Meetings & Events

1998 MRS Fall Meeting & Exhibit

November 30 - December 4, 1998 | Boston
Meeting Chairs:
 Clyde L. Briant, Eric H. Chason, Howard E. Katz, Yuh Shiohara

Symposium RR—Workshop on Materials Education

-MRS-

Chairs

Reza Abbaschian, Univ of Florida 
John Baglin, IBM Almaden Research Center
Kristen Constant, Iowa State Univ
Peter Goodhew, Univ of Liverpool
Blair London, California Polytech State Univ
Thomas Stoebe, Univ of Washington

* Invited paper

SESSION RR1: INTRODUCTORY MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING COURSES 
Chair: Blair London 
Tuesday Morning, December 1, 1998 
Regis/Boston Univ (M)
8:30 AM *RR1.1 
MATERIALS ENGINEERING AND ENGINEERING WITH MATERIALS. Tom Pearsall , University of Washington, Dept of Electrical Engineering, Seattle, WA. 

The 1998 Gordon Conference on Frontiers in Materials Science Education focused specifically on the content of introductory materials science and engineering courses, and how it could be made more representative of the revolutionary changes in materials science. Presentations illustrated the richness and innovation in pedagogical materials and methods to develop student awareness and interest. Sharp lines were drawn between teaching engineering methods for using materials in design and development and study of new materials. Design using materials and materials design have always been a part of materials science and engineering. However, the dramatic advances in discovery and development of new materials have changed the balance between these two complementary components. Many of these new materials are not optimized for structural applications. Teaching materials science and engineering using these materials as vehicles may mean abandoning a traditional approach that relates microstructure to bulk mechanical properties. 

9:00 AM RR1.2 
QUICKNOTES FOR THE INTRODUCTORY MATERIALS COURSE. James B. Adams and Stephen Krause, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ. 

Materials Mentor Quicknotes is a 4-page, full-color laminated study guide for the introductory materials course. It includes the highlights of metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites, including their structure and their mechanical, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties. It has been tested with many students and faculty, and has proven very popular and helpful. FREE COPIES OF QUICKNOTES WILL BE DISTRIBUTED TO EVERYONE AT THE SESSION, or to any faculty requesting a copy (contact ASM). 

9:15 AM *RR1.3 
MATERIALS SCIENCE AS A VEHICLE FOR TEACHING MAINSTREAM GENERAL CHEMISTRY. Donald R. Sadoway , Dept. Materials Science & Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA. 

For almost 30 years, the Department of Materials Science and Engineering has taught one of the subjects that satisfies the freshman chemistry requirement at MIT: Introduction to Solid State Chemistry. This subject teaches basic principles of chemistry and shows how they apply in describing the behavior of the solid state. The relationship between electronic structure, chemical bonding, and crystal structure is developed. Attention is given to characterization of atomic and molecular arrangements in crystalline and amorphous solids: metals, ceramics, semiconductors, and polymers (including proteins). Each lecture ends with a five-minute segment presenting a real-world application of the subject matter. Examples are drawn from industrial practice (including the environmental impact of chemical processes), from energy generation and storage, e.g., batteries and fuel cells, and from emerging technologies, e.g., biomaterials. Enrolment is between 300 and 400. The class meets as a whole three times a week for 50-minute lectures. Twice a week the class meets in groups of 15 to 20 students in so-called recitations presided over by either faculty or graduate student teaching assistants. For many students this is their first exposure to materials science and engineering, and as a result this subject has the potential to awaken latent interests. Substantial departmental resources (staff time and money) are dedicated to this teaching enterprise to ensure quality. 

10:15 AM *RR1.4 
AN INTRODUCTORY MATERIALS SCIENCE CLASS FOR SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING STUDENTS. Mary Anne White , Dept of Chemistry, Dalhousie Univ, Halifax, Nova Scotia, CANADA. 

An introductory materials science class, given from an atomic and molecular perspective, has been developed over the past several years. This class is given at the junior level in a department of chemistry, and it is taken by students in chemistry, biochemistry, physics, earth science and engineering programs. The emphasis is on physical properties - optical, thermal, electronic, magnetic and mechanical properties - with various types of materials introduced along the way. The content of the class and its delivery format will be described. 

10:45 AM *RR1.5 
THE GROWING NECESSITY OF CONTINUING EDUCATION: THE SHORT COURSE OPTION. A. D. Romig, Jr. , P. J. McWhorter, Microsystems Science and Technology, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM. 

