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2014 MRS Spring Meeting Logo2014 MRS Spring Meeting & Exhibit

April 21-25, 2014 | San Francisco
Meeting Chairs: Jose A. Garrido, Sergei V. Kalinin, Edson R. Leite, David Parrillo, Molly Stevens


Symposium E : Earth-Abundant Inorganic Solar-Energy Conversion

2014-04-22   Show All Abstracts

Symposium Organizers

Andriy Zakutayev, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
David O. Scanlon, University College London
Talia Gershon, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center

Symposium Support

Aldrich Materials Science
IBM T.J. Watson Research Center
National Renewable Energy Laboratory
E3: PV Research Strategies
Session Chairs
Harry Atwater
Wolfram Jaegermann
Tuesday PM, April 22, 2014
Westin, 3rd Floor, Franciscan I

2:30 AM - E3.01
Optimal Sunlight Harvesting in Photovoltaics and Photosynthesis

Marco Bernardi 1 Jeffrey C Grossman 2

1University of California, Berkeley Berkeley USA2Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge USA

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2:45 AM - *E3.02
Rapid Development of Novel Photovoltaic Materials: The Computational Component

Stephan Lany 1

1Natl. Renewable Energy Lab. Golden USA

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3:15 AM - E3.03
Layered A2BBrsquo;O6 Perovskite Oxides with Low Band Gaps and Highly Dispersive Band Edges

Hungru Chen 1 Naoto Umezawa 1 2 3

1National institute for materials science, Japan Tsukuba, Ibaraki Japan2Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) Saitama Japan3TU-NIMS Joint Research Center, Tianjin University Tianjin China

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3:30 AM - *E3.04
Accelerating Performance Improvements in Earth-Abundant Thin-Film Photovoltaic Devices

Riley E. Brandt 1 Rupak Chakraborty 1 Danny Chua 2 Katy Hartman 1 Rachel Heasley 2 Jasmin Hofstetter 1 Rafael Jaramillo 1 Jonathan Mailoa 1 Yun Seog Lee 1 Sang Woon Lee 2 Michael Lloyd 1 Jeremy Poindexter 1 Alex Polizzotti 1 Sin Cheng Siah 1 Vera Steinmann 1 Leizhi Sun 2 Roy G. Gordon 2 Tonio Buonassisi 1

1Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge USA2Harvard University Cambridge USA

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4:00 AM - E3.05
A New Allotrope of Silicon with a Quasidirect Band Gap for Solar Energy Conversion Technologies

Stevce Stefanoski 1 Duck Young Kim 1 Oleksandr Kurakevych 2 Timothy A Strobel 1

1Carnegie Institution of Washington Washington USA2IMPMC Universitamp;#233; P. amp; M. Curie Paris France

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4:15 AM - E3
Break

E4: PV Interfaces
Session Chairs
Tonio Buonassisi
Stephan Lany
Tuesday PM, April 22, 2014
Westin, 3rd Floor, Franciscan I

4:30 AM - *E4.01
Heterojunction Interface Design for Earth Abundant Photovoltaic Devices

Harry A. Atwater 1

1California Institute of Technology Pasadena USA

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5:00 AM - E4.02
Atomic Layer Deposited Ga2O3 Buffer Layers for Higher-Efficiency Cu2O Thin-Film Solar Cells

Yun Seog Lee 1 Danny Chua 2 Riley E Brandt 1 Sin Cheng Siah 1 Sang Woon Lee 2 Jonathan P Mailoa 1 Roy G Gordon 2 Tonio Buonassisi 1

1Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge USA2Harvard University Cambridge USA

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5:15 AM - E4.03
Improving SnS/Zn(O,S) Solar Cell Performance Through an Oxidized Passivation Layer at the SnS Surface

Helen Hejin Park 1 Rachel Heasley 1 Leizhi Sun 1 Danny Chua 1 Chuanxi Yang 1 Vera Steinmann 2 Katy Hartman 2 Rafael Jaramillo 2 Rupak Chakraborty 2 Riley E. Brandt 2 Tonio Buonassisi 2 Roy G. Gordon 1

1Harvard University Cambridge USA2Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge USA

