavior. We discuss strategies and next steps required to integrate epitaxial anode Li4Ti5O12 into a thin-film all-solid-state battery.
1. T. Ohnishi, K. Mitsuishi, K. Nishio, K. Takada, Chemistry of Materials, 27 (2015), 1233–1241.
2. M. Hirayama, K. Kim, T. Toujigamori, W. Cho, R. Kanno, Dalton Transactions, 40 (2011), 2882–2887.
3. N. J. Dudney, Electrochem. Soc. Interface, 17 (2008), 44–48.
2:45 PM - ET01.02.05
Transition Metal Sulfide Nanostructures (CuS, MoS2) as Conversion Electrodes for Rechargeable All-Solid-State Batteries
Aggunda Lingamurthy Santhosha1,Raimund Koerver2,Kilian Pollok3,Falko Langenhorst3,Juergen Janek2,Philipp Adelhelm1
Institute for Technical Chemistry and Environmental Chemistry, Friedrich-Schiller-University1,Institute of Physical Chemistry, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen2,Institute of Geosciences, Friedrich Schiller University Jena3Show Abstract
Electrochemical energy storage devices have attracted wide attention for energy conversion and storage. Over the past several decades, the success of the lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) has triggered the revolution of personal electronics and significantly changed our lifestyle. However, further progress in battery technology is still needed and great efforts are devoted to improve energy density, cycle life, cost and safety.
Among the various types of rechargeable batteries for future applications, the all-solid-state configuration using inorganic solid electrolytes (SE) has become a promising option. Research in this field is mainly motivated by the promise to further increase the energy density as well as the safety characteristics compared to today’s battery technology. However, all-solid-state batteries still fall short of expectation largely because of limited interface kinetics and interface stability. Moreover, processing of the materials and preparation of the cells needs to be significantly improved to reach higher energy densities and/or lower price compared to conventional cells with liquid electrolytes. In particular, sulfide-based SEs are strongly investigated due to their high ionic conductivity and ductility. The SE Li3PS4 (LPS) exhibits an acceptable ionic conductivity of 10-3 to 10-4 mS cm-1 at room temperature as well as low grain boundary resistance even under cold pressing conditions. In our study, we combine LPS with different transition metal sulfides as cathode active materials. The attractiveness of such materials lies in their high specific capacity of their reaction with lithium. The transition metal sulfides react with lithium in a conversion reaction described by the general formula MaS + (n) Li ↔ aM + LinS (M = transition metal, e.g. Mn, Fe, Cu, Ni, Co, Zn, Mo). The performance of the all-solid-state batteries is evaluated with respect to capacity, cycle life and rate capability and reversible capacities of several hundred mAh g-1 are demonstrated. Additionally, the impact of the electrode composition and cathode loading on the cell performance is evaluated. At last, we discuss analogue cells with sodium as charge carrier ion.
3:30 PM - ET01.02.06
Atomically-Precise Interfacial Engineering of Solid-State Batteries
University of Michigan1Show Abstract
Solid-state batteries have experienced a recent explosion in R&D, owing to their potential to improve safety and energy density. However, the requirements on an all-solid-state battery are stringent, as cells must simultaneously incorporate a high ionic conductivity electrolyte, form high performance interfaces against both anode and cathode materials, and exhibit stability against chemical, electrochemical, morphological, and mechanical evolution under a wide range of cycling conditions. In particular, it has been widely recognized that solid-state interfaces present unique challenges compared to traditional liquid electrolytes, including high interfacial impedances, evolution mechanical stresses due to solid-solid interfacial contact with active materials, and (electro)chemical instabilities that can arise from localized gradients in ionic and electronic concentrations.
To address this challenge, our group focuses on gaining new fundamental insights into the coupled phenomena occurring at interfaces, and applied this knowledge to rationally design interfacial chemistry to address the root cause of performance limitations. This is accomplished through a combination of experimental techniques, including in situ/operando analysis using optical and x-ray techniques, precise surface/interfacial energy measurements, and design of model interfaces to decouple factors that contribute to electrochemical behavior. Equipped with this knowledge, we employ atomically-precise interfacial modifications to rationally design interfacial chemistry.
In this talk, examples will be presented in both bulk solid-state battery interfaces , and thin film electrolytes deposited by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) [3,4]. By studying interfacial chemistry across length scales ranging from atoms to millimeters, we have been able to systematically identify the mechanisms of interfacial degradation. At bulk length scales, the coupled chemical/electrochemical/morphological evolution of a range of solid electrolytes will be discussed, including oxides, sulfides, and polymers. The link between surface chemistry, Li wettability, and interfacial impedance are quantitatively evaluated . Trends and tradeoffs are observed in these systems, which represents a systems engineering problem to optimize overall battery performance. To modify these surfaces, ALD of solid electrolytes is demonstrated [2,3], which enables tunability of surface chemistry, morphology, and stability. These ALD electrolytes are demonstrated in both thin-film battery architectures and as interfacial layers against bulk solid electrolytes. Through this interdisciplinary approach of fundamental chemistry and applied engineering, strategies to address future interfacial challenges will be addressed, which will accelerate the pathway from laboratory science to scalable manufacturing.
1. A. Sharafi et al. Chem. Mater. 29, 7961 (2017)
2. E. Kazyak et al. Chem. Mater. 29, 3785 (2017)
3. E. Kazyak et al. Submitted (2018)
4:00 PM - ET01.02.07
Highly Lithium-Ion-Conducting Halide Electrolytes for 4 V Class All-Solid-State Batteries and Their Conduction Path
Akihiro Sakai1,Tetsuya Asano1,Satoru Ohuchi1,Masashi Sakaida1,Akinobu Miyazaki1,Shinya Hasegawa1
We recently reported that the solid halide electrolytes consisting of rightly-selected cations satisfy the high lithium ion conductivity, electrochemical stability, material stability, and deformability: all of which are simultaneously required properties for solid electrolytes for application in all-solid-state batteries (ASSBs). The ionic conductivity of the halide electrolytes surpassed 1 mS/cm. The bulk-type ASSBs fabricated with cold-pressed method exhibited excellent performances: higher than 94 % coulombic efficiency with 4-V class cathode active materials as well as discharge capacity retention higher than 98 % for 100 cycles. These superior material property as well as excellent battery performance indicate that the halide electrolytes are another good candidate for the solid-state electrolyte for ASSB application other than sulfides and oxides.
Here, we will report the identified crystal structures of these halide electrolytes and the ionic conduction path to elaborate the relationship of lithium ionic conductivity and the crystal structure of these halide electrolytes. Interestingly, the crystal structures of these highly lithium-ion-conducting halide materials do not satisfy the “criteria for high ionic conductivity” of sulfide electrolytes which is BCC-like arrangement of anion sublattice.  On the other hand, these halide electrolytes consist of nearly close-packed anion sublattice, and yet, still show as high lithium ionic conductivity as 0.1 - 1 mS/cm. The simulated ionic conduction paths understandably indicate that cation-cation coulombic repulsion reduces the available conduction paths and alters the crystallinity-conductivity relationship. These results indicate that the design principles of the halide electrolytes for high ionic conductivity differ from previously reported sulfide or oxide electrolytes.
 T. Asano et al., 233rd ECS meeting, May 2018, Seattle.
 Y. Wang et al., Nat. Mater. 2015, 14, 1026.
4:15 PM - ET01.02.08
Flexible Solid-State Ion Conducting Membrane with Garnet Nanostructures
University of Delaware1Show Abstract
Beyond state-of-the-art lithium-ion battery (LIB) technology with metallic lithium anodes to replace conventional ion intercalation anode materials is highly desirable because of lithium’s highest specific capacity (3,860 mA/g) and lowest negative electrochemical potential (∼3.040 V vs. the standard hydrogen electrode). In this work, we report for the first time, to our knowledge, a 3D lithium-ion–conducting ceramic network based on garnet-type Li6.4La3Zr2Al0.2O12 (LLZO) lithium-ion conductor to provide continuous Li+ transfer channels in a polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based composite. This composite structure further provides structural reinforcement to enhance the mechanical properties of the polymer matrix. The flexible solid-state electrolyte composite membrane exhibited an ionic conductivity of 2.5 × 10−4 S/cm at room temperature. The membrane can effectively block dendrites in a symmetric Li | electrolyte | Li cell during repeated lithium stripping/plating at room temperature, with a current density of 0.2 mA/cm2 for around 500 h and a current density of 0.5 mA/cm2 for over 300 h. The presentation will focus on our recent development of 3D garnet nano structured solid-state electrolyte membrane for Li metal batteries.
4:30 PM - ET01.02.09
PEO/Perovskite Composite Electrolyte with Enhanced Li+ Conductivity
Henghui Xu1,Yutao Li1,Nan Wu1,John Goodenough1
The University of Texas at Austin1Show Abstract
Rapid developments in electric road vehicles and grid energy storage are boosting the development of long-life, high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) with high safety. Replacing the liquid electrolyte in conventional LIBs with solid electrolytes can not only address the limitation of leakage and flammability but also guarantee a long cycle life because of the stable structure of the all-solid-state components. Moreover, LIBs built with solid electrolytes may achieve high energy density by using a Li-metal anode and commercially available cathodes. However, there are no ideal solid electrolytes so far that possess both high Li+ conductivity and small interfacial resistance. Composite polymer electrolytes (CPE) prepared by incorporating ceramic nanoparticles into polymer matrix have been deemed an effective way to simultaneously enhance ionic conductivity, improve the electrochemical stability, and reduce the critical interfacial resistance between electrodes and electrolytes. Unfortunately, most reported Li+ conductivities of composite polymer electrolytes are still lower than 1×10-5 S cm-1 at room temperature.
We reported a flexible composite polymer electrolyte with an enhanced conductivity of 4×10-5 S cm-1 at room temperature by blending a perovskite solid electrolyte with a PEO polymer electrolyte. The addition of perovskite not only helps to reduce the polymer crystallinity and increase the mechanical strength but also constructs a strong bond with the anions in Li salts. As a result, many more lithium ions are released from the Li salts to render a much higher ion conductivity. Surface-sensitive techniques are carried out to directly visualize and probe the stable interphase formed between the CPE and electrodes, which improves the Li+ transfer across the interface. A symmetric Li/Li cell and an all-solid-state LiFePO4 cell with the CPE show small overpotentials, high Coulombic efficiencies, and stable cycling performance at 40 ○C
4:45 PM - ET01.02.10
Garnet Electrolyte Coated with a Single-Li+-Conducting Polymer for All-Solid-State Lithium Batteries
Beijing University of Chemical Technology1Show Abstract
To meet the requirements of high energy density, safety and long cycle life, it is necessary to replace the organic flammable electrolyte and graphite anode of the Li-ion battery by a solid electrolyte and metallic-lithium anode that can be plated/stripped reversibly without lithium-dendrite formation. Garnet electrolyte with a high room-temperature Li-ion conductivity and a good stability against lithium metal suffers from the huge interfacial resistance and fast lithium-dendrite growth. A Li+ conducting polymer with a high Li+ transport number of 0.9, which was coated on the surface of garnet electrolyte as an artificial SEI layer, not only reduced the Li metal anode/garnet interfacial impedance but also suppressed the formation and growth of lithium dendrites along the garnet grain boundaries. In all-solid-state Li/LiFePO4 cells, a high Coulombic efficiency near 100% was achieved for long cycling. These tests show the feasibility of a safe Li-metal rechargeable battery having an appropriate single Li+conducting polymer SEI between a ceramic electrolyte and the metallic lithium anode.