Continuing education is a critical issue in the workplace. Rapid change and emergence of new technology, and the lack of trained individuals make continuing education an imperative for employers. The desire for individual growth and marketability make it imperative for the employee. While there are many options for continuing education, an increasingly popular vehicle is the short course. Time and cost efficiency and instruction by those experienced in real industrial practice are key factors in the success of this educational format. 
Over the past couple of decades, short course offerings and the sponsoring organizations have grown significantly. Within the scientific community, courses in basic disciplines (e.g., materials characterization), emergent technologies (e.g., Micro-ElectroMechanical Systems), equipment operation (e.g., electron microscopes) and even business practices (e.g., ES&H, proposal writing) have emerged and are taught by universities, technical societies and equipment manufacturers. 
Short course offerings and formats are evolving. Presently, it is possible to find series of courses which define specific curricula. These curricula set the stage for new developments in the future including increased certification and licensing (e.g. technologists). Along with such certifications, will come the need for accreditation. Who will offer such programs and, especially, who will accredit them are significant questions. Perhaps the most dramatic changes will occur with the integration of advanced information technology. While satellite-based remote offerings are available, the use of the web for educating a dispersed group is just beginning to emerge. In its simplest forms, this offers little advantage over a video or a real-time satellite course, but the eventual emergence of tele-operation of experimental equipment will revolutionize remote teaching.

11:15 AM PANEL DISCUSSION - INTRO COURSES 



SESSION RR2: MULTIMEDIA IN MATERIALS EDUCATION 
Chair: Peter J. Goodhew 
Tuesday Afternoon, December 1, 1998 
Regis/Boston Univ (M)
1:30 PM *RR2.1 
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS FOR UNDERGRADUATE MSE STUDENTS: AN INNOVATIVE COURSE USING MULTIMEDIA AND WEB. Ge Yu , S.T.Lee and J.K.L.Lai, Dept of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Kewloon, HONG KONG. 

A textbook on CD-ROM was developed for undergraduate course Mechanics of Materials for MSE students. All lecture and tutorial materials have been prepared by Multimedia technique and can be presented in lecture theatre and Web-site. The visualization of stress-strain analysis is realized through step-by-step animation. Special considerations have been taken for interactive learning by using different hyperlink functions, so that the course is very appropriate for self-learning and remote education. The practice in the past semester yielded very positive feedback from students, with statistics far beyond average, and demonstrated an obvious enhancement of teaching effectiveness. 

2:00 PM RR2.2 
INTERACTIVE NANO-VISUALIZATION FOR SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING EDUCATION. E.W. Ong , B.L. Ramakrishna, Center for Solid State Science, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ; V.B. Pizziconi,Dept of Chemical, Bio-, and Materials Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ. 

The Interactive Nano-Visualization for Science and Engineering Education (IN-VSEE) project is a visionary effort, funded by the National Science Foundation, that brings sophisticated, yet user-friendly, state-of-the-art imaging technology and instrumentation that are traditionally available only at elite research centers into any classroom. The project combines elements from interdisciplinary research, integration of research into education, industrial liaison and outreach to provide innovations in formal and informal education at the high school and college levels. 
This project has created a consortium of university and industry researchers, community college and high school faculty and museum educators with a common vision of building an interactive World Wide Web (WWW) site to develop a new educational thrust. It is centered on the web-based remote operation of advanced microscopes, particularly the Nobel-Prize-winning Scanning Probe Microscopes (SPMs). 
Our objective is to exploit the incredible potential that Material Science brings to teaching undergraduate students about fundamental concepts that cross traditionally separate disciplines such as the sciences, engineering & technology and mathematics. Teachers and students at all grade levels can take part in hands-on exploration in partnership with research scientists to explore new educational paradigms that prepare the next generation of scientists and engineering for the imminent nanotechnology revolution. 
We have designed novel interactive educational modules that integrate concepts across size, scale, disciplines, methodologies and phenomena to emphasize nano-imaging, structure-property relationships, structure-function correlations, and nano-fabrication. 
We will discuss the evolution and vision of IN-VSEE, philosophy of the educational modules and the parameters for a valuable remote experiment. The contents of a specific interactive educational module and a live, interactive, remote experiment associated with that module will be demonstrated. 

2:15 PM RR2.3 
THE USE OF WORLD WIDE WEB-BASED PACKAGES FOR A MATERIALS CHARACTERIZATION LAB COURSE. Chris Hughes , James Madison University, Dept of Physics, Harrisonburg, VA. 

