Bartlett Sheinberg, Houston Community College
Ashok Agrawal, American Society for Engineering Education
Eva Campo, National Science Foundation
Anique Olivier-Mason, Brandeis University
Barbara Washburn, Springfield Technical Community College
JEOL USA, Inc.
National Science Foundation
Mr. and Mrs. Bartlett Sheinberg
BI01.01: Community College and University Undergraduate Research Collaborations
Monday AM, November 27, 2017
Sheraton, 3rd Floor, Berkeley AB
8:30 AM - *BI01.01.01
A University-Community College Collaboration to Provide Materials Science Internships and Career Mentoring for Veterans and Community College Students
Kathryn Hollar 1 , JoDe Lavine 2 , Wick Sloane 2 Show Abstract
1 , Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States, 2 , Bunker Hill Community College, Boston, Massachusetts, United States
Now in its 8th year, a partnership between Bunker Hill Community College and the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, has provided over 50 summer internships at Harvard in materials science and related fields for students from Bunker Hill Community College, including over 25 military veterans. First conceived in 2010 by the NSF-funded Materials Research Science and Engineering based at Harvard and faculty at Bunker Hill Community College as a way to increase academic and career opportunities for military veterans, the partnership has expanded to include diverse students with non-traditional backgrounds. This talk will present lessons learned by both institutions in supporting veterans and non-traditional students, and will include discussion of several strategies for retention of non-traditional students in STEM fields, including year-round collaborative mentoring of students and professional development activities tailored to novice researchers. Long-term outcomes for students will also be discussed, as well as the impact of hosting community college students on individual mentors and on the institution.
9:00 AM - BI01.01.02
Building a Dynamic University-Community College Partnership—The Second Decade of a Broad, Mutually Beneficial Materials Science Collaboration
Joshua Halpern 2 , Tito Huber 2 , Scott Sinex 1 , Scott Johnson 1 , Paul Sabila 3 Show Abstract
2 Chemistry, Howard University, Washington, District of Columbia, United States, 1 Physical Sciences and Engineering, Prince George's Community College, Largo, Maryland, United States, 3 Science, Technology, and Mathematics, Gallaudet University, Washington, District of Columbia, United States
Howard University (HU) and Prince George’s Community College (PGCC) have been working together for over 15 years, first in a unique REU program for community college students and since 2006 as part of NSF sponsored research and education programs. The partnership includes collaborative research in materials science and education, creation of instructional materials and new courses that support STEM education at both institutions. While the core collaborators have remained the same partners from Johns Hopkins, Cornell, Harvard, MIT, and Gallaudet (GU) have joined. This presentation will describe key accomplishments including involvement of PGCC and GU faculty and students with research programs, involvement of HU faculty in PGCC curriculum changes and student successes.
Our experience shows all sides benefit from University-Community College partnerships. The partnership has changed attitudes on all sides. For research university partners this is important as they now serve many community college transfer students as well as being the source of future faculty. At GU, student participants and others increasingly declare STEM majors. The collaboration expanded PGCC students’ horizons to undergraduate research not only within our collaboration but elsewhere and eventually to graduate study. The involvement of PGCC faculty in research at Howard has built connections to the research enterprise and faculty at Howard have become involved in educational materials creation with PGCC collaborators. Student outcomes include three NSF Graduate Fellowships. Our partnership has helped to support new buildings (HU’s Interdisciplinary Research Building) and laboratory renovations at GU. The inclusion of GU, which predominantly serves deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) students, has introduced another dimension of cultural awareness and diversity for all.
The collaboration provides year round opportunities to undergraduates for research with multiple levels of mentoring. Course development supports materials education ranging from online textbooks for target classes, laboratory experiments with an emphasis on online collaboration typical of the modern workplace and small spreadsheet based applets. New courses at PGCC include Material Science for Chemistry and Engineers and a one semester General Chemistry for Engineers. PGCC is working on a new materials based curriculum for engineering that emphasizes materials applications and coordinates between entry level courses in engineering, mathematics, chemistry and physics. By visiting GU other partners learn about classroom and laboratory accommodations for DHH. Lastly, PGCC and GU faculty and student participants have access to more advanced research facilities at Howard University throughout the year.
This work is supported by the NSF PREM Partnership for Reduced Dimensional Materials DMR-1205608 and STC Center for Integrated Quantum Materials CIQM DMR-1231319 grants.
9:15 AM - BI01.01.03
Summer Research Experiences in Materials and Computational Nanotechnology for Community College Students
Janelle Wharry 1 , Tanya Faltens 2 , Jared Ashcroft 3 , Marcial Gonzalez 4 Show Abstract
1 School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, United States, 2 Network for Computational Nanotechnology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, United States, 3 , Pasadena City College, Pasadena, California, United States, 4 School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, United States
The objective of this talk is to describe the successes of a summer research pilot program in the materials sciences and computational nanotechnology for community college students.
Community college students represent a large and diverse population of our nation’s future workforce in engineering technologies, computer sciences, and nanotechnology. Yet, this student population is underserved and underutilized in research opportunities. However, there are other well-recognized issues facing the community college population, including low rates of persistence, retention, degree completion, and transfer to four-year institutions. There is growing evidence that research experiences for four-year STEM undergraduate students increases their likelihood of persistence, graduation, pursuit of graduate degrees, and pursuit of future careers in scientific research. Hence, it is believed that research experiences for community college students may have similar outcomes.
Pasadena City College (PCC) and Purdue University have partnered to create a pilot program that enables community college students to gain summer research experiences in materials science. Through this program, five PCC students have spent 6-8 weeks conducting guided research at Purdue, under the mentorship of Purdue faculty and graduate students. PCC students were chosen based on their participation in the Early Career Undergraduate Research Experience (eCURe) at PCC, which aims to increase success in underrepresented science students through research opportunities at PCC. During the three years eCURe has been in existence, over fifty PCC students have participated, and early results show that eCURe has dramatically increased retention and transfer rates. Appending to the success of eCURe, the Purdue-PCC research partnership seeks to further enhance retention and transfer, but also aims to improve student efficacy, career direction, and pursuit of graduate degrees.