Liangbing Hu, University of Maryland
Liwei Chen, Suzhou Institute of Nanotech and Nanobionics, CAS
Jennifer Rupp, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Venkataraman Thangadurai, University of Calgary
ET01.03: Session III
Tuesday AM, November 27, 2018
Hynes, Level 3, Room 310
8:15 AM - ET01.03.01
The Structure and Conductivity of 3D Superionic Na3SbS4 Conductor at Extremely Low Temperatures
Hui Wang1,Yan Chen2,Zachary Hood2,3,4,Jong Keum2,Amaresh Pandian2,Miaofang Chi2,Ke An2,Chengdu Liang5,Mahendra Sunkara1
University of Louisville1,Oak Ridge National Laboratory2,Georgia Institute of Technology3,Massachusetts Institute of Technology4,Zhejiang University5Show Abstract
Overcoming the solid-liquid state transition of the liquid electrolyte in state-of-the-art batteries represent a grand challenge for the next-generation energy storage. All-solid-state batteries that employ superionic solid conductor potentially enable the broadening of battery operation in harsh environments, such as under sub-zero temperatures and even lower. The solid electrolyte as the key component requires structural stability, high-efficiency of ion transportation channels, and low activation energy to maintain the fast-ionic conduction against temperature drop. Compared to one-dimensional (1D) conductive chain, a three-dimensional (3D) framework of ion-conduction tunnel is more favorable structure for solid conductors to work at subzero temperature range. The tetragonal Na3SbS4 is such a superionic conductor that holds 3D tunnel network for Na-ion transportation and exceptionally low activation energy of 0.205 eV. In this work, we use Na3SbS4 as a model system to investigate the structure stability and Na-ion conduction paths of 3D superionic conductor at extreme low temperature (20 K) via cryogenic neutron and X-ray diffractions. Cryogenic in-situ neutron and X-ray diffractions reveal that Na3SbS4 maintains a stable tetragonal crystal structure and the anisotropic lattice contraction upon cooling. The evolution of S-gate, where Na ions hop through in the 3D transportation network, is found to maintain open sizes in the xy-plane, contributing to the low activation energy and impressive ionic conductivity. The Na-ion transportation network is demonstrated to be directionally accessible at the extremely low temperature, which reveals the mechanism of the superior ionic conductivity at broadened temperature range in the view of structure. These findings provide valuable guidance in the search for materials as promising solid electrolyte in solid-state batteries to fulfill harsh environmental needs.
8:30 AM - ET01.03.02
Exploring a New Horizon for Lithium Anodes in Combination with Solid Electrolytes
Keita Niitani1,Patrick Bonnick1,Koji Suto1,Timothy Arthur1,John Muldoon1
Toyota Research Institute of North America1Show Abstract
The holy grail of battery research is the coupling of a metal negative electrode with a high capacity positive electrode to produce a cell with higher energy density than lithium-ion cells. Sulfur cathode has a high theoretical capacity of 1672 mAh g-1 and a theoretical energy density of 2500 Wh kg-1 in a lithium sulfur (Li-S) battery. Li-S batteries are tormented by several challenges, most notably the dissolution of polysulfide in to the electrolyte during the reduction of sulfur and the growth of lithium dendrite during charging. [1,2,3] A paradigm shift is required to completely block or avoid polysulfide dissolution, one option is to use inorganic solid electrolyte such as lithium thiophosphate in place of the liquid electrolyte. [4,5] Lithium thiophosphate solid electrolyte has a narrow potential window which make thermodynamically incompatible with lithium metal anode.  We will discuss how the lithium/solid electrolyte interface and electrolyte structure can dramatically affect the stripping/plating of lithium metal. The challenges associated with using the lithium thiophosphate electrolyte in Li-S battery will also be examined.
 Claudiu B. Bucur, Adrian Lita, Naoki Osada and John Muldoon, Energy Environ. Sci., 9, 112 (2016).
 Naoki Osada, Claudiu B. Bucur, Hikaru Aso and John Muldoon, Energy Environ. Sci., 9, 1668 (2016).
 Claudiu B. Bucur, Michael Jones, Mykhalio Kopylov, John Spear and John Muldoon, Energy Environ. Sci., 10, 905 (2017).
 Takashi Hakari, Akitoshi Hayashi and Masahiro Tatsumisago, Adv. Sustainable Syst., 1, 1700017 (2017).
 Patrick Bonnick, Erika Nagai, and John Muldoon, J. Electrochem. Soc., 165, A6005 (2018).
 Regina Garcia-Mendez, Fuminori Mizuno, Ruigang Zhang, Timothy S. Arthur and Jeff Sakamoto, Electrochimica Acta, 237, 144 (2017).
8:45 AM - ET01.03.03
Li+ Ion Conduction Mechanisms of Li+-Doped NaI and Its Electrochemical Properties
Reona Miyazaki1,Isao Sakaguchi2,Takehiko Hihara1
Nagoya Institute of Technology1,National Institute for Materials Science2Show Abstract
From the early stage of the research, solid electrolytes for the all-solid-state lithium ion batteries have been developed mainly based on the Li compounds. On the other hand, we have been evidenced that the solid electrolytes can also be fabricated by the doping of Li compounds to “Li-free” compounds like the liquid electrolytes prepared by the dissolution of a given ionic salt into the carrier-free liquid solvents. These types of solid electrolytes are so-called “Co-ionic conductor”, where the small doped guest ions play a major role for the ion conduction in the host materials . From our previous research, it has been shown that both NaI and KI become pure Li+ ion conductors via doping 6 mol% of LiBH4, whose conductivity value exceeds that of LiI [1, 2]. However, the details of the ion conduction mechanisms in NaI-LiBH4 system, especially for the host Na+ ions are not well understood. The purpose of the present work is the investigation of the ion conduction mechanisms in NaI-LiBH4 systems. The electrochemical stability will be also investigated as a function of the concentration of LiBH4.
NaI-LiBH4 systems were fabricated by ball-milling. The given molar ratio of NaI and LiBH4 (Aldorich Co) were mechanically milled at 400 rpm with 10 pieces of balls in a chrome still pot (45 ml). The total milling time was 5 hours. In order to investigate the conduction mechanism of Li+ and Na+ ions separately, all-solid-state half-cell was fabricated using the sputtered amorphous Si (a-Si) film and 15NaI_LiBH4 as an anode material and a solid electrolyte, respectively. Li foil was used as a counter electrode. After charging, the half-cell was deconstructed and the Si film was collected in a glove box. Subsequently, the depth profile inside the charged Si film was investigated by SIMS measurement. Cyclic voltammetry was performed using Mo and Li foils as a working and counter electrode, respectively.
During the charging of a-Si film, two kinds of plateau regions were observed at around 0.2 and 0.1 V vs. Li+/Li, which are the typical lithiation curves for a-Si film . From the SIMS measurement inside the charged Si film, it was confirmed that 6Li+ ions are mainly detected. The steady state charging of Li+ ions can be attained by the constant transport of the Li+ ions in NaI. Hence, the main conduction carrier in the NaI doped with 6 mol% of LiBH4 was proven to be the small doped Li+ ions. On the other hands, 23Na+ ions were also detected inside the Si film although the signal intensity was three orders of magnitude smaller than that of 6Li+ ions. The detailed conduction mechanism and electrochemical stability of NaI-LiBH4 systems will be shown in the presentation.
 M. Lazzari and B. Scrosati, Electrochimica Acta, 23 (1978) 75.
 R. Miyazaki et al., J. Solid State Electrochem., 20 (2016) 2759.
 R. Miyazaki et al., J. Alloys and Compounds, 735 (2018) 1291.
 R. Miyazaki et al., J. Power Sources, 272 (2014) 541.
9:00 AM - ET01.03.04
Electrochemomechanical Failure in Active Materials and Solid Electrolytes
Massachusetts Institute of Technology1Show Abstract
The pursuit of high energy density and long life in rechargeable lithium batteries has exposed several modes of failure due to electrochemical-mechanical coupling. This talk will discuss specific examples in intercalation cathode and inorganic solid electrolytes, and potential failure-mitigation approaches.
It is now recognized that even active materials with much lower chemical expansion coefficients than the well-known extreme cases (e.g., Si or Sn and their alloys) undergo cycling induced fracture at the secondary particle level. The possible failure modes have been previously classified  and studied using macroscopic measurements such as acoustic emission [1,2]. Recently a methodology has been developed for measuring the electrochemical response of single electrode particles and directly observing the electrochemomechanical damage . Applied to NMC333 and NCA particles, it is shown that the resulting single-particle kinetics are a trade-off between surface area increase, and loss of electrical continuity, both due to microscopic fracture at the secondary particle level.
Inorganic solid electrolytes undergo lithium metal penetration via an entirely different failure mode than classical dendrite formation in liquid electrolytes . Although it has been argued that grain boundaries are a weak link along which Li metal preferentially penetrates, we show that even single crystals are highly susceptible to metal penetration from surface defects. Failure criteria such as the existence of a critical overpotential that are related to flaw size and the physical properties of the solid electrolyte can be tested using deliberately introduced surface flaws of controlled size. A new result to be discussed is the impact of field concentration effects at current collector discontinuities.
 W.H. Woodford, W.C. Carter and Y.-M. Chiang, Energy and Environmental Science, 5, 8014–8024 (2012). DOI: 10.1039/c2ee21874g
 W.H. Woodford, W.C. Carter and Y.-M. Chiang, J. Electrochem. Soc., 161(11), F3005-F3009 (2014), DOI: 10.1149/2.0021411jes
 P.-C. Tsai, B. Wen, M. Wolfman, M.-J. Choe, M. S. Pan, L. Su, K. Thornton, J. Cabana, Y.-M. Chiang, Energy and Environmental Science, 2018, DOI: 10.1039/C8EE00001H.
 L. Porz, T. Swamy, B. W. Sheldon, H. Thaman, D. Rettenwander, T. Frömling, S. Berendts, R. Uecker, W.C. Carter and Y.-M. Chiang, Advanced Energy Materials, 1701003 (2017). DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201701003.
U.S. Department of Energy support for the NorthEast Center for Chemical Energy Storage (NECCES), an Energy Frontier Research Center under Award # DE-SC0012583, and the Chemomechanics of Far-From-Equilibrium Interfaces (COFFEI) small group, through award number DE-SC0002633, is gratefully acknowledged.
9:30 AM - ET01.03.05
Degradation Mechanisms of All-Solid-State Li-S Battery with Li6PS5Cl
Saneyuki Ohno1,Georg Dewald1,Juergen Janek1,Wolfgang Zeier1
Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen1Show Abstract
While the demand for batteries with a high energy density is rapidly growing, the current commercially available Li-ion battery chemistry is approaching a theoretical limit.1 To overcome this issue, Li-S batteries exploiting the conversion reaction between sulfur and Li2S have been attracting significant attention as a promising candidate of the next generation batteries.2–4 The history of the conventional Li-S battery development has been a fight against the notorious shuttle effect caused by polysulfides dissolved into the liquid electrolyte. However, a concept of all solid state batteries can physically hinder the polysulfide shuttle. Indeed the exhibit no evidence of the shuttle effect the all-solid-state Li-S battery cells, composed of Li-ion conducting thiophosphate (e.g. Li6PS5Cl), exhibit no evidence of the shuttle effect.
Nevertheless, there are still multiple challenges to achieve a high capacity and its good retention. One of the critical issues is a large capacity loss in the first battery cycle. A poor capacity retention over the long term cycling is another issue. In this study, we elucidated the degradation mechanisms of an all-solid-state Li-S battery employing Li6PS5Cl as an electrolyte and achieved a significant improvement of the battery performance based on it. The deeper understanding of the underlying chemistry of the degradation mechanisms will lead to further enhancement of the capacity and cyclability of the all-solid-state Li-S batteries.
(1) Janek, J.; Zeier, W. G. A Solid Future for Battery Development. Nature Energy 2016, 1 (9), 16141.
(2) Suzuki, K.; Mashimo, N.; Ikeda, Y.; Yokoi, T.; Hirayama, M.; Kanno, R. High Cycle Capability of All-Solid-State Lithium–Sulfur Batteries Using Composite Electrodes by Liquid-Phase and Mechanical Mixing. ACS Applied Energy Materials 2018.
(3) Ji, X.; Lee, K. T.; Nazar, L. F. A Highly Ordered Nanostructured Carbon–Sulphur Cathode for Lithium–Sulphur Batteries. Nature Materials 2009, 8 (6), 500–506.
(4) Yang, C.; Zhang, L.; Liu, B.; Xu, S.; Hamann, T.; McOwen, D.; Dai, J.; Luo, W.; Gong, Y.; Wachsman, E. D.; et al. Continuous Plating/Stripping Behavior of Solid-State Lithium Metal Anode in a 3D Ion-Conductive Framework. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2018, 201719758.