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5:30 AM - *E4.04
Design Principles of Advanced Thin Film Solar Cells Deduced from a Comparison of Established and Novel Absorber Materials

Wolfram Jaegermann 1

1TU Darmstadt Darmstadt Germany

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E5: Poster Session: Earth-Abundant PV III
Session Chairs
Talia Gershon
Tuesday PM, April 22, 2014
Marriott Marquis, Yerba Buena Level, Salons 8-9

9:00 AM - E5.02
Formation of Large-Grained Polycrystalline Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1-x)4 Thin Films through Annealing of Colloidal Nanocrystal Coatings

Boris D. Chernomordik 1 Amelie E. Beland 1 Donna D. Deng 1 Anne K. Hunter 1 Priyanka Ketkar 1 Eray S. Aydil 1

1University of Minnesota Minneapolis USA

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9:00 AM - E5.06
Plasma-Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxial Synthesis of Tailored Cu2O/ZnS/ZnO Heterojunction Interfaces

Yulia Tolstova 1 Samantha S. Wilson 1 Jeffrey P. Bosco 1 Harry A. Atwater 1

1California Institute of Technology Pasadena USA

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9:00 AM - E5.07
Electrical and Optical Characterization of Phage-Templated Copper Sulfide

Mohammed Shahriar Zaman 1 Gabriel Bernard Grajeda 2 Elaine D Haberer 1 2

1University of California Riverside Riverside USA2University of California Riverside Riverside USA

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9:00 AM - E5.09
Metal Oxide Core-Shell Nanowires for Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting

Hyun Joo Lee 1 Jung Eun Lee 1 Woo Ri Ko 1 Min Hyung Lee 1

1Kyung Hee University Yongin-si Republic of Korea

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9:00 AM - E5.10
Sb2S3/SnSe Thin Film Solar Cells by Thermal Evaporation

Jose Escorcia-Garcia 1 Enue Barrios-Salgado 1 M. T. Santhamma Nair 1 P. Karunakaran Nair 1

1Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico Temixco Mexico

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9:00 AM - E5.11
Silver Antimony Sulfide-Selenide for Thin Film Solar Cells

Jesus Capistran 1 M. T. Santhamma Nair 1 P. Karunakaran Nair 1

1Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico Temixco Mexico

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9:00 AM - E5.12
The Preparation and Characterization of FeS2 Pyrite Photovoltaic Ultrathin Films

Su-Ching Hsiao 1 Kuo-Wei Wu 1 Sheng-Hsin Huang 1 Shih-Hsiang Chiu 1 Lih-Hsin Chou 1

1National Tsing Hua University Hsinchu Taiwan

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9:00 AM - E5.13
Nanocrystals of Some Earth-Abundant Materials for Solar Cells

Karthik Ramasamy 1 3 Hunter Sims 2 3 Arunava Gupta 1 3

1The University of Alabama Tuscaloosa USA2The University of Alabama Tuscaloosa USA3The University of Alabama Tuscaloosa USA

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9:00 AM - E5.14
Cu2ZnSnSe4 from Chemically Deposited Binary Films

Enue Barrios-Salgado 1 Jose Campos 1 M. T. Santhamma Nair 1 P. Karunakaran Nair 1

1Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico Temixco Mexico

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9:00 AM - E5.16
Vapor-Solid Interactions During the Formation of Cu2ZnSnS4 Thin Films

Melissa Johnson 1 Michael Manno 1 Xin Zhang 1 Chris Leighton 1 Eray S. Aydil 1

1University of Minnesota Minneapolis USA

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9:00 AM - E5.18
Growth Mechanism of CZTSSe Thin Films from Binary and Ternary Chalcogenide Nanoparticles

Qijie Guo 1 Yanyan Cao 1 Jonathan V Caspar 1 Lynda K Johnson 1 Irina Malajovich 1 Dilip Natarajan 1 H. David Rosenfeld 1 Kaushik Roy Choudhury 1 Wei Wu 1

1DuPont Central Research and Development Wilmington USA

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9:00 AM - E5.19
Graded Index Optical Films for Antireflective Coupling, Transmission and Adiabatic Solar Energy Conversion and Storage