Among the new courses being offered at James Madison University as part of the new minor program in Materials Science is an intermediate materials characterization laboratory. As an undergraduate institution with an historic emphasis on liberal arts, JMU does not have the facilities for this type of course that many larger, research universities have. Therefore, we are makeing use of new concepts involving the world wide web to perform experiments and simulations remotely. These web-based packages include electrical characterizations of semiconductors using the Hall Effect and four-point probe techniques and simulations of Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) and Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) measurements. These packages are initially being designed for use by students at JMU, but could eventually be used by a wider audience at other liberal arts colleges and universities around the country. 

2:30 PM RR2.4 
INTEGRATING SIMULATION RESEARCH INTO THE CURRICULUM MODULES ON MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF MATERIALS: FROM ATOMISTIC TO THE CONTINUUM. Diana Farkas , Ronald Kriz and Romesh Batra, Departments of Materials Science and Engineering and Engineering Science and Mechanics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA. 

We describe the development of modules for the teaching of a senior level course Mechanical Behavior of Materials that incorporate the results of state of the art simulation techniques. The modules are Web-Java based and make extensive use of materials available through the Internet. The most important characteristic of these modules is that they teach the basics of materials mechanical behavior using research simulation codes that are state of the art in the materials simulation community. The simulation results span various length scales and start at the atomistic level, using embedded atom method techniques reaching finite element simulations at the continuum level. 
The modules attempt to stress the way in which macroscopic properties are controlled by phenomena at the atomistic and microstructural levels. Advanced computation and visualization techniques, including CAVE virtual reality technology, are used to convey some of the more basic concepts. The course will be taught by an interdisciplinary team of material scientists and engineering mechanicians. We will discuss our experience in teaching the course and the lessons learned. 

3:15 PM RR2.5 
COMPUTER AMINATION OF CRYSTAL GROWTH WITH APPLICATIONS IN NONLINEAR OPTICS. Peter K. Wong , Tak. D. Cheung, Queensboro Community College, City University of New York, Departments of Chemistry and Physics, Bayside, NY; Harry D. Gafney, Queens College, CUNY, Chemistry Department, Flushing, NY. 

Computer-based interactive instructions will be developed to introduce advanced materials concepts to undergraduate students enrolled in programs in materials research for nonlinear optics applications. In the theoretical treaties of the subject matter of nonlinear optics, very complex and often intimating mathematical formulas are invoked to explain an observed phenonmenon. Students often fall into the habit of trying to decipher the intricacies of the quantitative relationship, but losing sight of the essential significance of the overall architecture of the mathematical exposition. The objective of this workshop is to help students extricate themselves from the anxiety of focusing solely on the complex mathematical relationships by the use of animation designed to be intuitive and perspicuous. The crystal growth process of materials displaying birefringence, and the phenomenon of second harmonic generation are animated in the Windows environment via Visual Basic programming. Comparison with alternative software such as Java programming and Toolbook Instructor authoring will be highlighted. Interactive question-and-answer excercises will also be developed for evaluation and assessment. A laboratory module in birefringence will be specifically designed for distance learning with the utilization of various modes of information transmission. The issue of Web distribution will also be discussed. 

3:30 PM RR2.6 
NEW COMPUTER-BASED INTERACTIVE MODULES AND DATABASES. Alisher S. Abdullayev, National University, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Sacramento, CA, USA Boris N. Kodess , VNIIMS, Moscow, RUSSIA; C. Krotov, P. Krentzis, F. Sidorenko, UTI, Ekaterinburg, RUSSIA. 

Analysis of the main concepts of material science and technology of processing materials and comparison corresponding approaches in Russia and USA, including analysis of complex dynamical systems on the basis of principles of selforganization (synergetic) using concepts of fractals is conducted. 
Analysis of new interactive methods of teaching with the use of computer graphics is given. Those methods are directed to perfect existing forms of delivery of lecture and more clear understanding of experiment because of visual presentation of formulas and quantitative estimates. A set of the developed programs has been tested at the different universities, and colleges. Significant improvement in the retention rate of the delivered material by students has been noticed. 

SESSION RR3: HANDS-ON DEMO SESSION 
Tuesday Afternoon, December 1, 1998 
Regis/Boston Univ (M)

SESSION RR4: ISSUES IN MSE EDUCATION 
Chair: Thomas G. Stoebe 
Wednesday Morning, December 2, 1998 
Regis/Boston Univ (M)
8:30 AM RR4.1 
MATERIALS SCIENCE OR MATERIALS ENGINEERING: HOW BEST TO PREPARE UNDERGRADUATES? Blair London , Linda Vanasupa, Materials Engineering Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA; Emily Allen, Department of Materials Engineering, San Jose State University, San Jose, CA. 