PCC-Purdue research students have explored scientific problems spanning a broad range of materials science. Students utilize computational nanotechnology via nanoHUB, a cloud-based resource for interactive simulation tools that enable research and teaching in nanotechnology. Student projects include topics such as: (1) developing DualfoilUQ nanoHUB tool to improve uncertainty quantification for battery electrode material performance, (2) validation of mechanical properties of powder compacts for the Powder Compaction nanoHUB tool, (3) development of PMHIP nanoHUB tool predicting mechanics of structural alloys fabricated by advanced manufacturing, and (4) optimization of plasma treatment process parameters on liquid crystal fiber wetting.
Early anecdotal evaluations indicate a strengthened determination to attain higher education, successful transfer to large research universities, and continued pursuit of research. Formal program evaluation using the Student Assessment of their Learning Gains (SALG) survey will also be presented.
9:30 AM - *BI01.01.04
The B-SMaRT REU—Research Opportunities for Community College Students in Bio and Soft Matter Physics
Anthony Dinsmore 1 , Shubha Tewari 1 , Irene Dujovne 1 , Chris Santangelo 1 , Joris Taupier 2 , Ileana Vasu 3 , Barbara Washburn 2 , Jennifer L. Ross 1 Show Abstract
1 Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, Massachusetts, United States, 2 Department of Physics, Springfield Technical Community College, Springfield, Massachusetts, United States, 3 Department of Mathematics, Holyoke Community College, Holyoke, Massachusetts, United States
The University of Massachusetts Amherst, Springfield Technical Community College, and Holyoke Community College manage a summer research experience for undergraduates (REU) program for community college students. Currently in its 4th year, this REU program has introduced 28 students to cutting-edge research in biological and soft-matter physics. Our mission is to discover fundamental materials science and to recruit and train young scientists for future materials-based technologies that will be critical to the United States economy. In particular, we aim to recruit and train students from under-represented groups, including women, under-represented minorities, and disabled students. Our students engage in original, cutting-edge research in both theory and experiment. Our nine-week program begins with a week-long orientation with weekly professional development and science meetings thereafter. The goal of these meetings is to provide a scaffolding for the students, almost all of whom are new to research. Among our first-week programs is a “boot-camp” training in techniques of experimental and theoretical research as well as “teach-back” exercises for students. Our summer-long professional development program includes writing resumes, abstracts, and posters, and finding mentors. The research programs themselves are guided by UMass faculty. Each year, one community-college student is invited to rejoin the program to continue research and take on the role of a peer mentor for the new students. Participating students have come from a wide variety of backgrounds: 46% come from community colleges, 25% are under-represented minorities, 25% are women, one is a veteran, and two are non-traditional students with children at home. We provide supporting mechanisms, including weekly check-ins with faculty from the STCC and HCC as well as financial support for participants’ commuting and child care expenses. Most of the STCC and HCC students transferred to UMass after the program, or plan to do so after receiving their associate’s degree. Approximately half of our students continued working in our research labs after the end of the summer program. This presentation will describe how our recruiting and professional development programs have evolved in our four years as well as the outcomes. We thank the National Science Foundation grant DMR- 1359191 for supporting this REU program.
10:30 AM - *BI01.01.05
University-Community College Partnerships—How Research and Teacher Professional Development Make Connections
Carolyn Nichol 1 Show Abstract
1 , Rice University, Houston, Texas, United States
The Rice Office for STEM Engagement (R-STEM) serves to connect our community with the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) resources at Rice University and beyond. By working with our local community colleges, we have provided research internships for teachers and community college students, delivered professional development for STEM teachers, and helped develop a pipeline for diverse students in STEM. Building upon a partnership with Houston Community College (HCC), Rice’s Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) in Nanotechnology with a Focus on Community College Students has introduced students to discovery research along with career opportunities in nanotechnology that has provided a foundation for success. This REU program, which has been funded through the National Science Foundation (NSF), is designed to broaden the participation of community college students in material science courses and careers and to support students as they transfer from community colleges to 4-year institutions. We have used this community college-university partnership as a model in our newly funded NSF NanoEnabled Water Treatment (NEWT) Engineering Research Center, which operates at Rice University, the University of Texas El Paso (UTEP), Arizona State University (ASU) and Yale University. This summer, in addition to having students from Houston community colleges in Rice University research labs, our center will be hosting community college students from El Paso Community College, Estrella Mountain Community College, and Glendale Community College in research internships at UTEP. Next year, we will expand the model to ASU and Yale.
The partnership between Rice and our local community colleges has benefited K-12 teachers and the students in our community. Many of the high school STEM teachers in Houston teach at campuses that offer dual credit courses, that is courses that provide high school students with college credit through a community college. Many of the teachers in R-STEM’s graduate level courses for in-service teachers take these intensive courses because they need to have a certain number of graduate credit hours in their subject area before they can teach dual credit courses. This professional development provides teachers with a deeper STEM content knowledge and improved pedagogical skills that supports student learning and engagement in STEM subjects.
11:00 AM -
11:15 AM - BI01.01.06
Research Experiences and Exploration in Materials Science (REEMS)—A University, Professional Society and Business Partnership Model Promoting Materials Science Education for Houston Community College Students
Bartlett Sheinberg 1 Show Abstract
1 , Houston Community College, Houston, Texas, United States
In 2015 the West Houston Center for Science & Engineering, Houston Community College, was awarded funding by the National Science Foundation (DMR) to develop an innovative materials science program, Research Experiences and Exploration in Materials Science (REEMS), focused on introducing materials science to aspiring science & engineering community college students. REEMS is a multifaceted program providing an opportunity for students from a broad array of interests, backgrounds and ages to gain an appreciation for materials science with respect to academic and career pursuits.
Over the approximately four-year duration of the program, REEMS provides an introduction to materials science over the academic year through voluntary seminar series, and, for a select group of students, selection to participate in summer research experiences. Academic year activities include an overview of materials science, investigation of the roles of materials science in addressing pressing societal issues and challenges, networking, and visiting with materials research faculty and professionals. In addition to the materials education components, each REEMS student meets with the REEMS transfer advisor to prepare for their next steps as they consider transfer options.
The presentation will discuss impacts of the REEMS program and research activities over 2016 & 2017, with emphasis on an overview of the synergies, impacts and partnership dynamics. Universities participating in academic year activities and summer research experiences are Rice University, the University of Houston, and the McGovern Medical School at the University of Texas Health Science Center-Houston.
