Available on-demand - NM05.07.04
Late News: A Biophilic Composite Multi-Functionalized on the Nanoscale
Alexandra Rempe1,Joseph Plumitallo1,Jin Ho Kim1,Haelin Jang2,Jimmy Xu1,2
Brown University1,Harvard University2
This work is a continuation of a growing interest and effort to incorporate into nanocomposites functionalities beyond load-bearing. We report on the concepts and findings of engineering nanocomposites to acquire surface self-disinfection, self-enhanced cell adhesion and growth, on top of internal self-transport of nutrient and growth factors, self-healing and self-lubrication.
Biocomposites have been engineered to repair or replace human mechanics, damaged due to age or injury or deceases, and are of increasing clinical importance. In particular, many surgical procedures require implanting bone-like biomaterials to perform necessary operations. Oftentimes these operations lead to dangerous surgical site infections, as foreign surfaces are an attractive site for bacterial adherence, thus, biocompatibility studies on implantable device require a series of in-depth experiments analyzing both in vitro and in vivo applications.1 Bone implant biomaterials are generally made of calcium phosphate ceramics, of which hydroxyapatite (HAp) and Whitlockite (WH) have shown notable biocompatibility and bioactivity. Previous research on HAp and WH biomaterials, has created novel advancements seen in dental work, bone implants, and biocoatings.
In an effort to advance such composites beyond the load-bearing function, we have succeeded in engineering a 3D network of nanochannels inside the composite that enables nutrient absorption and transport along with growth factors and enabled self-sustained bone cell growth for selfhealing2 . With such a built-in network and its Laplace (capillary) force within, lubricants and coolants could also be delivered to the interface of a joint3 , 4 . We show a further advance of this effort – surface engineering to enable on-command self-infection and enhanced celladhesion/growth, via incorporation of TaN and/or TiO2 nanocomposites and photocatalytic and heterointerface field-induce reactions as representative approaches.
We plan to leverage the visible-light photocatalytic activity and electrical conductivity of copper oxide nanoparticles (CUO NPs) to further contribute to self-disinfection, self-enhanced cell adherence and growth material. Likely because of the electrical conductivity, CuO-Hap nanobiocomposites present high cell viability5, thus, we expect this to further the functionality of the TIO2-Hap composite, creating a strong application for the future of biocomposites. We hope by the end of this process we will have pioneered a technique that will help minimize the invasive and inflammatory effects of implant debris and microphage reactivity, setting a new ground for the future and reduction of osteogenesis infections.
1. Biocompatibility. (n.d.). Retrieved February 02, 2021, from https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/materials-science/biocompatibility
2. Jang, H. L., Lee, K., Kang, C. S., Lee, H. K., Ahn, H.-Y., Jeong, H.-Y., Park, S., Kim, S. C., Jin, K., Park, J., Yang, T.-Y., Kim, J. H., Shin, S. A., Han, H. N., Oh, K. H., Lee, H.-Y., Lim, J., Hong, K. S., Snead, M. L., … Nam, K. T. (2015). Biofunctionalized Ceramic with Self-Assembled Networks of Nanochannels. ACS Nano, 9(4), 4447–4457
3. C. Wu, J-H Kim, Jimmy Xu System and methods for nanostructure protected delivery of treatment agent and selective release thereof, US Patent 14600188
4. J-H Kim, K-T Nam, Jimmy Xu, “Bioceramics with Self-Powered Fluidic Delivery and Lubircation”, 15th Conference and Exhibition of the European Ceramic Society, (ECerS 2017), Budapest, Hungary, July 9-13, 2017
5. Sahmani, S., Shahali, M., Ghadiri Nejad, M. et al. Effect of copper oxide nanoparticles on electrical conductivity and cell viability of calcium phosphate scaffolds with improved mechanical strength for bone tissue engineering. Eur. Phys. J. Plus 134, 7 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1140/epjp/i2019-12375-x