9:45 AM - ET01.03.06
Interface Engineering of the Garnet-Based Solid-State Batteries and In Situ Neutron Depth Profiling Diagnose
Chengwei Wang1,Yunhui Gong1,Hua Xie1,Lei Zhang1,Hao Wang1,Eric Wachsman1,Liangbing Hu1
University of Maryland1Show Abstract
Garnet-based solid state electrolytes (SSEs) have attracted much attention for their high ionic conductivities and stability with lithium metal anodes. However, the high interfacial resistances between electrodes and garnet SSEs are one of the main challenges to develop all solid state lithium (Li) metal batteries. Herein, we develop several effective techniques to significantly improve Li-garnet interface and lead to an interface resistance as low as ~ 7 Ω●cm2. we also develop an effective cathode-garnet interface using a mixed ionic-electronic (MIE) conductor, which enables cycling of all solid state batteries without a liquid or polymer electrolyte interface. The solution-processed two dimensional (2D) layered TiS2 shows MIE conductivity after slow pre-lithiation, resulting in more than 20 times lower interfacial resistance. The all solid state batteries can work at high temperatures from 100 oC to 150 oC for 400 cycles at current densities up to 1 mA/cm2. To reveal the interfacial behaviors of garnet SSE in contact of metallic Li, neutron depth profiling (NDP), a nondestructive and unique Li-sensitive technique, is used to in situ monitor Li plating-stripping processes. The NDP measurement has demonstrated the predictive capabilities for diagnosing short-circuits in garnet-based solid state batteries.
10:30 AM - ET01.03.07
Dendrite-Free Lithium Metal Batteries Capable of Stable Operation at Elevated Temperature Based on Liquid Organic Electrolytes
Chinese Academy of Sciences1Show Abstract
Rechargeable lithium metal batteries have attracted wide attention due to high theoretical energy density. For practical applications, high-temperature performance of lithium batteries is essential due to complex application environments, in terms of safety and cycle life. However, it’s difficult for normal operation of lithium metal batteries at high temperature using current electrolyte systems. Herein, a kind of new electrolyte system is designed by adding two thermal-stable lithium salts together (i.e. LiTFSI and LiDFOB) into carbonate solvents with high boiling/flashing point (i.e. EC and PC). Low ratio of LiPF6 is also added to prevent the corrosion of Al current collector. The results indicate that the new electrolyte system possesses good high-temperature performance, meanwhile, it is beneficial to effectively suppress the formation of lithium dendrite. At a current density of 1.2 mA/cm2, LiCoO2 cathode with 2.4 mAh/cm2 shows the capacity retention of 90% after 100 cycles at 80 oC in a lithium metal cell. Such performance is achieved for the first time for rechargeable lithium metal battery using liquid organic electrolyte. The enhanced cycling performance at elevated temperature is ascribed to effective protection of lithium metal by the generation of organic-inorganic composite solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) on surface of lithium anode, formation of cathode electrolyte interphase (CEI) with high content of LiF on LiCoO2 cathode and good stability of electrolyte itself. Its the first demonstration of dendrite-free Li metal battery capable of stable operation above 60 oC using liquid organic electrolyte. The improved cycling performance at elevated temperature based on the new electrolyte system is ascribed to effective protection of Li metal by the generation of organic-inorganic composite SEI on surface of Li anode, formation of CEI with high content of LiF on LiCoO2 cathode and good stability of electrolyte itself. In addition, in situ solidification is also introduced to this system to form a solid electrolyte, which can improve the interfacial solid/solid contact significantly during cycling.
11:00 AM - ET01.03.08
Interface Reverse Design in Solid-State Batteries for Metal Electrode Protection
Yaosen Tian1,2,Yingzhi Sun1,Daniel Hannah2,Yihan Xiao1,Hao Liu3,Karena Chapman3,Shou-hang Bo2,Gerbrand Ceder1,2
University of California, Berkeley1,Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory2,Argonne National Laboratory3Show Abstract
Recent years have witnessed the increasing demand for high-quality, safe, and low-cost rechargeable batteries. Metal-based solid-state batteries are particularly promising in this regard, where extremely high energy densities can be attained by utilizing metallic Li/Na anodes, and the use of a ceramic solid-state electrolyte membrane enables greatly enhanced battery safety. However, most solid-state electrolytes react with lithium and sodium metals, causing a continuous increase of the cell impedance and thus battery degradation. Therefore, passivation reaction with Li/Na metal is required for the electrolyte to achieve a relatively stable interface.
Herein, we present a ‘reverse design’ strategy to improve the stability of the interface between solid-state electrolytes and metal anodes. Using the advanced first-principles computational tools developed in our previous work, we identify a protective hydrate coating for solid electrolytes that would lead to the generation of passivating decomposition products upon contact of the electrolyte with metal electrodes. A significantly improved interface stability with the metal electrode of a hydrate-coated solid-state electrolyte is observed, compared with that of its non-hydrated counterpart. The buried interface between the surface-treated solid-state electrolyte and the metal electrode was characterized using post-operando synchrotron X-ray depth-profiling, providing spatially resolved evidence of the multilayered phase distribution in the metal-based symmetric solid-state cell. The experimental results are consistent with our theoretical predictions. In addition, we propose a general strategy of interface reverse design and discuss the possible pretreatment of the solid-state electrolyte using other chemicals.
11:15 AM - ET01.03.09
Investigating the Effects of Lanthanum Concentration in Ta-Doped Li7La3Zr2O12 Solid Electrolyte
Joseph Valle1,Jeff Sakamoto1
University of Michigan–Ann Arbor1Show Abstract
Solid electrolytes based on the garnet crystal structure have shown promise in the push to develop electrochemical cells utilizing lithium metal anodes due to their high lithium conductivity and stability against metallic lithium. One of these solid electrolytes is cubic phase lithium lanthanum zirconium oxide (LLZO). The critical doping of LLZO with tantalum at the zirconium site has been shown to stabilize the highly conductive cubic LLZO phase at room temperature Li6.5La3Zr1.5Ta0.5O12. This critical doping has been shown to provide an optimal amount of lithium vacancies to stabilize the cubic phase without transitioning to the less conductive tetragonal phase of LLZO. While much work has been done to investigate the doping and charge balancing on the zirconium site, comparatively little focus has been paid to the lanthanum site. The effects of the sub stoichiometric use of lanthanum on the crystal structure of LLZO have yet to be characterized.
In this work, lanthanum content is varied in the LLZO structure Li6.5La2+xZr1.5Ta0.5O12 from x =0 to x=1.2. X-ray diffraction and electrochemical impedance measurements were performed in order to correlate the effect of lanthanum deficiency on crystal structure and electrochemical properties of LLZO. A linear increase in lattice parameter is observed until the stoichiometric composition (x=1.0) is achieved. An increase in conductivity is also observed ranging from .41mS/cm2 at x=0.2 to .72mS/cm2 at x=1.2.
11:30 AM - ET01.03.10
Garnet and Anti-Perovskite Solid Electrolytes—Atomic-Scale Studies on Li-Ion Conduction, Surface Structures and Grain Boundaries
University of Bath1Show Abstract
Major advances in solid-state lithium batteries require the discovery and characterization of solid electrolyte materials. It is clear that a complete understanding of such materials requires greater fundamental knowledge of their underlying structural, ion transport and interface properties on the atomic- and nano-scales. For example, grain boundary effects on Li-ion transport are not fully understood. This talk will highlight recent studies [1-3] in two related areas: the influence of grain boundaries on Li-ion conduction in the Li-rich anti-perovskite Li3OCl and the particle morphologies and lithium segregation to surfaces of the garnet Li7La3Zr2O12. A combination of advanced materials modelling techniques has helped us gain new insights into these complex materials, which are valuable in developing strategies to optimize their electrolyte properties.
 J.A.Dawson et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 140, 362 (2018).
 P. Canepa et al, Chem. Mater., 30, 3019 (2018)
 Y. Deng et al., ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 9, 7050 (2017); Y. Deng et al, Chem. Mater., 30 (2018)
11:45 AM - ET01.03.11
Very High Lithium Diffusion in LiTi2(PS4)3 Through Energy Landscape Frustration
Geoffroy Hautier1,Davide Di Stefano1,Anna Miglio1,Koen Robeyns1,Yaroslav Filinchuk1,Marine Lechartier2,Anatolyi Senyshyn3,Hiroyuki Ishida4,Stefan Spannenberger5,Bernhard Roling5,Denise Prutsch6,Daniel Rettenwander6,Martin Wilkening6,Yuki Kato2
Université catholique de Louvain1,Toyota Motor Europe2,Technische Universitaet Muenche3,Toray Research center4,Marburg University5,TU Graz6Show Abstract
Solid-state materials with fast high ionic diffusion are necessary to many technologies including all-solid-state Li-ion batteries.
In this work, we demonstrate that LiTi2(PS4)3 (LTPS) exhibits the largest Li-ion diffusion coefficient ever measured in a solid. We use extensive characterisation (neutron, X-ray diffraction, impedance and NMR) as well as theoretical studies to study the lithium diffusion in LTPS. We show for instance with recent X-ray data that the Li mobility is so high that low temperature is needed to freeze and observe the lithium ions positions. We rationalise the exceptional performances of this new superionic conductor through the concept of frustrated energy landscape. The absence of regular and undistorted lithium site to occupy leads to low energy barrier for diffusion as well as an exceptional pre-factor. We discuss how this frustration could be present in previously known ionic conductors and be used to search and design new structural families of superionic conductors.
ET01.04: Session IV
Tuesday PM, November 27, 2018
Hynes, Level 3, Room 310
1:30 PM - ET01.04.01
Fast Ion Transport Tunnels in Solid-State Crystalline Electrolytes
Yan Chen1,Hui Wang2,Ke An1
Oak Ridge National Laboratory1,University of Louisville2Show Abstract
Fast solid ionic conductor electrolytes are key enablers of all-solid-state batteries, which potentially possess high energy density and diminish safety concerns during battery operation in large scale energy storage system. Compared to liquid electrolytes, low ionic conductivity is one of the critical issues in solid electrolyte development. Understanding its origin of potential high ionic conductivities provides insight of designing better electrolytes. The ionic transportation efficiency in solid crystals depends on the accessible tunnels in the structure as well as the active vacancy for ion hopping. Via neutron and X-ray diffraction, the ionic transport tunnels, from one-dimension to three-dimension, can be revealed in typical oxide- and sulfide-base light ionic (Li+, Na+) conductors. The directions of the ionic transport have strong correlation with the lattice symmetry and the atomic arrangement in those solid conductors. The effective ion tunnel and the active vacancy quantity can be altered by neighboring aliovalent dopants, which is manipulated for optimal ionic conductivity in the solid electrolyte. The tunnel accessibility is also influenced upon temperature change, due to the tuned framework structure. The evolutions of the tunnel size and the anisotropic oscillation of charge carrier ions indicate the possible dimensional change of the transport pathway network. Moreover, the directional conduction is found to correlate with the anisotropic physical properties, demonstrated by the uneven coefficients of the thermal expansion along different crystallographic axes. These correlations of conduction tunnel provide valuable guidance in materials searching for solid conductors with superior performance in varied environments. The results of the anisotropic thermal-strain response correlated with ionic transport also provide consideration of the physical compatibility in the design of all-solid-state batteries.
1:45 PM - ET01.04.02
Incorporating Two-Dimensional Materials in Semi-Solid Electrolytes for Fast Charge Li-Ion Batteries
Ramin Rojaee1,Salvatore Cavallo1,2,Santosh Mogurampelly3,Bill Wheatle4,Venkat Ganesan4,Reza Shahbazian-Yassar1
University of Illinois at Chicago1,Politecnico di Torino2,Institute for Computational Molecular Science (ICMS) and Temple Materials Institute (TMI)3,The University of Texas at Austin4Show Abstract
Poor electrochemical stability and low ionic conductivity trigger of prime importance for the development of new-generation of lithium-ion batteries. Solid electrolytes have been attracted significant attention owing to their superior safety and potential for boosting specific energy density. Here, we report a new type of semi-solid electrolytes with two-dimensional materials embedded in ternary polymer electrolyte. The developed electrolyte has a high electrochemical stability of 5.5 Vvs. Li/Li+. We report a high ionic conductivity of 4×10-3 S.cm-1 at ambient temperature and significantly low interfacial resistance over the long period of time of 600 h overpotential cycling tests. The developed electrolyte is capable of fast charging with great capacity retention benefiting due to unique atomic arrangement of 2D material additive. FTIR, Raman, and NMR characterizations revealed the higher concentration of the free cations will be present in the electrolyte by about 30% upon addition of designated 2D material nanosheets. The layered 2D material lowers the binding energy for hopping the ions through the electrolyte to allow improved storage capacity and power density.
We hypothesize that 2D materials introduce unique properties to the electrochemical behavior of the electrolyte and boost the ionic conduction through the electrolyte by providing efficient pathways for local ion transport through the structure and can be a great candidate for novel lithium polymer batteries. MD Simulation studies confirmed our experimental achievements and suggested that the f-BP nanosheets facilitate Li+ ion movement by lowering the required energy to dissociate cations and move along the electrolyte.