The presenter welcomes inquiries from symposium attendees who are interested in exploring establishing similar community college materials education programs.
11:30 AM - *BI01.01.08
Broadening Participation in STEM through Community College Partnerships—The MIT MRSEC's Experience with Local Community Colleges
Susan Rosevear 1 , Michael Rubner 1 Show Abstract
1 , Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
The Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (MRSEC) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has had successful partnerships with two local community colleges (Roxbury Community College and Bunker Hill Community College) since 2005 to engage community college students in summer research internships on the MIT campus. For each of the past thirteen summers, a handful of community college students have joined faculty-led groups of graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, and MIT undergraduates to perform cutting-edge materials research. The student enrollment at local community colleges represents a highly diverse and untapped STEM workforce. Often, the students are first introduced to the field of materials science and engineering through these internships. The MRSEC's Community College Program has several objectives: to provide the students with research opportunities not available at their home institutions, to improve the students' research and technical skills, to hone their presentation skills, and to expose them to a broad range of STEM career possibilities. An overriding goal is to increase the students' confidence in their ability to succeed in STEM careers and to encourage them to pursue further education and careers in science and engineering. To date, approximately 70% of the former interns who have completed their community college careers have pursued bachelor's degrees.
Another objective of the MIT MRSEC partnerships with the community colleges is to forge ongoing relationships with the community colleges. To this end, MRSEC faculty make presentations at the community colleges, and the community college faculty bring classes to the MRSEC's labs to learn about the state-of-the-art instruments and how they are used for research. The students also occasionally use equipment at MIT to complete independent projects for community college credit. The community college faculty select and refer their students for the internship program. Over the past few years, the MRSEC has begun inviting community college faculty to participate in its Research Experience for Teachers program. By spending a summer conducting research in a faculty-led group at MIT, the community college faculty are engaged in ongoing current research while seeing firsthand the opportunities for which they refer their students.
The MIT MRSEC's partnerships with the RCC and BHCC have evolved over the thirteen years they have been in place. The speaker will discuss the mechanics of the partnerships, their development over time, challenges encountered, and the rewards of collaboration.
BI01.02: Community College and University Resource Alliances and Partnerships
Monday PM, November 27, 2017
Sheraton, 3rd Floor, Berkeley AB
1:30 PM - *BI01.02.01
Creating Partnerships and Infrastructure for Nanotechnology Workforce Education
Robert Ehrmann 1 Show Abstract
1 Center for Nanotechnology Education and Utilization, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States
The desired outcome of this session is to share some impacts of university and community / technical college partnerships as well as review some best practices and lessons learned via the evolution of nanotechnology workforce education in the U.S.
The Pennsylvania Nanofabrication Manufacturing Technology NMT Partnership was formed in 1998 at the behest of industry to provide nanotechnology workforce education to citizens of Pennsylvania. The PA NMT partnership consists of Penn State, PA community colleges, technical colleges, PA universities, industry, as well as state government. Since inception, this central facility education partnership experience has provided nearly 900 students with a comprehensive nanotechnology skill set that has enabled these students from very diverse STEM disciplines to workforce employment outcomes ranging from floor level technicians to Ph.D. scientists and everywhere in between.
This Pennsylvania program became the genesis for nanotechnology workforce education programs in the United States thanks to the funding (which began in 2001 and continues today) of the National Science Foundation’s Advanced Technological Education (ATE) program. The Nanotechnology Applications and Career Knowledge (NACK) Network is funded to provide nanotechnology workforce infrastructure for programs across the United States. NSF ATE support has now made possible micro- nano workforce education programs in various forms existing in 16 states as well as Puerto Rico. Due to the cost of equipment, facilities, and maintenance, most of these programs involve some type of university / community college partnership arrangement. NACK as well as other NSF ATE Centers and Projects have provided extensive nanotechnology professional development via webinars as well as comprehensive workshops over the years. Through NSF ATE NACK continues to provide comprehensive classroom lecture and laboratory content to existing as well as developing nanotechnology programs.
The NACK Network has facilitated the creation of international standards to guide nanotechnology workforce education program content though ASTM International. Under its current NSF ATE funding stream, NACK is now facilitating the creation of six industry-endorsed stackable credentials for evaluating the knowledge and qualifications of nanotechnology workforce program graduates that will be attained via ASTM International. In addition to continuing to assist in the formation of nano workforce education partnership, NACK has also created and is presently growing another partnership effort which facilitates bringing high technology equipment into community college as well as K-12 classrooms via remote internet access. The Remotely Accessible Instruments for Nanotechnology (RAIN) Network, consisting of 17 university and community college partners across the U.S., is now making an impact on the next generation STEM workforce.
2:00 PM - BI01.02.02
Metal Matters—Towards the Omnipresence of Metal in Education
Tanja Tajmel 1 , Ingo Salzmann 2 3 Show Abstract
1 , University of Education Upper Austria, Linz Austria, 2 Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin Germany, 3 Institute for Solid State Physics, The University of Tokyo, Chiba Japan
For many years, comprehensive data demonstrate a persistent lack of interest in the field of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) among students in European and North American countries. This lack of interest is regarded as one of the reasons causing underrepresentation of diversity, especially that of female students within the field of STEM. Obviously, students - although possibly highly talented - refrain from choosing STEM careers only because their attention is not sufficiently attracted to STEM at the right time at the right place. In particular, this fact significantly affects the field of material research and, therefore, identifying opportunities for sparking students’ interest in materials is a crucial challenge in the framework of a modern STEM education.
Here, we present the outline of the novel project “Metal Matters”, which aims at establishing an interdisciplinary approach to foster the field of materials in education. The project represents a close cooperation between metal industry and K-16 educational institutions such as school, college and university. In essence, our research focusses on the omnipresence of metal as material. By exploring the K-16 continuum, we identify windows of opportunities for raising awareness of the relevance of materials. Our approach is to stimulate interest of the relevance of materials by explicitly promoting metal as a topic across the curriculum. Our project is deliberately not restricted to STEM, but also covers history, society, economy, health, sports, literature, and language.