Of the various engineering disciplines, materials science and engineering is unique in our blending of science and engineering principles. But is this a true synthesis or do we as educators emphasize too much science over engineering, or vice-versa? This is a key question to address as more MSE programs examine curriculum redesigns and re-focus their efforts toward ABET Engineering Criteria 2000. A quick review of the introductory texts in use shows that, while the engineering aspects are highlighted, the scientific principles seem to take precedence. This is often frustrating for students who seek an applications-based experience and want to use this MSE knowledge. This presentation will critically examine the roles of both science and engineering in MSE education. Our emphasis will be on what is most meaningful for a bachelorís MSE degree. Our view is that we need to emphasize the engineering aspects of MSE to promote effective learning of the underlying concepts and better prepare undergraduates either for entry into the engineering work force or into graduate school. 

8:45 AM RR4.2 
USAFA'S MATERIAL SCIENCE DEGREE. Robert Racicot , John Wilkes, United States Air Force Academy, Dept of Chemistry, USAFA, CO. 

We have established an American Chemical Society accredited undergraduate material science degree at the United States Air Force Academy's Department of Chemistry. The Material Science option is an interdisciplinary program designed to meet the Air Force's need for qualified personnel with an understanding of modern materials such as composites, ceramics, polymers, alloys, semiconductors and superconductors. This course of study bridges the gap between designing and developing materials at the molecular level and the physical application of these materials at the macro level for the structural, electronic and optical uses. 

9:00 AM RR4.3 
THE STRUCTURE OF A MATERIALS SCIENCE COURSE FOR A BSc/BE CURRICULUM. Trevor Finlayson , Monash Univ, Dept of Physics, Clayton, Vic, AUSTRALIA. 

Double-degree courses have become a very attractive proposition for undergraduate students in the science and engineering areas. Before the advent of formal BSc/BE courses, Materials Science and Materials Engineering provided a most natural link between academics within the two areas, through research interactions. Historically, the second, professional degree in engineering, following major studies in Materials Science for the BSc, was a natural progression for some graduates. Government regulations affecting undergraduate course fees for second degrees, precipitated the formalisation of course regulations, with the outcome that the BSc/BE (Materials) has evolved into a major, recognised stream. 
The course outline will be presented and those areas which have given rise to novel developments in laboratory-based training discussed. Of particular interest was a creativity experiment in which the students were confronted with a novel material, the resources of an undergraduate materials laboratory, and the opportunity to explore both properties and potential applications for the material concerned. 
The requirement to introduce multi-media teaching methods have, most recently, precipitated a re-appraisal of the course content and presentation. These developments will be outlined. 
Of particular concern is the failure, to date, to have Materials Education treated seriously at the secondary-school level. Any content which might stimulate interest in Materials is encapsulated in the more traditional Chemistry and Physics disciplines. It is felt that this conservatism has serious implications for the Materials profession and the author will be keen to initiate discussion on appropriate strategies for the correction of this shortcoming and for the injection of appropriate units of Materials Education into secondary-school curricula. 

9:15 AM RR4.4 
MATERIALS EDUCATION IN ESTONIA. T. Kaps, E. Mellikov , M. Lopp, A. Öpik, P. Kulu, Tallinn Technical University, Tallinn, REPUBLIC OF ESTONIA. 

Two different conceptions in materials science education are spread nowadays. The first future-oriented, necessitating a change from the industry economy model towards that of the research and information network economy is typical for developed countries. The second aimed only at the fulfilment of the actual practical requirements of various industries is typical for developing countries. After restoring of independence Republic of Estonia began to move to market economy. The process includes the radical reform of higher education and science system of Republic of Estonia. Hence not very long period of changes materials science higher education is introducing into the new stage of developing - the period of science based education in materials. The new education system bases on the results of PHARE project ``Higher Education and Science Reform'' and TEMPUS project ``Restructuring of Higher Education System on Material and Genetic Technologies in Estonia''. As a main result of above mentioned projects the Centres of Competence in Materials Science and graduated schools were organised at Tallinn Technical University and at Tartu University. The report deals with results and problems of reform in materials education in Republic of Estonia and particularly, at Tallinn Technical University. The main attention will be turned to: a) the relations between different courses in triangle basic subjects - materials science - materials technology - in new curricula for Bachelor, Master and Doctoral studies; b) the relations between higher education, scientific research and industrial activities in the field of advanced materials in Republic of Estonia; c) the use of multimedia, Internet and the World Wide Web and computer-aided learning; d) the possibilities of Republic of Estonia to join the world-wide materials education network. 