Juan J. Diaz Leon 1 2 R. Ernest Demaray 4 Roger W. Anderson 3 Nobuhiko P. Kobayashi 1 2

1University of California, Santa Cruz Santa Cruz USA2University of California, Santa Cruz Santa Cruz USA3University of California, Santa Cruz Santa Cruz USA4Antropy Inc. amp; Demaray LLC Portola Valley USA

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9:00 AM - E5
E5.04 Transferred to E3.05

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E1: Binary Sulfide PV Absorbers
Session Chairs
Talia Gershon
David O. Scanlon
Tuesday AM, April 22, 2014
Westin, 3rd Floor, Franciscan I

9:30 AM - *E1.01
Material Design for Novel-Concept-Based Solar Cells --Sulfurization or Oxidization of ``Cheap'' Metals

Mutsumi Sugiyama 1

1Tokyo University of Science Chiba Japan

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10:00 AM - E1.02
Thin Film WSe2 for Use as a Photovoltaic Absorber Material

Qingleing Ma 1 Hrach Kyureghian 1 Joel D. Banninga 1 Ned Ianno 1

1University of Nebraska-Lincoln Lincoln USA

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10:15 AM - E1.03
Direct Comparison Study of Thermally Evaporated and Pulsed-CVD Thin-Film Solar Cells Based on Tin (II) Sulfide

Vera Steinmann 1 Leizhi Sun 2 Helen Hejin Park 2 Rafael Jaramillo 1 Katy Hartman 1 Riley Eric Brandt 1 Rupak Chakraborty 1 Roy G Gordon 2 Tonio Buonassisi 1

1Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge USA2Harvard University Cambridge USA

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10:30 AM - *E1.04
Antimony Sulfide-Selenide Thin Film Solar Cells

P. Karunakaran Nair 1 Geovanni Vazquez 1 Jose Escorcia-Garcia 1 Harumi Moreno-Garcia 1 Manuela Calixto-Rodriguez 1 Enue Barrios-Salgado 1 David Becerra-Garcia 1 M. T. Santhamma Nair 1

1Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico Temixco Mexico

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11:00 AM - E1
Break

E2: Iron Sulfide Based PV Absorbers
Session Chairs
P. Karunakaran Nair
Mutsumi Sugiyama
Tuesday AM, April 22, 2014
Westin, 3rd Floor, Franciscan I

11:30 AM - *E2.01
An Inversion Layer at the Surface of n-Type Iron Pyrite

Matt Law 1

1UC Irvine Irvine USA

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12:00 PM - E2.02
Low Intensity Conduction States in FeS2: Implications for Absorption, Open-Circuit Voltage and Surface Recombination

Predrag Lazic 1 2 Rickard Armiento 1 3 Ruoshi Sun 1 4 Maria K Y Chan 1 5 Gerbrand Ceder 1

1Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge USA2Ruder Boamp;#353;koviamp;#263; Institute Zagreb Croatia3Linkamp;#246;ping University Linkamp;#246;ping Sweden4Brown University Providence USA5Argonne National Laboratory Argonne USA

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12:15 PM - E2.03
Surface State Mitigation in Iron Pyrite Using Inorganic Capping Films

Jason D Myers 1 Jesse A Frantz 1 Colin C Baker 1 Steve C Erwin 1 Nabil D Bassim 1 Syed B Qadri 1 Jaime A Freitas 1 Evan R Glaser 1 Jas S Sanghera 1

1US Naval Research Laboratory Washington USA

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12:30 PM - E2.04
Novel Solution Process for Fabricating Ultra-Thin-Film Absorber Layers in Fe2SiS4 and Fe2GeS4 Photovoltaics

Samuel A. Orefuwa 1 Cheng-Yu Lai 1 Kevin Dobson 2 Daniela R Radu 1

1Delaware State University Dover USA2University of Delaware Newark USA

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12:45 PM - E2.05
Experimental Considerations for the Use of Fe2GeS4 Nanocrystals in Photovoltaics

Sarah J Fredrick 1 Amy L Prieto 1

1Colorado State University Chem Dept Fort Collins USA

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2014-04-23   Show All Abstracts

Symposium Organizers

Andriy Zakutayev, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
David O. Scanlon, University College London
Talia Gershon, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center