For exploration and data collection, we employ a mixed-method design consisting of interviews, questionnaires and textbook analyses. We analyze Austrian, German and Canadian textbooks of primary and secondary school as well as textbooks of vocational colleges with regard to the frequency and context, in which the topics material and metal occur. Data includes interviews with students, teachers, metal engineers, and material researchers on how they have gained awareness of metal and material science. First outcomes of the exploration are being discussed and examples for making metal and material a ubiquitous topic across the curriculum are being presented.
3:15 PM - *BI01.02.04
The Impact of Materials on Society Course—Lessons Learned from Six Years of Teaching the Class
Kevin Jones 1 , Sophia Acord 1 Show Abstract
1 , University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States
In 2011 a new class was developed with the goal of increasing the social literacy of the engineer and the technical literacy of the non-engineer. The new course entitled the Impact of Materials on Society (IMOS) is the result of a collaboration between faculty at the University of Florida, staff at MRS headquarters and MRS member scientists. The undergraduate course was intended to increase interest and competency in materials science and engineering by demonstrating the important social role of materials discovery and engineering in human civilizations from pre-history to the future. This course unites materials engineers, humanities researchers, social scientists, and science educators to increase the science and social literacy of both engineering and non-engineering majors. The course works by combining three elements in weekly units focusing on different material case studies (such as Gold, aluminum etc.). Each materials unit combines three lecture units and a video viewed outside of class. Lecture 1 is a scientific and historical perspective on the materials, properties, discovery, and includes a demonstration involving the material. Lecture 2 is a case study of a significant social transformation that involved the material typically from a humanities, historical or anthropological perspective and illustrates a social principle (such as entanglement or creative destruction). After watching a video on a future material related to a new application or potential replacement material, the third class is typically a flipped classroom where the students form groups and engage in an entrepreneurial activity that applies the social principle of the week to a potential product based on the new material By combining these scientific and social approaches to studying materials, the course demonstrates that materials engineering is not merely the exercise of ‘math and science’ but also involves “creative problem-solving” that helps “shape our future” by improving our “health, happiness, and safety”. In this way, the course shows that an exposure to the social context in which research and engineering takes place is also a critical component of science education. The course has been taught to over 600 freshmen and careful surveys before and after the class have been conducted. The effect of the class on their perception of MSE, Engineering in general and its role in society will be presented. In addition the effect of the class on retention in engineering and the choice of majors will be discussed.
3:45 PM - BI01.02.05
From Dessert to Hair Care—A Collection of Diverse and Easily Accessible Modules for Introducing Materials Science to High School and Pre-Major Students
Jennifer Dailey 1 , Howard Katz 1 Show Abstract
1 , Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States
Encouraging undergraduates to explore Materials Science as a potential major first requires increasing their awareness of the wonders and relevance of the field. As practitioners of Materials Science, we appreciate the breadth of the subject matter that could appeal to many students if they stepped through our classroom doors, but we are rarely given the chance to explain it to a wider, engaged audience. Here, I expand on previous educational research that showed the effectiveness of using a topical approach (the tempering of chocolate) to teach binary phase diagrams to undergraduate students. Following on this work, a series of modules focusing on the intersection of food science and materials science have been created to appeal to a wide variety of students. Student reviews of these activities have been overwhelmingly positive, and extended press attention was received from a variety of media outlets. An additional module discussing the science of various hair styling products was inspired through mentorship of a high school student when discussing her specific interests as they related to STEM careers. All of these examples require minimal financial resources, little specific lab or kitchen equipment, and can be made appropriate for high school or undergraduate students as a standalone presentation or as an enrichment activity related to the current curriculum. Student outcomes and responses to the modules and self-guided student projects will also be discussed. Necessary electronic resources and guides will be made freely available to all meeting participants.
BI01.03: Poster Session: Community College and University Partnerships & Education
Monday PM, November 27, 2017
Hynes, Level 1, Hall B
8:00 PM - BI01.03.01
Polymer Recycling—A Platform to Teach in Materials Science
Linxi Zhang 1 , Miriam Rafailovich 1 Show Abstract
1 Materials Science and Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York, United States
With the large increase in their applications, polymer recycling has become a serious environmental concern, which affect students of all ages. We capitalize on students’ familiarity with polymer products to provide a platform for working within a group setting while learning fundamental aspects of polymer processing, structure/ property relationships, environmental sustainability. In this three-week laboratory series, 2nd or 3rd year college students are encouraged to work as groups with different recycled polystyrene products from daily life. Students learn basic polymer physics and polymer chemistry by dissolving them and reforming them into thin films. In addition, we instruct students to work with characterization technique, such as FTIR, to characterize their recycled products and to learn chemical structure of polystyrene. Students are required to give presentations of their results and proceed an open discussion on polymer recycling. These experiments provides learning experience involving polymer recycling, processing, and characterization—relates real world products with laboratory skill sets. Students learn to evaluate their individual results within an increasingly broader collaborative sphere. This open-end experiment encourages students to conduct more research on polystyrene recycling and other polymer materials.
Bartlett Sheinberg, Houston Community College
Ashok Agrawal, American Society for Engineering Education
Eva Campo, National Science Foundation
Anique Olivier-Mason, Brandeis University
Barbara Washburn, Springfield Technical Community College
JEOL USA, Inc.
National Science Foundation
Mr. and Mrs. Bartlett Sheinberg
BI01.04: Community College and Industry Technical Education Focus
Tuesday AM, November 28, 2017
Sheraton, 3rd Floor, Berkeley AB
8:00 AM -
Day Two Welcome and Overview
8:15 AM - *BI01.04.01
Resources and Partnerships in Community College Manufacturing Technology Programs
Karen Wosczyna-Birch 1 Show Abstract
1 , Connecticut State Colleges and Universities/Regional Center for Next Generation Manufacturing, Hartford, Connecticut, United States
The Connecticut (CT) State Colleges and Universities’ College of Technology (COT) and its Regional Center for Next Generation Manufacturing (RCNGM), a National Science Foundation (NSF) Center of Excellence, educate manufacturing technicians with necessary skills needed by industry. The COT-RCNGM continuously partners with other community colleges, high schools and industry in New England and at the national and international levels to provide support and expertise to students and educators in advanced manufacturing programs.