2:00 PM - ET01.04.03
Advanced Sulfide Solid Electrolyte by Core-Shell Structural Design—Theory and Experiment
Harvard University1Show Abstract
Ceramic sulfide solid electrolyte can show high lithium conductivity, while the voltage stability was reported as an issue in many previous literatures. We show in this talk a new way to improve the voltage stability of sulfide solid electrolyte materials by microstructure modification of the electrolyte materials. The improved battery performance and voltage stability are shown by electrochemical test. A combination of first principle simulation and transmission electron microscopy imaging techniques are used to understand the principle behind the phenomenon. Specifically, sulfide Li-Si-P-S has been synthesized, characterized and tested to show an improved voltage stability window up to 3.1 V and qasi-stable voltage window up to 5V due to the microstructure modification. This is far beyond the limited voltage stability of these sulfides around 1.7 – 2.1 V as predicted by DFT simulation. We further from a combined thermodynamic modeling and DFT simulation understand the principle behind this promising result. A new design principle and theory is proposed and discussed systematically for tuning the voltage stability of solid electrolyte, giving the guidelines for the design of advanced sulfide electrolytes.
2:30 PM - ET01.04.04
Electrochemical Characterization of All-Solid-State Battery with Li7La3Zr2O12 Solid Electrolyte
Tokyo Metropolitan University1Show Abstract
Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) is the promising electrolyte due to its high chemical stability against Li metal and high ionic conductivity. All solid state battery has been fabricated by using LLZO. However, the cell performance is not so good. This is due to a high impedance of the prepared cell. The resistance of solid electrolyte is the largest among resistances in the cell. In addition, the interfacial impedance between cathode or anode and solid electrolyte is not easily decreased. The interface between Li metal anode and LLZO solid electrolyte pellet is large due to poor contact. The contact has been improved by using an interlayer between Li metal and LLZO. A thin gold layer prepared by sputtering method has been employed as the interlayer. The thickness was about 50 nm. The gold layer reacted with Li to form alloy. During this alloying process, the good connection was formed. A cathode material is usually powder sample. The interfaces between cathode material and LLZO sheet and LCO powder and solid electrolyte powder in the cathode layer exist in all solid state battery. In this study, the cathode layer was formed by aero-sol deposition process (AD). The aero-sol of LCO was deposited on the LLZO sheet. Li3BO3 is one solid electrolyte with low melting temperature and 10-8 S cm-1 conductivity. The core (LCO)-shell (LBO) type particle was prepared for AD deposition process. The prepared composite particle was deposited on LLZO sintered pellet which thickness was 500 mm. By using AD process, the uniform cathode layer was fabricated on the LLZO. The discharge and charge behavior of the fabricated cathode layer was investigated at constant current of 0.1 C rate. The discharge capacity was 55.5 mA h g-1. The all solid state battery was not so good. In order to improve the electrochemical behavior of the cell, a heat treatment process was employed. LBO can be melted at 700 °C. Therefore, the temperature for heat treatment was determined to be 750 °C. Several cells prepared by heat treatment at 750 °C were examined to observe their electrochemical performance. The cathode layer prepared at 750 °C exhibited good performance. The highly reversible discharge and charge behavior was obtained. The discharge capacity was 140 mA h g-1 which was near to the expected one. The rate capability of the cell was measured. At 0.2 C rate, the discharge capacity was 50 mA h g-1. With increasing discharge and charge current, the capacity was decreased. The cell impedance was evaluated with electrochemical AC impedance measurement at various temperatures. Before the heat treatment, the cell had a large impedance. After the heat treatment, the cell impedance decreased. The heat treatment is very effective to reduce the interfacial resistance of the cathode layer in all solid state battery. However, further improvements are necessary. The thickness of the solid electrolyte should be decreased and the conductivity of the cathode layer should be increased.
3:30 PM - ET01.04.05
Construction of Flexible Interfacial Layer for Solid-State Li Batteries
Xiamen Univ1Show Abstract
Solid-state batteries (SSBs), one of the most promising energy storage devices for next generation, have now been extensively developed due to their high safety and long cycle life. Here, the interfacial layers between solid electrode and solid electrolyte is one of most important features for the design of solid-state lithium batteries. Normally, the interfacial layer should be stable, highly conductive for Li ions, and flexible to tolerate the big volume changes during charging/discharging process.
In this presentation, I will present some examples we have used in this lab to build up such thin but important interfacial layer, making the highly efficient Li dissolution/deposition possible. For example, we proposed an ultra-simple and effective strategy to enhance the interfacial connection between garnet SSEs and Li metal just by drawing a graphite-based soft interface with a pencil. Both experimental analysis and theoretical calculations confirm that the reaction between graphite-based interfacial layer and metallic lithium forms a lithiated connection interface with good lithium-ionic and electronic conductivity Compared to the reported interfacial materials, the graphite material provides a soft interface with better ductility and compressibility. With the improvement by this soft interface, the impedance of symmetric Li cells significantly decreases from 1350 to 105Ωcm2 and the cell can cycle for over 1000 hours at a current density of 300 mA/cm2 at room temperature. In addition, some examples to construct an intimate solid electrolyte interface(SEI) in sulfide-based electrolyte by using ionic liquids will be also presented.
4:00 PM - ET01.04.06
Simulations of Varying Li-Ion Vacancy Concentrations in Lithium-Oxyhalide Anti-Perovskites Reveal the Effects of Correlated Motion on Diffusion
Nicole Adelstein1,Zerina Mehmedovic1,Vanessa Wei1,Andrew Grieder1
San Francisco State Univ1Show Abstract
Introduction: Our simulations are designed to answer the long-standing question in solid-state batteries: how to increase Li-ion conductivity in solid electrolytes through engineering the structure and chemistry of the anion sub-lattice. Understanding the mechanism behind lithium ion diffusion in promising solid electrolytes, such as lithium-oxyhalide anti-perovskites, can provide design principles for new battery materials. Our ab-initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations of Li3OCl with Li vacancy concentrations between 0.5 and 2% reveal the origin of complex interactions between vacancies and new insights into the effect of correlated motion on the diffusion mechanism. Previous simulations of Li3OCl compute conductivities that are much lower than measured experimentally  and our simulations show that finite size effects are part of the problem.
Methods: Ab-initio molecular dynamics were performed on a 4x4x4 supercells using VASP. The size of the supercell (320 atoms) allows for realistic vacancy concentrations and reducing finite size effects. The supercells had at least one and up to four Li+<font size="1"> </font>vacancies. Maximally Localized Wannier Functions were used to calculate the dynamic polarization of anions and their effect on Li+ diffusion, which is a novel technique that we developed for analyzing solid electrolytes . As is standard, the diffusion coefficient for each compound was determined using the mean squared displacement. The `binding energy’ of Li+ vacancies is calculated and lattice screening is separated into the strain and electronic effects.
Results: We discovered new collective diffusion mechanisms in Li3OCl and that finite size effects plague most AIMD simulations. For example, simulating two Li+ vacancies (0.5% concentration) increases diffusion because the negatively charged vacancies "push" each other along. The largest vacancy concentration we simulated was 2%, which gave the highest diffusion due to disordering of the Li-sublattice, rather than a "push" mechanism. Vacancies can interact up to 7 Å from each other, with strain effects dominating 5 Å or closer. Vacancies communicate through the lattice, especially through polarization of anions. The dynamics of the anion polarization can be quantified easily in a nudged-elastic-band calculation and is still important even in AIMD. Thus, diffusion may be controlled by changing the polarizability of the anions, such as creating Br and F alloys with Li3OCl.
 Zhang, Y., Zhao, Y., & Chen, C. (2013). Ab initio study of the stabilities of and mechanism of superionic transport in lithium-rich anti-perovskite. Phys. Rev. B Physical Review B, 87 (13).
 Adelstein, N. and Wood, B. (2016) Li+ conductivity in a superionic electrolyte driven by dynamically frustrated bond disorder. Journal of Materials Chemistry 28 (20) 7218-7231.
4:15 PM - ET01.04.07
Tuning Charge Diffusion in Polyethylene Oxide-Based Electrolytes Using Secondary Sites—Insights from Molecular Dynamics Simulations
Arthur France-Lanord1,Yanming Wang1,Tian Xie1,Jeffrey Grossman1
Massachusetts Institute of Technology1Show Abstract
Solid-state polymer electrolytes (SPEs) constitute a promising technology for energy storage applications. In addition to a more flexible form factor, batteries using such electrolytes have the potential to be safer, less expensive, and greener than the current liquid-based standard technology. However, hindered by their low ionic conductivity, SPEs can only operate under limited conditions. The improvement of SPEs requires a deeper understanding of ion transport in polymer networks, where modeling and computation can play an important role. Here, through classical molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate charge diffusion in SPEs consisting of a mixture of polyethylene oxide (PEO) based polymers and lithium bis(trifuoromethane)sulfonimide (LiTFSI) salt. By varying the chemical structure of the polymer, we alter the ion-polymer binding strength, which allows us to explore various ionic transport mode. Importantly, this study reveals the delicate balance between ionic association on one hand, and ionic crosslinking on the other hand.
4:30 PM - ET01.04.08
Two-Dimensional Boron Nitride-Protected Solid Electrolyte for Rechargeable Lithium Metal Batteries
Aijun Li1,2,Qian Cheng1,Yuan Yang1
Columbia University1,Peking University2Show Abstract
Solid-state lithium batteries can improve the battery safety and energy density compared with conventional Li-ion batteries. However, a lot of solid electrolytes with low cost and high ionic conductivities can be reduced by the anode in lithium battery systems (e.g. lithium, graphite). Here, we introduce a novel strategy, in which chemically and mechanically robust two-dimensional boron nitride (BN) film was deposited onto the surface of solid electrolyte (e.g. Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3, LATP) to prevent reduction of solid electrolyte from lithium. The lithium symmetric cells with BN protected LATP/liquid hybrid electrolyte can cycle up to 700 hours with a current density up to 0.5 mA/cm2, and full cell utilizing LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 /LATP/BN/Li can cycle 100 times without apparent decay at a current density of 0.3 mA/cm2. In contrast, LATP/liquid hybrid electrolyte can only be cycled for 40 cycles with fast capacity fading. Meanwhile, with PEO coated on both sides of LATP/BN, all-solid-state Li/LiFePO4 cells show a good cycling ability, further demonstrating excellent protection on solid electrolytes. This research provides a universal strategy to protect solid electrolytes of small electrochemical windows against lithium metal, leading to notable improvement of stability and cycling ability.
4:45 PM - ET01.04.09
Fabrication of Ultrathin Films of Li7-3xAlxLa3Zr2O12 with Tunable Surface Morphology by Spray Pyrolysis
Zachary Hood1,Yuntong Zhu1,Lincoln Miara2,Jennifer Rupp1
Massachusetts Institute of Technology1,Advanced Materials Lab2Show Abstract
Garnet-based lithium solid electrolytes are expected to improve next-generation energy storage technology in electric vehicles and portable electronics on the basis of energy density, safety, cost, amongst other parameters. Yet many of these solid electrolytes, such as Li7-3xAlxLa3Zr2O12 (LLZO), were previously difficult to process into thin films between 200 nm and 5 µm in thickness using solution-based techniques. Several vacuum-based1,2 and sol-gel-derived3,4 methods shown success in making thin garnet-based solid electrolyte films with relatively high ionic conductivity (~10-6 - 10-5 S/cm at room temperature), yet better methods are desired to improve the bulk resistance of the electrolyte and overall cost of production. Therefore, the exploration of scalable fabrication techniques is of special importance to develop thin films of garnet-based solid electrolytes that hold high ionic conductivity and compatibility with high-capacity cathodes. In this work, we developed a novel method of fabricating thin films with controllable thicknesses of garnet-based LLZO solid electrolytes using spray pyrolysis. We show that the crystallization and the phase transformation can be modulated to lower temperatures (<750 °C) by tuning the concentration of cations and the boiling point of the solvents used in the spray solution. Also, by altering the chemistry of the spray solution and the post-annealing conditions, we show that the surface roughness can be modulated while still maintaining dense and continuous membranes of LLZO. Our results highlight a new opportunity for manufacturing garnet-based solid electrolytes with tunable electrochemical surface areas, and the insights from this work are expected to serve as fundamental guidelines for future optimization of thin film superionic garnet-based materials for next-generation lithium metal batteries.