Symposium Support

Aldrich Materials Science
IBM T.J. Watson Research Center
National Renewable Energy Laboratory
E8: CZTS PV Devices
Session Chairs
Lenny Tinker
Wednesday PM, April 23, 2014
Westin, 3rd Floor, Franciscan I

2:30 AM - E8.01
Device Characteristics of CZTSSe Solar Cells with 12.6% Power Conversion Efficiency

Wei Wang 1 Mark Winkler 1 Teodor K Todorov 1 Oki Gunawa 1 Tayfun Gokmen 1 Xiaoyan Shao 1 Yu Zhu 1 David B Mitzi 1

1IBM TJ Watson Research Yorktown Heights USA

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2:45 AM - E8.02
Strategies for Improving the Conversion Efficiency of Electrochemically Deposited CZTSSe Thin Film Solar Cells

Jong-Ok Jeon 1 2 Jin Young Kim 1 2

1Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) Seoul Republic of Korea2University of Science and Technology Daejeon Republic of Korea

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3:00 AM - E8.03
8.6% Full Solution-Processed Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 Device Through Elemental Distribution Control of Selenized Nanocrystal Films

Wan-Ching Hsu 1 2 Huanping Zhou 1 2 Song Luo 1 2 Tze-Bin Song 1 2 Hsin-Sheng Duan 1 2 Sheng-lin Ye 1 2 Wenbing Yang 1 2 Chia-Jung Hsu 1 2 Brion Bob 1 2 Yang Yang 1 2

1University of California Los Angeles Los Angeles USA2California NanoSystems Institute Los Angeles USA

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3:15 AM - E8.04
Efficiency Enhancement Effects of Cu2ZnSn(S1-ySey)4 (0le;yle;1) Based Solar Cells Under Low Illumination Conditions

Markus Neuschitzer 1 Marcel Placidi 1 Simon Lopez-Marino 1 Haibing Xie 1 Vanessa Iglesias 2 Amador Perez-Tomas 2 M. Porti 2 Andrew Fairbrother 1 Victor Izquierdo-Roca 1 Alejandro Perez-Rodramp;#237;guez 1 3 Edgardo Saucedo 1

1Catalonia Institute for Energy Research Sant Adriamp;#224; de Besamp;#242;s-Barcelona Spain2ETSE and IMB-CNM-CSIC Barcelona Spain3Universitat de Barcelona Barcelona Spain

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3:30 AM - *E8.05
Vacuum Deposited Polycrystalline and Epitaxial Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide (CZTS) Thin Films and Solar Cells

Byungha Shin 1 Talia Gershon 1 Supratik Guha 1

1IBM Yorktown Heights USA

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4:00 AM - E8
Break

E9: Status of the Earth-Abundant PV Field
Session Chairs
Andriy Zakutayev
Wednesday PM, April 23, 2014
Westin, 3rd Floor, Franciscan I

4:30 AM - *E9.01
DOE SunShot: Sustaining Innovation and Revitalizing Competitiveness

Lenny Tinker 1

1DOE Washington USA

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5:00 AM - E9
PANEL DISCUSSION

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E10: Poster Session: Earth-Abundant PV I
Session Chairs
Andriy Zakutayev
Wednesday PM, April 23, 2014
Marriott Marquis, Yerba Buena Level, Salons 8-9

9:00 AM - E10.01
Influence of the Interface on the Photovoltaic Properties of TCO/Cu2O Heterojunction Solar Cells Using Cu2O Sheets

Tadatsugu Minami 1 Toshihiro Miyata 1 Yuki Nishi 1

1Kanazawa Institute of Technology Nonoichi Japan

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9:00 AM - E10.02
Development of Cu2ZnSnSe4 Based Solar Cells onto Low Weight Stainless Steel Substrates

Simon Lopez-Marino 1 Markus Neuschitzer 1 Yudania Sanchez 1 Andrew Fairbrother 1 Moises Espamp;#237;ndola-Rodramp;#237;guez 1 Juan Lopez-Garcamp;#237;a 1 Marcel Placidi 1 Lorenzo Calvo-Barrio 2 Alejandro Perez-Rodramp;#237;guez 1 3 Edgardo Saucedo 1