The COT began in 1995 through state legislation to create seamless pathways in engineering and technology. This collaboration of all twelve CT public community colleges, including seven new Advanced Manufacturing Centers (AMC); eight public and private universities; technical and comprehensive high schools; and representatives from industry, including the CT Business & Industry Association (CBIA). The pathways have multiple points of entry and exit for job placement and stackable credentials for degree completion, including national certifications that have increased enrollments and created program stability. The COT is led by the Site Coordinators Council that meets monthly and consists of faculty and deans from all COT institutions and representatives from industry and government. The Council identifies and reviews new programs based on industry needs. This model led to NSF funding in 2004 to create the RCNGM and the award of New England Board of Higher Education’s 2012 State Merit Award.
The RCNGM and CBIA conduct a biannual survey of manufacturing workforce needs in CT. Educators use the survey to identify curricular needs and support funding proposals for programs. Asnuntuck Community College was able to use the survey to create new programs including an additive manufacturing certificate to be offered in its new manufacturing building that includes a metal 3D printer. The RCNGM partners with other NSF grants and entities such as the National Network for Manufacturing Innovation (NNMI), specifically with three NNMI institutes that are working to create collaborations among government, academia, and industry.
The RCNGM produced DVDs profiling students who completed COT programs and work in CT manufacturing companies. The Manufacture Your Future 2.0 and the You Belong: Women in Manufacturing DVDs are distributed nationally to high school and community college educators, counselors, and administrators to increase knowledge of career opportunities in manufacturing.
The RCNGM organizes the Greater Hartford Mini Maker Faire, bringing together community members of all ages and backgrounds to share projects that promote interest in STEM fields. Participation in the national network of Maker Faire organizers included a meeting at the White House where one organizer from each state was invited to discuss the national impact of the Maker Movement.
8:45 AM - BI01.04.02
Studying Student Experience of Technology Enhanced Assessment Methods (TEAM) in Science and Health in Ireland
Yvonne Kavanagh 1 , Dina Brazil 1 , David Dowling 1 , Gina Noonan 1 , Ronan Bree 2 , Edel Healy 2 , Moira Maguire 2 , Don Faller 3 , Nuala Harding 3 , Ann Mulvihill 3 , Akinlolu Akande 4 , David Doyle 4 , Jeremy Bird 4 Show Abstract
1 , Institute of Technology Carlow, Carlow Ireland, 2 , Dundalk Institute of Technology, Dundalk Ireland, 3 , Athlone Institute of Technology, Athlone Ireland, 4 , Institute of Technology Sligo, Sligo Ireland
This is a cross institution project involving four Institutes of Technology in Ireland. The objective of this project is to assess the use of technology to enhance the assessment of laboratory sessions in Science and Health. In science, health and engineering, the laboratory sessions are at the core of the learning process for skill development. These laboratory sessions focus on the skills acquisition. The Irish Institute of Technology (IT) sector, in particular, develops these skills and considers them essential for ‘workplace ready’ graduates. In terms of student progress and engagement, the assessment structure has been identified as having a significant impact on student effort. The Technology Enhanced Assessment Methods (TEAM) project lead by Dundalk IT and partnering with IT Sligo, Athlone IT and IT Carlow is exploring the potential offered by digital technologies to address these concerns. It aims to develop a framework for applying the principles of good assessment and feedback to practical assessment and facilitate dialogue among stakeholders about what it is we want student to learn in laboratory sessions and how our assessment can facilitate this. A peer network of discipline specific academics and students in the Science and Health field has been established. As the network focuses on authentic skill assessment in all core modules, including physics, biology and chemistry, the best practice from this project will inform future assessment procedures across laboratory sessions and can be applied in a Materials Engineering context.
Assessing the skills acquired in this environment takes many forms. Using student and stakeholder feedback and literature review the team identified key technologies that cut across science and health disciplines, with the potential to influence and enable the learning process. The emphasis is on developing a powerful learning environment approach to enable students to deeper learning through involvement in the process. The areas identified are: (i) Pre-laboratory videos, (ii) Pre-laboratory quizzes, (iii) Electronic laboratory notebooks and ePortfolios, (iv) Feedback (digital technologies and rubrics).
This paper describes the student experience and perceptions of digital technology in science practical assessments. It describes the process involved in setting up the pilot structure and the initial results from the student survey.
9:00 AM - *BI01.04.03
Preparing for Tomorrow—The Role of Community Colleges in High Tech Manufacturing
Carolyn Duran 1 Show Abstract
1 , Intel Corp, Hillsboro, Oregon, United States
As the world's largest chip manufacturer, Intel strives to make every facet of semiconductor manufacturing state-of-the-art -- from semiconductor process development and manufacturing, through yield improvement to packaging, final test and optimization, and world class Supply Chain and facilities support. The production of a semiconductor chip is an extremely complex, highly automated process requiring extremely controlled operating conditions and a highly skilled workforce. It takes several weeks to produce one wafer, and loss of product due to manufacturing issues has a significant and direct effect on the business. Successful operations require a workforce that is highly trained, and the community college can be an ideal choice for developing the future workforce to meet those complex needs. Manufacturing technicians in a semiconductor chip factory perform all functions of wafer production, equipment, process, and training, and need the skills to identify process improvements, troubleshoot nonstandard events in the production line, and review process health and stability. Semiconductor manufacturing processes are some of the most highly controlled manufacturing processes in the world, leading to complex work at every level. In this paper the author will discuss the Community College talent pipeline currently utilized by Intel to support leading edge semiconductor chip manufacturing, and the specific skills expected for the manufacturing jobs of the future. In addition, the community college path also complements the specific skills by developing problem solving capability, communications, teamwork, and other soft skills necessary in today’s work environment. High tech manufacturing employers also seek out those with the high degrees of judgement and initiative required to solve complex non-standard problems that arise. The author will provide examples of key manufacturing job functions and the role that community colleges can play in providing the workforce for the future.