Research was sponsored by Samsung Electronics.
1. R.J. Chen, M. Huang, W.Z. Huang, Y. Shen, Y.H. Lin, and C.W. Nan. Sol–gel derived Li–La–Zr–O thin films as solid electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries. Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 2014, 2(33), 13277-13282.
2. M. Bitzer, T. Van Gestel, and S. Uhlenbruck. Sol-gel synthesis of thin solid Li7La3Zr2O12 electrolyte films for Li-ion batteries. Thin Solid Films, 2016, 615,128-134.
3. I. Garbayo, M. Struzik, W.J. Bowman, R. Pfenninger, E. Stilp, and J.L.M. Rupp. Glass-Type Polyamorphism in Li-Garnet Thin Film Solid State Battery Conductors. Advanced Energy Materials, 2018, 8(12), 1702265.
4. M. Rawlence, A.N. Filippin, A. Wackerlin, T.Y. Lin, E. Cuervo-Reyes, A. Remhof, C. Battaglia, J.L.M. Rupp, and S. Buecheler. Effect of Gallium Substitution on Lithium-Ion Conductivity and Phase Evolution in Sputtered Li7–3xGaxLa3Zr2O12 Thin Films. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 2018, 10(16), 13720-13728.
ET01.05: Poster Session I
Tuesday PM, November 27, 2018
Hynes, Level 1, Hall B
8:00 PM - ET01.05.01
Li+ Ion Conduction Properties and Electrochemical Properties of Sodium Bromide Doped with Li+ Ions
Masatoshi Shomura1,Reona Miyazaki1,Takehiko Hihara1
Nagoya Institute of Technology1Show Abstract
Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) has been used for portable device because of their high operating voltage. All-solid-state LIBs, where conventional liquid electrolytes are substituted with the solid electrolytes have been attracted much attention as the next generation batteries. The solid electrolytes are required to have the high Li+ conductivity, electrochemical stability. From the early stage of the research, the solid electrolytes have been developed based on the Li compounds.
On other hand, solid electrolytes can be fabricated not only from the Li compounds but also prepared via doping of Li compounds into “Li-free solid solvents”. It has been reported that KI and NaI act as the pure Li+ conductors via doping of 6 mol% of LiBH4 . In this study, new solid electrolyte is synthesized via doping of LiBH4 and/or LiBr into NaBr in order to expand the material selectivity for the Li-free solid solvents. Furthermore, the Li+ ionic conductivity and electrochemical stability will be compared with those of NaI-LiBH4 system.
A given molar ratio of NaBr, LiBH4 and LiBr were mixed by ball milling using an air tight chrome steel pot (45 ml) and 10 pieces of balls (10 mm in diameter). The crystal structures and microstructures of the prepared samples were characterized by XRD measurement and SEM observation, respectively. For the electrochemical measurement, the powder sample was pelletized at ca. 150 MPa for 1 min, resulting in the pellet with the diameter of 10 mm and thickness was ca. 1 mm. The electrical conductivities were measured between 303 K to 423 K by AC impedance method. Cyclic voltammogram was obtained using Mo and Li foils as working and counter electrodes, respectively. All the experiments were conducted in an Ar atmosphere.
From XRD patterns of NaBr-LiBH4 systems, the diffraction peaks of rock-salt type structure were mainly observed and peak positions of NaBr-LiBH4 system were shifted from those of NaBr. It means that the lattice size of NaBr-LiBH4 system was changed from that of NaBr. Hence, it can be said that NaBr and LiBH4 formed solid solution. Because ion radii of Li+ (BH4-) is smaller (larger) than that of Na+ (Br-), the doping of Li+ ions into NaBr lattice cannot be identified only from the variation of the lattice parameters. In order to identify the Li+ doping into NaBr more specifically, NaBr-NaBH4 system where Li+ ions are not included were prepared and their lattice parameters were also evaluated as a function of BH4- anion ratio. It was confirmed that the lattice parameters of NaBr-LiBH4 system are smaller than those of NaBr-NaBH4 system with the same anion ratio. Therefore, it was suggested that host Na+ ions are substituted by guest Li+ ions. The detailed results of XRD measurement, SEM observations and electrochemical properties will be presented at the meeting.
 R. Miyazaki et al., APL Materials 2 (2014) 056109.
 R. Miyazaki et al., J. Solid State Electrochem. 20 (2016) 2759.
8:00 PM - ET01.05.02
Solid Polymer Electrolyte from Polytetrahydrofuran-Epoxy Copolymers for Lithium-Ion Conduction
Francielli Genier1,James Barna2,Jiayue Wang1,Saeid Biria1,Ian Hosein1
Syracuse University1,Cazenovia High School2Show Abstract
High performance batteries are central components to the development of safe, clean and affordable energy storage systems. For this reason, the replacement of the liquid or gel electrolyte with a solid polymer material, namely a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE), has been a research area of intense interest. Solid electrolytes have the potential to enable higher energy densities and address concerns over the volatility and flammability of currently used organic solvents. Of the numerous polymer systems under investigation, SPEs produced through crosslinking are quite attractive owing to their high conductivity and excellent mechanical stability. Commonly, crosslinking is achieved through free-radical initiated reactions involving end-functionalize monomers or oligomers. This approach is limited by the available polymer precursors, often necessitating deliberate end-functionalization of the molecules to carry out the reaction. Hence, the formation of crosslinks from molecules in their native form would be more cost-effective and straightforward. In this work, a novel crosslinked solid polymer electrolyte was developed through the copolymerization of polytetrahydrofuran (PTHF) and a cycloaliphatic epoxide (referred as Epoxy) under visible light, without previous functionalization. In particular, these chemicals were employed due to PTHF’s potential to achieve high conductivity and the thermal and mechanical stability associated with cycloaliphatic epoxides, creating a stable, solid crosslinked material. The crosslinked samples were evaluated for their ionic conductivity, thermal stability, crystallinity and mechanical stiffness. They presented conductivity on order of 10-5 to 10-3 S/cm, similar to previously reported electrolytes, now with the manufacturing benefits from the photocuring process, which is energy-efficient and less thermally stressful to the substrate materials. Thermogravimetric analysis of the electrolytes indicated stability at battery operating temperatures, and differential scanning calorimetry demonstrated the material’s amorphous behavior over a wide temperature range. The electrolytes also showed excellent mechanical stiff. Further studies on 2032 coin cell batteries will be presented and discussed. This work represents a new route for cleaner and safer energy storage devices with potential for a broad variety of applications.
8:00 PM - ET01.05.03
Synthesis and Characterization of a New Lithium Chloro-Thiophosphate as a Solid State Ionic Conductor
Zhantao Liu1,Jue Liu2,Sylvio Indris3,Wenqian Xu4,Shan Xiong1,Xuetian Ma1,Lufeng Yang1,Hailong Chen1
Georgia Institute of Technology1,Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)2,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology–Institute for Applied Materials3,Argonne National Laboratory4Show Abstract
Solid state Li+ and Na+ conductors have attracted great interest as the electrolyte for all-solid-state batteries. Compared with conventional batteries using liquid organic electrolytes, all-solid-state batteries with non-flammable solid electrolyte have significant advantages in safety. Among known solid-state Li+ conductors, sulfide-based electrolytes are superior in ionic conductivity than oxide conductors and a number of sulfides with different chemical compositions and crystal structures have demonstrated conductivities comparable to liquid electrolytes .
Here we report the synthesis, structural characterization and ionic transport study of a novel lithium chloro-thiophosphate compound, Li15P4S16Cl3. Li15P4S16Cl3 can be synthesized in pure phase with facile solid state reaction method under relatively low temperature. The crystal structure of Li15P4S16Cl3 is characterized with using neutron and synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction techniques, indicating it has an I-43d cubic space group. The ionic conductivity was measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy at different temperatures. At 30 °C, Li15P4S16Cl3 exhibited an ionic conductivity of 4.2×10-7 S/cm. The lithium ion transport in Li15P4S16Cl3 was also studied by multiple solid-state NMR methods, including pulsed field gradient and variable temperature NMR. The discovery of this new compound provide a new crystal structure that can served as a foundation for the design of more sulfide ionic conductors with high conductivities.
 Knauth, P., Inorganic solid Li ion conductors: An overview. Solid State Ionics 2009, 180 (14), 911-916.
8:00 PM - ET01.05.04
Rapid Li Spin Dynamics in the Interfacial Regions of the Nanocrystalline Solid Electrolyte LiBH4
Stefan Breuer1,Marlena Uitz1,Denise Prutsch1,Martin Wilkening1,2
Graz University of Technology, CD-Laboratory for Lithium Batteries1,Alistore-ERI European Research Institute2Show Abstract
Currently, all-solid-state batteries with ceramic electrolytes and lithium metal anodes, for example, represent an attractive alternative to conventional Li-ion batteries. So far many materials have been reported as promising candidates for such systems.1,2 Their dynamic properties and electrochemical stabilities are feverishly studied to identify those materials that may indeed replace flammable liquid electrolytes.
LiBH4, especially when available in a nanocrystalline form, belongs to one of these promising solid electrolytes.2 Besides its good compatibility with metallic lithium it shows a high ionic conductivity above 113 °C making it a suitable candidate for high-temperature solid-state batteries.3 In general, nanostructured ceramics, if prepared by high-energy balling from the coarse-grained counterparts, are composed of crystalline grains surrounded by structurally disordered interfacial regions. These areas are considered to be responsible for increased ion dynamics in these materials.
The aim in this work was to separately study the diffusivity of the fast Li ions in the large volume fraction of interfacial regions from an atomic scale point of view. Therefore, we used nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to record purely diffusion-induced 7Li NMR spin-lattice relaxation magnetization curves. Indeed, the transients are composed of two components. We attribute the fast relaxing component to the highly mobile Li ions in the interfacial regions. These ions showed much lower activation energies than those in the crystalline grains. NMR line shapes, recorded under static conditions, corroborated this point of view.4
 J. Sakamoto, in Handbook of Solid State Batteries, World Scientific, 2015, pp. 391-414.
 M. Uitz, V. Epp, P. Bottke, M. Wilkening, J. Electroceram. 38 (2017) 142-156.
 K. Takahashi, K. Hattori, T. Yamazaki, K. Takada, M. Matsuo, S. Orimo, H. Maekawa, H. Takamura, J. Power Sources 226 (2013) 61-64.
 V. Epp, M. Wilkening, Phys. Rev. B 82 (2010) 020301.
8:00 PM - ET01.05.05
Investigation of Interfacial Reactions Between a NASICON Type Solid Electrolyte and Lithium
John Lewis1,Francisco Javier Quintero Cortes1,Matthew Boebinger1,Matthew McDowell1
Georgia Institute of Technology1Show Abstract
Solid-state electrolytes have been predicted to prevent dendritic growth of lithium metal anodes due to the mechanical properties of ceramic solid electrolytes. However, cell failure when using lithium metal has been observed with various solid electrolyte materials. A well-known example is the growth of lithium through the bulk of the garnet-type Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) electrolyte, despite its thermodynamic stability and high shear modulus. An alternative to LLZO is the NASICON family of solid electrolytes, which offers comparable conductivities and mechanical properties. The disadvantage of these materials is that they are chemically unstable against lithium metal, and they typically react upon contact to form a high-impedance interface. While the chemical reaction between NASICON material Li1.5Al0.5Ge1.5(PO4)3 (LAGP) and lithium was recently shown to cause mechanical and thermal failure, comprehensive understanding of the electrochemical reaction mechanism and phase transformation process at the Li/LAGP interface has not been attained. This knowledge is key for stabilizing NASICON-based batteries for long lifetimes. Here, we investigate the reactions between LAGP and lithium using various electrochemical and ex situ/in situ analytical techniques. In symmetric electrochemical cells, the extent of reaction and distribution of the reacted region throughout the solid electrolyte is found to be strongly dependent on the applied current density. Cell failure is ultimately governed by a dramatic increase in impedance due to mechanical fracture of the solid electrolyte. Multiple characterization techniques reveal that the reacted phase is amorphous, in contrast to the crystalline reaction products predicted to exist by prior density functional theory calculations. Both ex situ and in situ electron microscopy demonstrate that LAGP experiences a volume expansion during reaction, which likely drives fracture of the ceramic. These results demonstrate that the thermodynamic instability of LAGP against lithium alters the failure mechanism when compared to a stable material such as LLZO, and they suggest that NASICON-type materials could be used within viable solid-state devices with additional engineering to stabilize interfaces.