9:30 AM RR4.5 
THE ROLE OF THE LABORATORY IN MATERIALS EDUCATION. Blair London , Linda Vanasupa, Materials Engineering Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA. 

The materials engineering curriculum at San Luis Obispo has a strong laboratory component ñ approximately half of our required undergraduate courses have laboratories associated with them. The presentation will begin with an overall assessment of the utility of laboratories in a typical MSE curriculum. Key issues addressed include: the differences between student learning in lecture and laboratory; encouraging student work in small teams in the lab; dealing with equipment issues; and effective preparation for laboratories by students and instructors. The second part of the presentation will deal with specific aspects of materials engineering laboratories that have met with success in our curriculum. Examples from several laboratories will be given including: sophomore-level labs associated with the Introductory and Structure of Materials courses; junior-level labs in Mechanical Behavior and Kinetics, and senior-level labs in Semiconductor Fabrication and Fracture/Fracture Mechanics. 

10:15 AM RR4.6 
MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT WORKSHOP. Debra Dauphin-Jones, Paul H. Holloway, Elliot P. Douglas , Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. 

For the last three years we have run a curriculum development workshop for high school and 2-year college educators in science, math, and engineering. This workshop consists of lectures and laboratories in the four main classes of materials: ceramics, metals, polymers, and electronic materials. At the end of the workshop, participants work in small groups to develop lesson plans appropriate for their own classrooms based on the material learned. After a brief overview of the workshop itself, this presentation will focus on assessment and outcomes of the workshop. Among the assessment tools we have used are participant self-evaluations, participant evaluations of the workshop, and follow-up interviews with participants to gauge how they are utilizing the material in their classrooms. These assessment tools allow us to determine the effectiveness of the workshop, and to modify the workshop accordingly. We have found, for example, that the participants assess themselves as being considerably more knowledgeable about materials science and engineering after the workshop then before. Follow-up interviews indicate that the resources provided to the participants for use in their own classrooms are the most effective means for ensuring that the workshop has a lasting impact. Anecdotal evidence suggests that some students have pursued degrees in materials science and engineering as a direct result of the workshop. We will also present some examples of how past participants have incorporated materials science and engineering into their curricula. 

10:30 AM RR4.7 
INCREASING DIVERSITY IN THE MATERIAL SCIENCES. Gay Kendall , Mark A. Johnson, US Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center, Close Combat Armaments Center, Benet Laboratories, Watervliet, NY. 

Diversity is a critical factor in performing good science. Varied approaches to a scientific problem lead to different hypotheses, broaden the scope of work that is done and in turn expand the over-all knowledge base. In this manner, diversity serves to reduce collective blind spots that may arise from a homogeneous research community that shares unquestioned preferences and prejudices. 
Benet Labs has established a strong commitment to increasing the diversity of future materials scientists and engineers through extensive community involvement. The most successful of these efforts have been two science workshops conducted for both primary and secondary students: Fractals in the Material Sciences and Polymer Materials. Each workshop has been developed to introduce students to basic scientific principles through demonstrations, hands-on materials experiments, pen and paper exercises and a variety of computer programs. 
The Fractals workshop provides students with the background necessary to understand the usefulness of Mandelbrotís fractal geometry in solving real-world engineering problems. The Polymers workshop introduces students to the molecular structure of materials and how it relates to bulk material properties. The complexity of these workshops has been tailored for both primary and secondary school audiences based on student abilities. 
Qualitative measures suggest that our activities are successful in exciting students about science and mathematics, which is an important step in ensuring a diverse population of future materials researchers.


10:45 AM RR4.8 
MATERIALS ENGINEERING AS THE PROTOTYPE FOR MANUFACTURING ENGINEERING - A USEFUL ANALOGY? Fred Beaufait, David Wells, Focus: HOPE, Detroit, MI; James Clum , Leo Hanifin, University of Detroit Mercy, Detroit, MI. 

The relative adolescence of the multidisciplinary manufacturing engineering (MFG) educational concept may be able to benefit from the earlier, successful development of the multidisciplinary materials engineering (MSE) field. There are many parallels in terms of such factors as supporting professional societies, competition between sub-disciplines, national needs and federal funding of research centers. Additionally, there is a strong linkage between MFG and MSE through the common stem of materials processing. We will examine some of these factors and describe a modular curriculum development procedure from the NSF supported Greenfield Coalition (GC) that is an example* of where MFG education has leapfrogged the MSE community in applying the modular concept. Based on the GC example an audience discussion will be encouraged on how the earlier NSF program on Educational Modules for Materials Science and Engineering (EMMSE) might be the nucleus for future curricular development in MSE.