10:30 AM - BI01.04.04
PANEL DISCUSSION—Community College/University/Business Partnership to Prepare Next Generation of Materials Technicians and Technologists Prepared to Enter the Workforce
Ashok Agrawal 1 , Mel Cossette 2 , George A. Parker 3 , Mark D. Vaughn 4 Show Abstract
1 , American Society for Engineering Education, Washington, District of Columbia, United States, 2 National Resource Center for Materials Technology Education, Edmonds Community College, Lynnwood, Washington, United States, 3 Materials Manufacturing Structure and Support (MMSS), The Boeing Company, Seattle, Washington, United States, 4 Technical Talent Pipelining Manager, Lead, Technology Community Office of STEM, Corning Incorporated, Corning, New York, United States
Undergraduate students, whether originating from a Community College or University, seek studies that both capture their imagination and provide structured academic pathways, which lead to promising career opportunities. Materials Science provides such a pathway for community college students. However, a successful pathway requires the establishment of well-defined, sustainable working partnerships that bridges the pathways from educational institutions to workplace. The panelists will focus on one such program in Seattle, Washington area. The internship program developed can be replicated and applied to any discipline. The National Resource Center for Materials Technology Education and The Boeing Company has partnered to provide an effective, successful program that promotes materials science internships at the lower division level; supports opportunities for students to transfer into upper division programs; and offers potential entry into the workplace. In addition, Mark Vaughn of Corning will present Corning’s technical level pipeline training program focusing on materials careers for women and minorities.
Ashok Agrawal, Managing Director, Professional Services, American Society for Engineering Education
Mel Cossette, Executive Director & Principal Investigator, National Resource Center for Materials Technology Education, Project TEAMM and Materials in STEM, Edmonds Community College
George A. Parker, Technical Fellow, BR&T NW-Analytical Chemistry/Failure Analysis & Testing, Technical Lead Engineer, NW Analytical | Thermal | Surface Analysis | SEM/STEM Labs, The Boeing Company
Mark D. Vaughn, Technical Talent Pipelining Manager, Lead, Technology Community Office of STEM, Corning Incorporated
BI01.05: The K-16 Continuum
Tuesday PM, November 28, 2017
Sheraton, 3rd Floor, Berkeley AB
1:45 PM - *BI01.05.01
Using Elements of the IMOS Course as Inspiration to Promote Sustainability-Oriented Materials Education in Greek Secondary Schools
Vasiliki Kioupi 1 2 Show Abstract
1 Centre for Environmental Policy, Imperial College London, London United Kingdom, 2 , Hellenic Ministry of Education, Research and Religious Affairs, Directorate for Secondary Education of Piraeus, Piraeus Greece
This study presents recent efforts to implement elements of the IMOS course in Greek Secondary Schools. The IMOS course, although primarily designed for university students, provides effective teaching strategies that can be applied to secondary education. With that in mind, some interesting techniques from Module 2: Clay (Rare Earth Elements and the Entanglement Theory) and Module 11: Plastics (Advertising Polymer Applications) were selected as most promising candidates. In applying this course to secondary education there were certain challenges to be addressed. The first was to identify a match between the IMOS course and the Greek secondary school curriculum and the second was to adapt the academic approach in teaching to the secondary level. The produced educational scenario lasts 4 teaching hours and addresses materials from a sustainability perspective. It has as central theme electronic devices that are part and parcel of students’ everyday life. It introduces Rare Earth Elements as a crucial aspect of the life cycle of electronics and considers relevant environmental and social issues. Moreover, the production of tanglegrams was used as a tool to probe students’ ideas and opinions about the complex interconnection of people and things in the electronics sector. Also, a role playing activity was used to emotionally motivate students and help them formulate arguments about new breakthroughs in materials engineering. Finally, a creative activity in which students had to design and market a new mobile phone based on sustainability principles was used to assess the change of ideas and attitudes of students towards materials applications. After the successful development of the educational scenario, two teacher training activities took place in order to evaluate it. In those activities a total of 50 secondary education teachers were trained (mostly science teachers). Following that, two in-class sessions with interested teachers and students were implemented. The first implementation took place in a local high school with 24 16-year-old students during their Natural Resources Management Course and the second with 24 14-year-old students in a local middle school during their Environmental Education Project. The results were very positive and showed that students were receptive of the activities and they engaged in lively discussions about the topics presented. The teachers who participated completed an online questionnaire about the educational activities. The results showed that they found the scenario comprehensive, very well organized and stated they are very likely to use parts of it in their teaching without any extra help. However, they believed that it is difficult due to time and curriculum limitations to implement it as a whole, but as a solution they suggested that it could be a topic of their Environmental Education Projects. They also noted that it is suitable for both middle and high school students with adaptations to each level.
2:15 PM - *BI01.05.03
Using Classroom Research as a Platform to Create Partnerships between Institutions
Carol Bascom-Slack 1 , Elizabeth Genné-Bacon 1 Show Abstract
1 , Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, United States
It is widely accepted that undergraduate research experiences are important for students’ persistence in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). Traditionally, these experiences have occurred through an “apprenticeship” model in which an undergraduate commits to working in a research lab outside of class time, under the guidance of a more senior research mentor. However, this model excludes a large swath of students such as those at institutions without strong research infrastructure or where enrollment exceeds available research spots. Many successful course-based research experiences (CREs) are being implemented around the country, but the majority of these programs have low adoption by community colleges. To address some of the barriers faced by instructors wishing to implement classroom research, we have developed a short duration, low cost research module. The module allows for gradual, flexible expansion of the research tailored to the resources of the institution and expertise of the instructor. Since the inception of our CRE in the fall of 2014, a total of 49 undergraduate institutions and 25 high schools have implemented the program, with over 1,700 student participants. The majority of institutions (79%) continue the program after the first year and the number of 2-year institutions participating has steadily increased to eleven total. The program requires only two class periods to implement and allows students across institutions to generate data using systematic methods. This results in opportunities for data comparison and collaboration among the network. Our project aims to monitor the level of antibiotic resistance data in soil samples through creation of a national environmental surveillance network of geo-tagged data. To date, student-generated data is consistent with the hypothesis that samples from farms harbor higher levels of tetracycline-resistant microbes than samples collected from other sites. Our instructor network is now working collaboratively to develop a library of related research modules. Like the original module, these expansion modules employ systematic methods, so individual classroom results can be combined to reveal trends and allow comparison across a broad geographic region. Student assessment indicates that students from non-doctoral granting institutions report significantly higher gains than students from doctoral granting institutions and historically underrepresented (HU) minorities show higher average gains than non-HU groups.