8:00 PM - ET01.05.06
Diffusion Mechanism in the Superionic Conductor Li4PS4I Studied by First-Principles Calculations
Karsten Albe1,Sabrina Sicolo1,Constanze Kalcher1
TU Darmstadt1Show Abstract
Li4PS4I was recently discovered as a novel crystalline lithium ion conductor by applying a soft chemistry approach. It adopts a tetragonal structure type suggesting a three-dimensional migration pathway favorable for a high conductivity [S.J. Sedlmaier, Chem. Mater. 29 (2017) 1830]. In order to shed light on the full potential of this material, we performed a theoretical study of Li4PS4I in the framework of density functional theory. After creating a structural model that accurately accounts for the partial occupancies determined by diffraction experiments, we performed molecular dynamics simulations, unraveled the diffusion mechanisms and calculated diffusion coefficients and the activation barrier for diffusion. The results of the theoretical study on both a crystalline and a glassy supercell imply that Li4PS4I is in fact a superionic conductor with a much higher conductivity than reported so far.
8:00 PM - ET01.05.07
Effect of Cell Volume on Li+ Diffusion in Ordered and Disordered LLZO Systems
Andrew Grieder1,Tae Wook Heo2,Nicole Adelstein1,Brandon Wood2,Prateek Mehta3
San Francisco State University1,Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory2,University of Notre Dame3Show Abstract
The garnet Li7La3Zr2O12 is a promising candidate as a solid electrolyte due to its stability and fast lithium diffusion. A lithium deficient system Li6.75La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) was studied using classical molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the effect of cell size on ordered and disordered LLZO systems. The disordered systems serve as a proxy for grain boundaries, which are thought to impede Li+ conductivity in polycrystalline materials. We find that the disordered system has regions with more free volume where Li+ gets trapped. Results from the simulations with ordered cell volumes confirm that more free volume in the system decreases the rate of diffusion.
Activation energies and diffusion pre-factors were extracted from Arrhenius plots of diffusion at temperatures ranging from 500 K to 2000 K for systems with volumes ranging from 92% to 108% of the experimental cell volume. The activation energies were found to decrease for smaller cell sizes even though there is less space for Li+ to jump. The activation energies for the disordered systems were found to be higher than the ordered systems. The pre-factor and activation energy of the ordered system increase stepwise when cell volume is 106% of the experimental cell volume indicating a change in diffusion mechanism at this volume. The results from different cell volumes of ordered and disordered systems provides insight into diffusion around and through grain boundaries for the LLZO system.
8:00 PM - ET01.05.08
Kinetics and Chemical Analysis of the Crystallization Process of Li7-3xAlxLa3Zr2O12 Thin Films Deposited by a Sol-Gel-Derived Wet Chemistry Method
Yuntong Zhu1,Zachary Hood1,Lincoln Miara2,Kunjoong Kim1,Juan Carlos Gonzalez-Rosillo1,Jennifer Rupp1
Massachusetts Institute of Technology1,Samsung Research America2Show Abstract
Garnet-based solid-state batteries exhibit several exceptional properties, including its wide electrochemical stability window, high room temperature Li-ion conductivity, and good thermal stability, rendering it as one of the most promising candidates for next-generation electrochemical energy storage devices. While many studies have detailed bulk garnet-based electrolytes such as Li7-3xAlxLa3Zr2O12 (LLZO), the preferred choice for future electric vehicles is thin films as it can effectively reduce the bulk resistance of the electrolyte layer, and therefore, improve the energy density of the battery. Several studies have demonstrated a promising room temperature ionic conductivity of LLZO thin films using vacuum-based deposition techniques, such as pulsed laser deposition (PLD)1 and sputtering2. Only a few groups have demonstrated the possibility to synthesize LLZO thin films using scalable wet chemical methods such as sol-gel-derived spin coating3 and dip coating4 which are of essence for mass-manufacturing. Amongst these techniques, there is still a lack of understanding in the kinetics of the LLZO phase formation via wet chemistry routes. In this study, LLZO thin films are prepared via a sol-gel-derived wet chemistry method. The crystallization and phase transitions of the LLZO thin films during annealing processes were studied by in situ Raman spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Furthermore, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to study the surface chemistry of the films during the phase transformation processes. Our results reveal that the as-deposited films undergo several phase transformation processes and the pure garnet phases can be obtained in an attractive low-temperature range. Additionally, we investigated the effect of precursor composition on the phase transformation. This work provides a better understanding of the LLZO phase formation through wet chemistry synthetic methods and offers valuable insight for the design and synthesis of electrolytes for all-solid-state lithium batteries.
This work was sponsored by Samsung Electronics.
1. Garbayo, Iñigo and Jennifer L.M. Rupp, et al. "Glass-Type Polyamorphism in Li-Garnet Thin Film Solid State Battery Conductors." Adv. Energy Mater. 8.12 (2018): 1702265.
2. Rawlence, Michael and Jennifer L.M. Rupp, et al. "Effect of Gallium Substitution on Lithium-Ion Conductivity and Phase Evolution in Sputtered Li7–3xGaxLa3Zr2O12 Thin Films." ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10.16 (2018): 13720-13728.
3. Chen, Ru-Jun, et al. "Sol-gel derived Li-La-Zr-O thin films as solid electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries." J. of Mater. Chem. A 2.33 (2014): 13277-13282.
4. Bitzer, Martin, Tim Van Gestel, and Sven Uhlenbruck. "Sol-gel synthesis of thin solid Li7La3Zr2O12 electrolyte films for Li-ion batteries." Thin Solid Films 615 (2016): 128-134.
Liangbing Hu, University of Maryland
Liwei Chen, Suzhou Institute of Nanotech and Nanobionics, CAS
Jennifer Rupp, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Venkataraman Thangadurai, University of Calgary
ET01.06: Session V
Wednesday AM, November 28, 2018
Hynes, Level 3, Room 310
8:00 AM - ET01.06.01
Anion Dynamics as One of the Key Drivers for Ultrafast Diffusion in Superionic Hydro-Polyborate Salts of Lithium and Sodium
Mirjana Dimitrievska1,2,Wan Si Tang1,Patrick Shea3,Kyoung E. Kweon3,Joel Varley3,Vitalie Stavila4,Brandon C. Wood3,Terrence J. Udovic1
National Institute of Standards and Technology1,National Renewable Energy Laboratory2,Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory3,Sandia National Laboratories4Show Abstract
The disordered phases of solid lithium and sodium polyborate-based salts, such as closo-borate (B12H122-, B10H102-, CB11H12-, and CB9H10-) and nido-borate (B11H14-, 7-CB10H13-, 7,8-C2B9H12-, and 7,9-C2B9H12-), possess superb superionic conductivities making them intriguing molecules for use in organometallic catalysis and as electrolyte anions in metal-ion battery technologies. This dramatically high conductivity (e.g., ~0.03 S cm-1 for NaCB9H10 at 297 K) is enabled by the emergence of a vacancy-rich cation sublattice and possibly further aided by the concomitant onset of high reorientational mobility (typically >1010-1011 reorientational jumps s-1) of the quasi-spherical anions. Furthermore, these superionic-conducting phases can be better stabilized at device-relevant temperatures via additional strategies such as ball-milling and anion-mixing.
Neutron scattering techniques are invaluable for elucidating the dynamical nature of the reorienting anions with these hydrogenous materials. Obtaining any detailed fundamental understanding of the reorientational dynamics of these complex anions requires appropriate experimental probes, such as neutron scattering fixed window scan analysis (FWS) and incoherent quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS).
In this work, FWS, QENS, and ab initio molecular dynamics calculations are combined to probe anion reorientations and their mechanistic connection to cation mobility over a broad range of timescales and temperatures.1,2 The relationship among the reorientational behaviors and mobilities of the different divalent and monovalent polyhedral anions within the various disordered salt structures obtained from these techniques and the unusually rapid cation translational diffusion properties will be discussed. It is found that anions do not rotate freely, but rather transition rapidly between orientations defined by the cation sublattice symmetry. Furthermore, there appears to be a correlation between reorientational mobility of the anions and the diffusion rates of the cations. The results suggest that synergy between the anion reorientational dynamics and the cation–anion interaction significantly accounts for the high cationic conductivity observed in these salts.
(1) Dimitrievska, M.; Shea, P.; Kweon, K. E.; Bercx, M.; Varley, J. B.; Tang, W. S.; Skripov, A. V.; Stavila, V.; Udovic, T. J.; Wood, B. C. Carbon Incorporation and Anion Dynamics as Synergistic Drivers for Ultrafast Diffusion in Superionic LiCB11H12 and NaCB11H12. Adv. Energy Mater. 2018, 8 (15), 1703422.
(2)Tang, W. S.; Dimitrievska, M.; Stavila, V.; Zhou, W.; Wu, H.; Talin, A. A.; Udovic, T. J. Order–Disorder Transitions and Superionic Conductivity in the Sodium Nido-Undeca(carba)borates. Chem. Mater. 2017, 29 (24), 10496–10509.
8:15 AM - ET01.06.02
Understanding the Effect of Interlayers at the Thiophosphate Solid Electrolyte/Lithium Interface for All-Solid-State Li Batteries
Lingzi Sang1,Ralph Nuzzo2,Andrew Gewirth2
University of Alberta1,University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign2Show Abstract
All-solid-state Li-ion batteries afford possibilities to enhance battery safety while improving their energy and power densities. Current challenges to achieving high performance all-solid-state batteries with long cycle life include shorting resulting predominantly from Li dendrite formation and infiltration through the solid electrolyte (SE), and increases in cell impedance induced by SE decomposition at the SE/electrode interface. In this work, we evaluate the electrochemical properties of two interlayer materials, Si and LiXAl(2-x/3)O3 (LiAlO), at the Li7P3S11 (LPS)/Li interface. Compared to the Li/LPS/Li symmetric cells in absence of interlayers, the presence of Si and LiAlO both significantly enhance the cycle number and total charge passing through the interface before failures resulting from cell shorting. In both cases, the noted improvements were accompanied by cell impedances that had increased substantially. The data reveal that both interlayers prevent the direct exposure of LPS to the metallic Li, and therefore eliminate the intrinsic LPS decomposition that occurs at Li surfaces before electrochemical cycling. After cycling, a reduction of LPS to Li2S at the interface when a Si interlayer is present; LiAlO, which functions to drop the potential between Li and LPS, suppresses LPS decomposition processes. The relative propensities towards SE decomposition follows from the electrochemical potentials at the interface which are dictated by the identities of the interlayer materials. This work provides new insights into the phase dynamics associated with specific choices for SE/electrode interlayer materials and the requirements they impose for realizing high efficiency, long lasting all-solid batteries.
8:30 AM - ET01.06.03
Mechanical Properties and Nucleation of Nano-Sized Li Electrodeposited in a Solid-State Battery
Michael Citrin1,Heng Yang1,Wenpei Gao2,Simon Nieh3,Xiaoqing Pan2,Joel Berry4,David Srolovitz4,Julia Greer1
California Institute of Technology1,University of California, Irvine2,Front Edge Technology3,University of Pennsylvania4Show Abstract
Li metal is the most energy dense anode material for Li-based rechargeable batteries, with a theoretical specific capacity of 3860 mAh/g1. Its use in commercial batteries has been largely limited by the formation of dendrites during cycling in liquid electrolytes, leading to early cell death. It has been theorized that a sufficiently strong and stiff solid electrolyte can mechanically suppress dendrite formation and growth2. Gaining a fundamental understanding of the mechanics of Li dendrite nucleation, strength, and stiffness as a function of microstructure and crystallographic orientation is essential to successfully implement solid electrolytes in Li metal batteries.
We investigated nucleation and growth of Li in a commercial all solid-state thin film Li free battery with a LiPON solid electrolyte3. We conducted electrochemical cycling experiments in-situ, inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM). We observed that during charging, Li preferentially nucleated from the LiPON-Cu interface by rupturing through the Cu film along the topological landscape that reflects the domain boundaries of the underlying LiCoO2 cathode. Continuum electrochemical simulations of Li ion transport suggest that Li is driven to these preferential nucleation sites by the local electrostatic potential that concentrates at the domain boundaries.