1Catalonia Institute for Energy Research Sant Adriamp;#224; de Besamp;#242;s-Barcelona Spain2Centres Cientamp;#237;fics i Tecnolamp;#242;gics de la Universitat de Barcelona (CCiTUB) Barcelona Spain3Universitat de Barcelona Barcelona Spain

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9:00 AM - E10.03
Study of Chemical and Structural Properties of Cu2ZnSnS4 and CdS Interface in Cu2ZnSnS4 Solar Cells

Seong Man Yu 1 Arun Khalkar 1 Kwang-Soo Lim 1 Ji-Beom Yoo 1 2

1Sungkyunkwan University Suwon Republic of Korea2Sungkyunkwan University Suwon Republic of Korea

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9:00 AM - E10.04
Characterization of Fine-Grain Layer in Printed Double-Layered CZTSSe PV Devices

Wei Wu 1 Yanyan Cao 1 Jonathan Caspar 1 Qijie Guo 1 Lynda Johnson 1 Irina Malajovich 1 Kaushik Roy Choudhury 1

1DuPont Wilmington USA

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9:00 AM - E10.06
Comparative Study of Chemically Deposited Bi2S3 Thin Films: Using Plasma and Heat Treatments

Harumi Moreno-Garcamp;#237;a 1 Sarah Messina 2 Manuela Calixto-Rodramp;#237;guez 3 Horacio Martamp;#237;nez 1

1Instituto de Ciencias Famp;#237;sicas-Universidad Nacional Autamp;#243;noma de Mamp;#233;xico Cuernavaca Mexico2Universidad Autamp;#243;noma de Nayarit Tepic Mexico3Universidad Tecnolamp;#243;gica Emiliano Zapata del Estado de Morelos Emiliano Zapata Mexico

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9:00 AM - E10.07
Aerosol Spray Pyrolysis Synthesis of CZTS Thin Films

Stephen Exarhos 1 Lorenzo Mangolini 2 1

1UC Riverside Riverside USA2UC Riverside Riverside USA

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9:00 AM - E10.08
A Simple Route to Synthesize CZTSe Semiconductors

Odamp;#237;n Reyes Vallejo 1 Sebastian Pathiyamattom Joseph 1

1Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mamp;#233;xico Temixco, Morelos Mexico

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9:00 AM - E10.09
Photoelectrochemistry and Surface Chemistry of Synthetic and Natural Pyrite

Erik Johansson 1 Qi Tong 1 Eric R. Young 1

1Portland State Univeristy Portland USA

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9:00 AM - E10.10
Transmission Electron Microscopy Analysis Of Secondary Phases in Cu2ZnSnS4 Thin Film Solar Cells

Wei Li 1 Jian Chen 1 Chang Yan 1 Xiaojing Hao 1 Ziheng Liu 1

1School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering Kensington Australia

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9:00 AM - E10.11
Scanning Tunneling and Photoemission Spectroscopy Studies of CZTSe/Zn(O,S) Interfaces

K. Xerxes Steirer 1 Ingrid Repins 1 Kannan Ramanathan 1 Glenn Teeter 1 Craig L Perkins 1

1National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden USA

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9:00 AM - E10.12
Cu-Sn-S Ternary Compound Semiconductors Prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition and Thermal Evaporation

Josamp;#233; J. Cavazos 1 David Avellaneda 1 Bindu Krishnan 1 2 Alan G. Castillo 1 Tushar Kanti Das Roy 1 Sadasivan Shaji 1 2

1Universidad Autamp;#243;noma de Nuevo Leamp;#243;n San Nicolas de los Garza Mexico2Universidad Autamp;#243;noma de Nuevo Leamp;#243;n Apodaca Mexico

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9:00 AM - E10.13
Photocathodes for Water Splitting Using Controlled Surface Oxidation of alpha;-Brass

Sriya Banerjee 1 Fei Wu 1 Yoon Myung 1 Parag Banerjee 1

1Washington University in St.Louis St.Louis USA

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9:00 AM - E10.15
Near Perfect Sunlight Absorption in Nanostructured Iron Oxide Photoanode