3:15 PM - BI01.05.04
Bio-Path—A City-University-Industry Partnership Targeting Regional Workforce Needs
Christine Broadbridge 3 2 4 , Ian Canning 1 4 , Carol Jenkins 3 2 , Melanie Bauer 3 Show Abstract
3 Center for Research on Interface Structures and Phenomena, Yale University and Southern Connecticut State University, New Haven, Connecticut, United States, 2 Office for STEM Innovation and Leadership, Southern Connecticut State University, New Haven, Connecticut, United States, 4 School of Graduate Studies, Research, and Innovation, Southern Connecticut State University, New Haven, Connecticut, United States, 1 , Southern Connecticut State University, New Haven, Connecticut, United States
The Bioscience Academic and Career Pathway (Bio-Path) was developed through a collaborative partnership with the City of New Haven’s Economic Development Office with the goal of establishing and strengthening educational pathways for students planning a career in the exciting fields of bioscience including biotechnology and biomaterials. The Greater New Haven metropolitan area is home to the second largest cluster of biotechnology companies in New England, making it ideal for educationally developing aspiring bioscience professionals and training current employees.
Southern Connecticut State University (SCSU) was chosen by the City of New Haven as the lead institution on this project due to SCSU’s longstanding commitment and investment in STEM education, ongoing biomaterials research and education, as well as the NSF MRSEC (Materials Research Science and Engineering Center) at SCSU and Yale (CRISP - Center for Research on Interface Structures and Phenomena). SCSU also serves as home to the Connecticut State Colleges and Universities Center for Nanotechnology.
As a vital component of the Bio-Path Initiative, SCSU is working diligently with the regional high schools and community colleges to raise visibility for bioscience as an educational and career opportunity for current and prospective students. SCSU has also developed educational programming to meet the needs of local companies as identified by an Industry & Academic Advisory Board through a comprehensive needs assessment survey. The results of the needs assessment, an overview of the resulting collaborative educational programming, as well as the lessons learned, will be outlined and discussed.
The Bioscience Industry Needs Assessment survey was administered to better understand the required educational skillsets and career opportunities with regional bioscience companies. The results of the assessment show a close relationship between educational institutions and industry partners is necessary to strengthen the value proposition and open opportunities for more shared resources, knowledge, and collaborative projects. Educational and industry partnerships are trending towards non-traditional pathways that provide more flexible on-and-off ramps for in-demand educational credentials and professional development in real time. Community colleges play an essential role in the implementation of these pathways. The assessment also indicates that experiential learning is a valuable differentiator for aspiring bioscience professionals as it provides guided training and allows companies to vet future employees to meet the demand of their growing employment needs.
3:30 PM - BI01.05.05
Advancing Educator Knowledge through Collaborative Local Researcher Partnership Using a New Polymer Semiconductor Education Kit
Michael Walter 1 , Enlow Jessica 1 , Dawn Marin 1 Show Abstract
1 , University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, North Carolina, United States
An educational semiconductor polymer lab kit has been developed that works to immerse students in hands-on inquiry activities surrounding current research in polymer semiconductors. This kit is being implemented in professional development workshops for 9-12 and community college educators in the Charlotte, NC region to grow a community of local support for the inclusion of interdisciplinary, advanced topics in science courses. The mutualistic partnership formed between educators and local researchers is a key part of this sustainable educational opportunity. The kit and curriculum exposes students and instructors to the polymer synthesis, underlying physics, and applications of conjugated polymeric materials and complements existing chemistry and physics laboratory activities. The hands-on laboratory exercises engage students with inquiry-based experiments in conductive polymer synthesis and semiconductive polymers for optoelectronic applications such as solar cells and light-emitting diodes. Our goal is to bring awareness of these advancements through three laboratory modules related to electrochromic polymers, OLEDs, and polymer solar cells while supporting instructional implementation of these activities with easy to use online resources and apps. Instructors have access to online-tools that can ease the utilization of modern content and teaching strategies in lieu of traditional lecture and teacher directed instruction. Students can self-check for understanding of lab practices and content through a free downloadable app for each of these three modules. The educational apps serve to enhance the student learning experience and facilitate analytical skill development. The overarching goal of the project is to expose students to the latest molecular materials technologies and encourage them to consider future careers in science and engineering.
3:45 PM - BI01.05.06
Modernizing the Engineering Curriculum—A Community College Approach
Scott Johnson 2 , Scott Sinex 2 , Joshua Halpern 1 Show Abstract
2 Natural Sciences and Engineering, Prince George's Community College, Largo, Maryland, United States, 1 Chemistry, Howard University, Washington, District of Columbia, United States
Providing a broad engineering education has become an enormous challenge. Engineering is derived from the basic sciences of physics and chemistry using tools provided by mathematics. With a broad high level introduction an engineer can move to any specialization. We believe that a solution to improving engineering education is to coordinate core engineering courses, calculus, differential equations, physics, chemistry, introductory engineering and computer programming so that they support each other.
Prince George’s Community College has taken a first step in building such a curriculum by creating a new one semester General Chemistry course. Our collaborators at Howard University have helped in providing an open, online accompanying textbook through the LibreTexts project. Introductory courses are typically taught in isolation of one another without the interconnecting threads that bind topics in different courses together. Community colleges are less influenced by departmental limits and offer great opportunity for innovation.
The course assumes that engineering students know a number of topics usually covered in General Chemistry such as SI units, significant figures, logarithms and exponents, etc. thus allowing time to cover more relevant topics usually taught in the second semester, such as kinetics, equilibrium and electrochemistry. Calculus and Introduction to Engineering are prerequisites enriching the discussion of many topic allowing for a more comprehensive and consilient understanding.
The traditional General Chemistry approach is ad hoc, sequentially introducing models of chemical bonding and reaction without providing a conceptual basis for them. This course and the associated open online textbook starts by discussing atomic structure, the periodic table and molecular structure. Ad hoc models are then seen to be special applications of the more general atomic structure. Following this are units on states of matter and simple chemical reactions, followed by discussion of chemical kinetics, equilibrium, thermodynamics, electrochemistry and nuclear chemistry. Biologically oriented examples are replaced by materials centered ones. Examples are drawn from metallurgy, industrial process chemistry and the properties of materials used in modern engineering.