We observed Li nuclei with varying morphologies: micron-sized spheres, ~200 nm diameter fibers, and ~300 nm to 1 micron-diameter pillars. We conducted in-situ unxiaxial compression experiments in an SEM on electroplated pillars with diameters between 350 nm and 1 μm and aspect ratios of about 3:1, which revealed an average elastic modulus of 6.56 ± 3.03 GPa and an average yield strength of 15.4 ± 8.57 MPa, over an order of magnitude higher than the material’s bulk polycrystalline strength4. No size effect was observed, in contrast to the ubiquitous “smaller is stronger” size effect present in single crystalline metallic pillars created by Ga+ focused ion beam (FIB) milling4. The strengths observed were about an order of magnitude smaller than those measured from FIB-milled single crystalline Li pillars4. To understand the difference between observed and reported strengths, we conducted electrochemical charging in-situ inside a transmission electron microscope (TEM) on a thin lamella extracted from the solid-state battery to investigate the microstructure of the Li. This work enables laying out a parameter space for stiffness and strength of Li as a function of its deposition process, electrolyte, microstructure and orientation. The results have significant implications for lithium dendrite suppression using robust solid electrolytes for the next generation of lithium metal secondary batteries.
1. Zhang et. al. Nano Lett. 14, 6889-6896 (2014)
2. Monroe et. al. J Electrochem Soc. 152, A396-A404 (2005)
3. http://www.frontedgetechnology.com/ 2014
4. Xu et. al. PNAS. 114, 56-61 (2017)
8:45 AM - ET01.06.04
Ice-Templated Ceramic/Polymer Composite Electrolyte for Solid-State Batteries
Xue Wang1,2,Haowei Zhai1,Yuan Yang1
Columbia University1,Harbin Institute of Technology2Show Abstract
Composite solid electrolyte is attractive as it combines high ionic conductivity of ceramic electrolyte and excellent mechanical properties of polymer electrolyte. For maximizing the ionic conductivity of composite electrolyte, one ideal structure is vertically aligned ceramic particles in the polymer matrix. Here, by using the ice-templating method, we report a vertically arranged wall structure of high ionic conductive Li1.5Al0.5Ge1.5(PO4) 3 (LAGP) ceramic particles combined with polyethylene oxide (PEO) polymer. The vertical LAGP walls with the shortest lithium-ion transporting path were gathered by the force of the ice crystal growth. Filling PEO in the space between LAGP walls could achieve flexible composite electrolyte and lower interfacial resistance with electrode surfaces. This as-synthesized solid-state composite electrolyte had a conductivity as high as 1.5*10-4 S/cm at room temperature, which was even more significant at high temperature with excellent stability. LiFePO4/LAGP-PEO/Li full cell was also assembled to test its electrochemical performance; the capacity only decayed ~8% after more than 130 cycles. This research successfully utilizes the ice-templated vertically aligned structure in ceramic/polymer composite electrolyte for solid-state batteries, with comprehensively enhanced battery performance. It could provide new design and application strategy for further composite electrolyte study.
9:00 AM - ET01.06.05
Examining the Low Voltage Stability of Li6.25Al0.25La3Zr2O12 (LLZO)
Regina Garcia-Mendez1,Jeff Sakamoto1
University of Michigan1Show Abstract
The band gap of bulk Li6.5Al0.25La3Zr2O7 (LLZO) was reported to be 5.87 eV with its band edges positioned above and below the electrochemical potential of Li metal and high voltage cathodes (~5 V), respectively. From a quantum mechanical perspective, this unprecedented wide stability window could enable a paradigm shift in secondary Li batteries whereby the electrolyte does not decompose against the anode and cathode1. However, it has been observed that the Li-LLZO interface is destabilized at high Li plating current densities resulting in Li metal penetration. In this study, we hypothesize for the first time that Li metal penetration could result from a quantum mechanical instability rather than an electrochemical or mechanical instability. To analyze this phenomenon, all-solid-state cells consisting of separate working and reference electrodes were used to measure the stability of the Li-LLZO interface at and below 0 V vs Li/Li+. Unlike typical tests that vary the current and measure the resulting potential, this study controls the potential and measures the current. At low underpotentials, the Li-LLZO interface exhibits Ohmic behavior. However, at greater underpotentials, deviation from Ohmic behavior is observed, which we believe it is an indicator of a threshold voltage; above which the Li Fermi level is above the conduction band minimum and below which the Li Fermi level is pushed into the conduction band. This study will analyze and interpret the consequences of the latter. Furthermore, galvanostatic tests were conducted in three electrode Li-Li symmetric cells, in which current densities were increased from 0.1 to 2 mA cm-2 on the Li plating side. It was found that the current density of 0.5±0.1 mA cm-2 at which the drop in voltage was observed in galvanostatic conditions is comparable to the 0.6±0.1 mA cm-2 current density at which the threshold voltage occurs in the voltage sweep tests. At this macroscopic scale, no electric field dependence was observed . In this study, we propose a hypothesis to explain why relative soft Li metal can penetrate a relatively hard ceramic electrolyte. The mechanism could be governed by quantum mechanical aspects; an explanation that has not been considered before. The results of this work could help better understand Li-solid electrolyte interface and how to increase the rate at which solid-state batteries are cycled.
1. Thompson, T., Yu, S., Williams, L., Schmidt, R. D., Garcia-Mendez, R., Wolfenstine, J., ... & Sakamoto, J. (2017). Electrochemical Window of the Li-Ion Solid Electrolyte Li7La3Zr2O12. ACS Energy Letters, 2(2), 462-468.
9:30 AM - ET01.06.06
Materials Design for Highly Conductive Polymer Electrolyte by Machine Learning Assisted Coarse-Grained Molecular Dynamics
Yanming Wang1,Tian Xie1,Arthur France-Lanord1,Jeremiah Johnson1,Yang Shao-Horn1,Jeffrey Grossman1
Massachusetts Institute of Technology1Show Abstract
Solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) are considered as promising building blocks for the next-generation lithium-ion batteries. However, current SPEs have yet to be incorporated into real-world applications, due to their low ionic conductivity. This motivates the development of advanced computational models, for better understanding the ionic transport mechanisms and fast exploring the high-dimensional material parameter space, towards designing highly conductive SPE materials. Here we develop a coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) model with parameters calibrated by full atomistic simulations. The model captures both the ion motion and the polymer conformational evolution during the transport process, from which the conductivity and transference number are extracted. Adopting the Bayesian optimization (BO) algorithm, conductivity optimization is conducted by automated CGMD simulations in iterations, for screening influential factors, such as the size of molecules and the strength of intermolecular interactions, on the conduction of the polymer-salt system. This research sheds light on the mechanisms of ionic transport in polymers, and provides useful guidance for designing innovative SPE materials.
9:45 AM - ET01.06.07
Sol-Gel Processed Amorphous Li0.35La0.55TiO3 as Solid Electrolyte
Yubin Zhang1,Yan Wang1
Worcester Polytechnic Institute1Show Abstract
Amorphous Li0.35La0.55TiO3 (LLTO) has been proved to be a promising candidate for electrolyte in All-Solid-State-Battery (SSB), amorphous LLTO thin films were also synthesized by sol-gel process in our previous work. The ionic conductivities of amorphous LLTO thin films were 4.5*10−6, 6.9*10−6, 1.3*10−5, and 3.8*10−5 S/cm at 30°C, 50°C, 70°C, and 90°C, respectively. However, the inner relationship among the ionic conductivity, structure and mechanism of Li ion transfer is still unrevealed. In this study, we successfully prepared amorphous LLTO thin film and amorphous LLTO powder via similar sol-gel procedure, moreover, differences were introduced during the sintering process. XRD and SEM were applied to demonstrate the morphology change with different annealing conditions. In addition, the ionic conductivities of the thin film prepared were measured sequentially. With the accumulation of annealing time, the ionic conductivity of LLTO thin film raised from 2.32*10-8 S/cm to 9.01*10-6 S/cm, then dropped back to 1.65*10-9 S/cm at 30°C. Whereas the activation energy of lithium ion transferring is approximately constant, from which proved the lithium ion transfer in LLTO is dynamic-controlled. It gave us an optimized synthesis condition of LLTO thin film in the meantime for future investigation.
10:30 AM - ET01.06.08
Li-Ion and Na-Ion Solid State Electrolytes for Solid-State Batteries
Linda Nazar1,Laidong Zhou1,Kavish Kaup1,Zhizhen Zhang1,Erika Ramos1
University of Waterloo1Show Abstract
All-solid state Li-ion batteries (ASSBs) have emerged as very attractive alternatives to conventional liquid electrolyte cells for automotive transportation, owing to their enhanced safety and higher energy densities. Similarly, low-cost solid state Na-ion batteries may prove an excellent alternative for grid storage. ASSBs are founded on high performance fast-ion conducting electrolytes, and in the important search for new materials, alkali thiophosphates are a particularly promising class of materials owing to their ductility and good mechanical properties. This presentation will focus on several new alkali fast ion conductors within this class recently developed in our laboratory, and the understanding of superionic conductivity in these materials using a combination of structural elucidation via single crystal X-ray/powder neutron diffraction, ion conductivity via impedance studies, and and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. We correlate crystal structure with ionic conductivity in a range of our newly developed fast ion Li and Na conductors to understand how changes in composition and vacancy population affect the conductivity and activation energy. These considerations lead to an overarching understanding of the relative importance of interstitial alkali ion site occupation for ion migration, and the factors that govern thermodynamic (meta)stability.
11:00 AM - ET01.06.09
Li Transport Induced Phase Transitions in Epitaxial LiCoO2 Thin Films
Yingge Du1,Zhenzhong Yang1,Phuong-Vu Ong1,Le Wang1,Peter Sushko1
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory1Show Abstract
Structurally ordered materials exhibit a broad range of structural, physical, and ion transport properties, which can be further tuned or even drastically transformed by means of judicious elemental doping, strain, and defect engineering. This talk will highlight our most recent effort aiming to modify LiCoO2 through heteroepitaxy for tunable Li+ transport, which have profound implications in energy conversion and storage devices. We will present the epitaxial growth and in situ TEM studies of LiCoO2 with or without overlayers to understand the Li transport processes across the epitaxial interfaces, and device failure mechanisms. We show that while orienting Li containing planes of LiCoO2 can effectively tune the Li ion transport characteristics, allowing Li incorporation into the overlayers across the interface, it does not modify its stability against Li metal (mimicking a Li dendrite), which preferentially attack the LiCoO2 crystal structure along the  direction, enabling to Li propagation across Li-containing planes.
11:15 AM - ET01.06.10
Lithium-Metal Anode Protection—From Liquid to Solid-State Batteries
Chunpeng Yang1,Liangbing Hu1
University of Maryland at College Park1Show Abstract
High-energy lithium metal batteries are among the most promising candidates for next-generation energy storage systems. With a high specific capacity and a low reduction potential, the Li metal anode has attracted extensive interest for decades. Dendritic Li formation, uncontrolled interfacial reactions, and huge volume effect are major hurdles to the commercial application of the Li metal anodes. In this talk, I will introduce our approaches to protect Li metal anodes from liquid batteries to solid-state batteries. We designed advanced host structures with nanoseeded nucleation sites for Li anode, ion-conductive protecting layers for Li metal anode, and so on. The strategies in liquid batteries improve the performance and safety of Li metal anodes in liquid electrolytes significantly. Superior to the liquid electrolytes, solid-state electrolytes are considered able to inhibit problematic Li dendrites and build safe solid Li metal batteries, but their utilization is mainly hindered by the poor interface between the solid electrolyte and electrodes. We introduce a solid-state Li anode hosted in a 3D garnet-type ion-conductive framework with bottom-deposited Cu. The Li anode is plated within the solid garnet framework from the bottom Cu layer and shows a dendrite-free deposition behavior, effectively averting the dendrite penetration issue. Owing to the 3D ion-conductive host, the volume change and interface contact problem of the Li anode have been significantly mitigated, realizing a high-capacity and safe Li metal anode for solid-state high-energy-density batteries.
11:30 AM - ET01.06.11
Dominating Factors Controlling The Ion Conductivity of Na-β’’-Alumina Ceramic Electrolytes
Marie-Claude Bay1,2,Meike Heinz1,Nicola Zanon3,Ulrich Vogt1,2,Corsin Battaglia1
Empa–Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology1,Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg2,FZSoNick SA3Show Abstract
Ceramic Na-β’’-alumina is a fast solid-state sodium-ion conductor at elevated temperature (0.2 S/cm at 300 °C) and thus favored as electrolyte in high-temperature batteries (Na/NiCl2, Na/S) . Furthermore it is gaining attention as interesting candidate for all-solid-state batteries (1 mS/cm at room temperature) . Although known since the 1970s, processing of Na-β’’-alumina into a dense material with high ion conductivity is challenging, in particular due to significant Na loss during sintering. Ion conductivity values reported in the literature vary by a factor of 100 . While these variations are generally ascribed to microstructure and composition, conclusive studies identifying the relevant parameters are lacking.