Ken Xingze Wang 1 Zongfu Yu 2 Victor Liu 2 Mark Brongersma 3 Thomas Jaramillo 4 Shanhui Fan 2

1Stanford University Stanford USA2Stanford University Stanford USA3Stanford University Stanford USA4Stanford University Stanford USA

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9:00 AM - E10.16
Defect Passivation of Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 Photovoltaics with Solution-Processed Cu2ZnSnS4:Na Nanocrystals

Huanping Zhou 1 Tze-bin Song 1 Wan-Ching Hsu 1 Song Luo 1 Yang Yang* 1

1UCLA Los Angeles USA

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9:00 AM - E10.17
Taming Cu2S Degradation via Atomic Layer Deposition: A Step Toward Stable Cu2S Photovoltaics

Shannon Riha 1 Alex Martinson 1

1Argonne National Laboratory Argonne USA

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9:00 AM - E10.18
Preparation and Characterization of Cu2ZnGeSe4 Thin-Films from Sputtered Elemental Precursors

Antony Jan 1 Yesheng Yee 1 Bruce Clemens 1

1Stanford Stanford USA

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9:00 AM - E10.19
Facile Synthesis and Characterization of Cu2ZnSnS4 in Nanoparticulate Form: A Challenging Material

Rameez Ahmad 1 Monica Distaso 1 Marco Brandl 2 Tugce Akdas 1 Hamed Azimi 3 Christoph J Brabec 3 4 Rainer Hock 2 Wolfgang Peukert 1

1FAU University Erlangen Germany2FAU University Erlangen-Nuremberg Germany3FAU University Erlangen-Nuremberg Germany4Bavarian Centre for Applied Energy Research (ZAE Bayern) Erlangen-Nuremberg Germany

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9:00 AM - E10.20
CZTSSe Nanocrystal Solar Cells Using Versatile Nanocrystal Inks

Joel van Embden 1 Anthony S. R. Chesman 1 Noel W. Duffy 1 Enrico Della Gaspera 1 Jacek J. Jasieniak 1

1CSIRO Melbourne Australia

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E6: CZTS Defects
Session Chairs
Robert Kokenyesi
Wednesday AM, April 23, 2014
Westin, 3rd Floor, Franciscan I

9:30 AM - E6.01
Photoluminescence in CZTS: Polycrystalline vs Epitaxially-Grown Materials

Talia Gershon 1 Byungha Shin 1 Nestor Bojarczuk 1 Supratik Guha 1

1IBM TJ Watson Research Center Yorktown Heights USA

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9:45 AM - E6.02
Understanding Carrier Dynamics in Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 Using Time-Resolved Terahertz Spectroscopy

Glenn W Guglietta 1 Kaushik Roy Choudhury 2 Jonathan V Caspar 2 Jason B Baxter 1

1Drexel University Philadelphia USA2DuPont Central Research and Development Experimental Station Wilmington USA

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10:00 AM - E6.03
Temperature Dependence of Photoluminescence Dynamics in Cu2ZnSnS4 Single Crystals

Le Quang Phuong 1 2 Makoto Okano 1 Yasuhiro Yamada 1 Akira Nagaoka 3 Kenji Yoshino 3 Yoshihiko Kanemitsu 1 2

1Kyoto University Uji Japan2CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency Uji Japan3University of Miyazaki Miyazaki Japan

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10:15 AM - E6.04
Defect and Defect Complexes in Earth-Abundant Kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 and Cu2ZnSnSe4

Shiyou Chen 1 Xin-Gao Gong 2 Aron Walsh 3 Su-Huai Wei 4

1East China Normal University Shanghai China2Fudan University Shanghai China3University of Bath Bath United Kingdom4National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden USA

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10:30 AM - E6.05
Defect Formation Enthalpy of Cu2ZnSnS4 and Cu2ZnSnSe4 Revisited: A Possible Explanation for Experimentally Observed Low Open Circuit Voltage in CZTS-Based Solar Cells

Julien Vidal 1 Pawel Zawadzki 2 Vladan Stevanovic 3 2 Stephan Lany 2

1EDF Ramp;D Chatou France2National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden USA3Colorado School of Mines Golden USA

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