This typifies the approach that we are advocating, but beyond lectures we are using the opportunity to embed modern engineering practices such as online collaboration in the course laboratory sections. In the future we plan to have students in Introduction to Engineering, as part of their instrument design unit, build experiments that they will use in chemistry and other introductory science and engineering courses.
This work has been supported by NSF IUSE grant 1524638 and DMR grant 1205608.
4:00 PM - BI01.05.07
The Michigan Engineering College-Community College Association—45 years of Coordinating Engineering Transfers
Thomas Askew 1 , Carmen Etienne 2 , Carolyn Rimle 4 Show Abstract
1 , Kalamazoo College, Kalamazoo, Michigan, United States, 2 Engineering and Computer Science, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan, United States, 4 , University of Detroit Mercy, Detroit, Michigan, United States
The Michigan Engineering College–Community College Association (MEC-CCA) was founded in 1972 with the goal of providing a forum for sharing information about undergraduate transfers into engineering and technology programs at the university level, usually within the State of Michigan. Both originators and recipients of these students were represented, with community colleges and four-year institutions without engineering programs being typical originators, while larger universities were typical recipients. Much of the relevant information was on paper, such as GPA requirements for various programs, required courses to be completed before transfer (typically in math, physics and chemistry), recommendations for non-STEM coursework, and contact information for transfer coordinators. Ideally, the transfer coordinators on both sides of the student’s move would know each other through the organization, and would be able to provide the student with accurate planning information and advice, and assist with course evaluation and approval for transfer credit at the recipient institution. In the early days meetings were held several times each year and exchange of paper played a key role; today internet-based resources and email have replaced paper and one meeting/year has proved sufficient.
Thorough program reviews by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) and separate accreditation requirements for the various subjects within engineering and technology have made communication of ABET ratings more important in recent years. Within the state we have 14 programs offering ABET accredited 4-year degrees in Mechanical and Electrical (BSEE and BSME) but lesser numbers in other fields such as Materials Sci and Engg (5 schools), Biomedical Engg (3), Environmental Engg (2), and one school each in Nuclear, Aerospace, and Survey Engg. Students wanting a less common ABET accredited degree or a specific technology degree may need to transfer even if they are already enrolled in a 4-year engineering program.
Annual meetings provide a good statewide forum for discussion of issues related to engineering education, career planning, promotion of STEM subjects in high school, encouraging underrepresented groups, and similar topics. The various representatives at the meetings are diverse in their job functions and typically include faculty, admissions staff/transfer coordinators, deans and general academic administrators and student development/career development staff. Some representatives perform more than one job function, especially at smaller institutions. Currently 20 universities within the state receive engineering transfer students and participate as receiving institutions. A current total of 56 schools are represented, with community colleges being the most frequent originators of transfers.
Information spreadsheets maintained by the organization can be downloaded at:
4:15 PM - BI01.05.08
Mutual Benefits of Academic Partnerships between Community Colleges and Four Year Post-Secondary Institutions
Ahlam Lee 1 , Jinwoo Hwang 2 Show Abstract
1 , Xavier University, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States, 2 Material Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States
As framed by Pfeffer and Salanick’s (1978) Resource Dependence Theory (RDT), this study assessed the mutual benefits of academic partnerships between community colleges and 4-year postsecondary institutions in Material Science and Engineering-related fields using a systematic review of previous studies. Evidence showed that community colleges have a range of benefits, including sharing STEM-related facilities, expanding the research capacity of faculty members, and motivating students to transfer from community colleges to 4-year postsecondary institutions and/or pursue graduate degrees. The benefits to 4-year postsecondary institutions include recruiting students from diverse backgrounds in their programs at both undergraduate and graduate level and opportunities for grant funding with faculty members at community colleges. Importantly, successful partnerships between community colleges and 4-year postsecondary institutions can meet community needs by increasing the supply of skilled STEM workers in the nation. Aligned with the evidence-based mutual benefits, a considerable proportion of students have attended community colleges prior to enrolling in 4-year institutions in Materials-Science and Engineering-related fields, which provides a rationale for promoting academic partnerships between community colleges and 4-year postsecondary institutions. For example, National Academy Press (2010) indicated that 20 percent of engineering degree recipients began their academic journey through taking at least 10 credits from community colleges; in 1999 and 2000, 40 percent of the recipients of engineering bachelor and master degrees took classes in community colleges. With respect to local data, California Council on Science and Technology reported that about 48% of the recipients of science or engineering degrees from the California system were transferred from community colleges. Moreover, according to Ohio State’s Office of Enrollment Services Analysis and Reporting (2015), a total of 2,483 students had transferred from Columbus State Community college to Ohio State University – Columbus between fall 2012 and spring 2015; among them, 142 entered in Material Science and Engineering-related fields. Following the data-based evidence, this study also shows exemplar cases of building academic partnerships between community colleges and 4-year postsecondary institutions in Materials Science and Engineering-related fields. Finally, this study provides several recommendations to diverse stakeholders regarding ways in which to develop long-term partnerships between community colleges and 4-year institutions in Material Science-Related Fields. Future research directions on this topic are discussed as well.
4:30 PM - BI01.05.09
Sustainability, Emerging Technologies and Material Science
Deb Newberry 1 Show Abstract
1 , DCTC/Nano-Link, Rosemount, Minnesota, United States
In the grant funded world of academia, sustainability often refers to the ability to continue the project, research or effort after the grant funding has ceased. In a non-grant arena, the word “sustainability” often refers to the three legged stool of economic, environmental and societal aspects that can be associated with any technology. Most recently these aspects of the three legged stool of sustainability have been applied to emerging technologies such as biotechnology, photonics and nanotechnology. The properties of any given material, its electrical, physical and biological properties, will drive the technical feasibility of the product. Sustainability, again driven by materials, also takes into account aspects such as regulatory and intellectual property, cost of materials, life cycle of a product, societal and cultural norms, health and safety, and many other “non-technical” factors that can drive the success or failure of a product. Integrated into and central to the technical and non-technical aspects of sustainability are aspects that fall into the material science domain. This presentation will provide examples of how material science intersects with both technical and non-technical aspects of sustainability using examples of emerging technology applications. Examples and opportunities to introduce sustainability and all of its facets into material science programs at the Community College and University level will also be covered.
4:45 PM -
SYMPOSIUM WRAP-UP DISCUSSION