Depending on sintering temperature and sintering time, we obtain samples with conductivities between 0.04 and 0.37 S/cm at 300°C from identical starting powders. We identify the average grain size as the dominating factor controlling ion conductivity for densely sintered samples. For an average grain size between 1 and 6 μm, we obtain conductivities between 0.17 and 0.27 S/cm. The influence of porosity in under-sintered, highly porous samples is well accounted for by Archie’s law and results in lower ion conductivity down to 0.04 S/cm at 68 % density. The overall Na content remains constant within experimental uncertainties. However, we observe evidence in X-ray diffraction that the local sodium concentration inside the grains increases with increasing sintering temperature. We present a model to predict the influence of grain size on the ion conductivity and effective activation energies of grain and grain-boundary phases. Our insights into microstructural factors controlling ionic conductivity such as grain size and density are instrumental for the successful integration of Na-β’’-alumina ceramic electrolytes into next-generation batteries.
1. K. B. Hueso, M. Armand, T. Rojo, Energy Environ. Sci., 6 (2013), 734-749
2. L. Liu, X. Qi, Q. Ma, X. Rong, Y.-S- Hu, Z. Zhou, H. Li, X. Huang, L. Chen, Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 8 (2016), 32631-32636
3. X. Lu, G. Xia, J. P. Lemmon, Z. Yang, J. Power Sources, 195 (2010), 2431-2442
11:45 AM - ET01.06.12
Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulations of Solid State Battery Materials
Steffen GrieshammerShow Abstract
Ionic conductivities of solid state materials are of crucial importance for the efficiency of solid state batteries. Quantum chemical methods, such as density functional theory (DFT), have become a useful tool to predict structural and electronic properties of solid state materials as well as the migration paths of the ionic charge carriers. In ideal materials with dilute concentration of defects the macroscopic ionic conductivity can be derived analytically from the microscopic energy barrier of ion motion. However, at non-dilute concentration of defects, the motion of ions is correlated and depends on the local environment due to the interactions of the defects. In this case the ionic conductivity is determined by the inhomogeneous energy landscape of ion migration and can be simulated by the Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) method.
In this talk, the simulation of the ionic conductivity of solid state materials for battery applications is presented. DFT calculations are performed to derive migration energies and defect interaction energies, which are used to model the energy landscape for the migrating ions. The energy models are applied in an in-house KMC code to simulate the ionic conductivity depending on composition and temperature.
Simulations are performed for oxygen ion conductors like doped ceria and melilite structured oxides, which are potential electrolytes in rechargeable oxide batteries.
In doped ceria, the conductivity is influenced by the interaction of oxygen vacancies with dopant ions leading to a ‘trapping’ next to the dopant ions and ‘blocking’ of the migration paths. In melilite structured oxides, different migration paths with different energies exist for oxygen interstitials and migration energies are additionally shifted depending on the local arrangement of cations. The effects of these local environments on the conductivity are investigated here.
Simulations are extended to lithium ion conducting materials for application in solid state Li-ion batteries including both electrolytes and electrodes. In particular, the ionic conductivity of Li-intercalation electrodes changes with the charge state of the battery and the advantages and challenges of the KMC method to predict these changes are discussed with regard to selected examples.
ET01.07: Session VI
Wednesday PM, November 28, 2018
Hynes, Level 3, Room 310
1:30 PM - ET01.07.01
The Structural and Compositional Factors that Control the Li-Ion Conductivity in LiPON Electrolytes
Valentina Lacivita1,Nongnuch Artrith2,Gerbrand Ceder1,2
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory1,University of California, Berkeley2Show Abstract
Amorphous or glassy materials are ubiquitous in rechargeable battery devices. Therefore, understanding the structural and chemical factors affecting the ionic transport in such materials is key for battery technology. However, the complexity of amorphous systems makes this task very challenging. We addressed this question using ab initiocomputational models. Specifically, in this presentation we report atomistic-level insight into the mechanisms underlying the mobility of Li+ in amorphous LiPON (lithium phosphorus oxynitride) thin-film electrolytes. These materials have been known for more than twenty years for their outstanding electrochemical performance which combines good ionic conductivity at room-temperature (around 2-3 μS/cm) and compatibility with Li metal anode. Despite the importance of LiPON electrolytes, no conclusive explanation has yet been given for their electrochemical behavior. Our work fits in this context revealing for the first time how structure and chemistry interplay to influence the Li-ion mobility in amorphous LiPON. We show that the conductivity benefits from both amorphization of the phosphate framework and nitrogen doping. In particular, the N doping involves 1(N):1(O) substitutions (apical N) as well as 1(N):2(O) substitutions promoting the condensation between phosphate units (bridging N). We find that the ratio between apical and bridging N changes with the Li:P content, correlating with the conductivity trends experimentally observed and also well reproduced by our models. This detailed understanding of the structural mechanisms that affect Li+ mobility should be useful in optimizing the conductivity of LiPON and other amorphous Li-ion conductors. This work was supported by the ARPA-E IONICS program, U.S. Department of Energy, award DE-AR0000775.
1:45 PM - ET01.07.02
Fabrication of All-Solid-State Lithium-Ion Battery Using Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Solid Electrolyte
Jong Heon Kim1,Hyun-suk Kim1
Chungnam National University1Show Abstract
Lithium ion battery is considered to be the most promising battery technology currently available because it exhibits relatively high energy density compared to other chemical batteries. Normally, conventional lithium ion battery using organic liquid electrolyte exhibits relatively high ionic conductivity, but has some disadvantages such as safety problem, short lifetime, high cost and low power density. All-solid-state thin film battery is one of the ways to solve these problems, and safety is improved by using non-flammable solid electrolyte. It also has long lifetime, high energy density and less requirements on packaging. However, in spite of these many advantages, the low ionic conductivity of the material itself and the interfacial resistance between the electrode and the solid electrolyte are major problems to overcome for commercial application.
In this work, we studied inorganic-organic hybrid electrolyte with polyethylene oxide (PEO) based polymer and lithium phosphorous oxynitride (LiPON) of oxide based ceramics to reduce the interfacial resistance between the solid electrolyte and the electrodes. LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 and Li4Ti5O12 were used for cathode and anode, respectively, and all the layers were fabricated on a stainless steel substrate as a thin film. Polymer electrolytes were fabricated by electrospinning system and all other thin films were fabricated by sputtering system. The thickness, microstructure and surface morphology were examined using transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The crystal structure was identified by X-ray diffraction. The ion-conductivity was measured by an AC impedance method. The electrochemical properties were studied with charge-discharge cycling test and cyclic voltammetry.
2:00 PM - ET01.07.03
On Applications of Li-Garnets in Energy Storage and Sensing Devices
Michal Struzik1,2,Reto Pfenninger3,2,Jennifer Rupp2
Warsaw University of Technology1,Massachusetts Institute of Technology2,ETH Zürich3Show Abstract
Technological and social advancement stimulates a need for clean and sustainable production of energy, its storage and efficient utilization, that will ensure energetic safety of the society of tomorrow. Most popular, nowadays, energy storage technology, based on components consist of lithium conducting polymers and liquids, suffer from limited power densities available, limited miniaturization potential and safety, due to dendrites growth of Li pathways in the electrolyte. New possibilities for safe energy storage devices arise with a development of new generation of highly conducting Li+ electrolytes, such as Li-La-Zr-O system, showing pure ionic conductivity of ca. 10-3 Scm-1 at room temperature, good structural, thermal and chemical stability and compatibility with many of high capacity electrode materials. Li+ conducting ceramics can be employed not only as the electrolytes for batteries, but also can be utilized as electrolytes for potentiometric gas sensors for i.e. CO2 detection and monitoring. The flexibility of applications and perspectives of functionalization of one electrolyte material with different sets of electrodes to define multiple functionalities is in focus of this work.
We discuss on the ceramic processing of Li7La3Zr2O12 based solid electrolytes and their structural and electrical properties by the means of X-Ray Diffraction, Raman Spectroscopy and Impedance Spectroscopy. Further, we employ Li-garnet electrolytes in all-solid-state battery cells and discuss their performance with emphasis on the interfacial effects. Further we turn on to gas sensing of Li-garnets. We report on the fabrication of potentiometric gas sensor for CO2 levels monitoring and we perform an experimental evaluation of its performance in a simulated environment. We discover quick response times of ca. 60 s at working temperatures of ca. 300oC, which is faster than similar systems based on NASICON electrolytes.
3:30 PM - ET01.07.04
Grain Boundary and Dopant Engineered Ultra-Dense Garnet Towards Stable High Current Cycling
Lei Zhang1,Chengwei Wang1,Dennis McOwen1,Jack Gritton1,Liangbing Hu1,Eric Wachsman1
University of Maryland1Show Abstract
High capacity and high rate are the two major requirements for the next generation Li ion batteries. Among all candidates, solid state Li metal battery utilizing solid electrolyte is promising. Garnet type Li ion conductor has been the most widely studied material system due to its high conductivity and stability with Li metal. Aside from high capacity, the high rate cycling with Li garnet solid electrolyte is hard to achieve. Previous reports on cycling failure pointed out Li dendrite growth at grain boundaries. However, a close examination at those reports reveals that the microstructure in their ceramics is not satisfactory. Small grain, clean grain boundary and high relative density are the three key factors that guarantee ceramics to have good mechanical properties. Herein, an ultra-dense garnet pellet was fabricated by controlling grain size and grain boundary phase. The high relative density (>99%) grants the pellet to be translucent. Nano indentation results show the improved mechanical property of ultra-dense garnet to conventional pressed-sintered garnet. Besides good mechanical property, electrochemical stability of dopants in Li garnet is another requirement. Nb, Ta and Al doped garnet were compared. It is found that Ta doped garnet has the best electrochemical stability. Nb doped garnet can be reduced upon Li metal coating. Al doped garnet is venerable to Li dendrite formation. Together with the grain boundary engineering and dopant engineering, stable long-term high-current cycling was proved to be achievable.
3:45 PM - ET01.07.05
New Insights into the Most Promising Solid Electrolytes
Daniel Rettenwander1,Günther Redhammer2,Martin Wilkening1
Technical University of Graz1,University of Salzburg2Show Abstract
Much scientific attention is devoted to the development of all-solid state batteries (ASSB) as important and superior alternative to electrochemical cells relying on aprotic liquid electrolytes. Among promising solid electrolytes Li-oxide garnets, NASICON (Na-ion Super Ionic CONductor), and LiRAP (Li-Rich Anti-Perovscites) attracted most attention having the potential to realize those future energy storage technologies, due to there extremely high ionic conductivities and exceptional high stability versus low or high voltage electrode material. Despite all the research already performed, however, many questions remain unanswered. In particular, these include the fundamental ones concerning structure, stability, Li ionic conductivity and diffusivity. Herein, we will show, e.g., that (i) the acentric cubic garnet structure is the thermodynamically favored modification of Ga-stabilized LLZO at room temperature with improved chemical and electrochemical properties, (ii) the variation in the phase behavior and ionic transport reported for “NASICON”-based solid electrolytes is related to the preparation history, and (iii) that Li4(OH)3Cl and variants of Li3–x(OHx)Cl, with x > 0, are so far the only thermodynamically stable LiRAPs having experimental proof.
4:00 PM - ET01.07.06
Discovery of New Oxide and Sulfide Compounds as Electrolytes for All-Solid-State Li-Ion Batteries
Hailong Chen1,Shan Xiong1,Xingfeng He2,Zhantao Liu1,Zhensong Ren3,Shuo Chen3,Yifei Mo3
Georgia Institute of Technology1,University of Maryland2,University of Houston3Show Abstract
All-solid-state batteries (ASSBs) are considered as a promising alternative to conventional Li-ion batteries owing to their good safety properties and potentially higher volumetric energy density. Multiple challenges now exist in the development of ASSBs, including the lack of good solid electrolytes with high conductivity, good electrochemical stability and mechanical compatibility. Here we report recent progresses in our research group in the design and discovery of new oxide and sulfide based lithium ion conductors. Lithium tantalum oxosilicate was identified through a computation assisted search and screening with using ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD). Whil