Meetings & Events

spring 1996 logo

1996 MRS Spring Meeting & Exhibit

April 8-12, 1996 | San Francisco
Meeting Chairs
: Thomas F. Kuech, Clifford L. Renschler, Chuang Chuang Tsai



Symposium L: Materials Reliability in Microelectronics VI

Chairs

William F. Filter J. Joseph Clement
Sandia National Laboratories Digital Equipment Corporation

Anthony S. Oates Robert Rosenberg
AT&T Bell Laboratories IBM T.J. Watson Research Center

Patrick M. Lenahan
The Pennsylvania State University

Symposium Support

Advanced Micro Devices
Aetrium/Sienna Technologies
AT&T Bell Laboratories
AT&T Microelectronics
Digital Equipment Corporation
Harris Semiconductor
IBM T.J. Watson Research Center
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
Materials Research Corporation
Philips Semiconductors
Sandia National Laboratories/
Electronic Components Center
Sandia National Laboratories/
Materials and Process Sciences Center
SEMATECH
Tencor Instruments
Texas Instruments, Inc.


*Invited Paper

SESSION L1: ELECTROMIGRATION IN
ADVANCED INTERCONNECTS
Chair: J. Clement
Monday Afternoon, April 8
Golden Gate A2

1:30 P.M. *L1.1
THE DESIGN OF RELIABLE METALLIZATION INTERCONNECT SYSTEMS FOR ADVANCED INTEGRATED CIRCUIT APPLICATIONS, John E. Sanchez Jr. and Paul R. Besser, Integrated Technology Division, Advanced Micro Devices, Sunnyvale, CA.

2:00 P.M. L1.2
ELECTROMIGRATION CHARACTERIZING FOR MULTILEVEL METALLIZATIONS USING TEXTURED AlCu, Larry Ting and Qi-Zhong Hong, Texas Instruments Inc., Dallas, TX.

2:15 P.M. L1.3
CHARACTERIZATION OF ELECTROMIGRATION FAILURES USING A NOVEL TEST STRUCTURE, Martin Gall and Hisao Kawasaki, Motorola, Advanced Products Research and Development Laboratory, Austin, TX.

2:30 P.M. L1.4
EFFECT OF THE FINITE SOURCE MATERIAL ON ELECTROMIGRATION PERFORMANCE OF A NOVEL INTERCONNECT TEST STRUCTURE, Nguyen D. Bui, Advanced Micro Devices, Technology Reliability Department, Sunnyvale, CA.

2:45 P.M. BREAK

3:15 P.M. L1.5
THE EFFECTS OF ACCELERATED STRESS CONDITIONS ON ELECTROMIGRATION FAILURE KINETICS AND VOID MORPHOLOGY, S. Bauguess, L. Liu, M.L. Dreyer and M. Griswold, Motorola MOS12, Semiconductor Products Sector, Chandler, AZ.

3:30 P.M. L1.6
DUTY CYCLE EFFECTS OF PULSED-CURRENT STRESSING ON ELECTROMIGRATION-INDUCED STRESS IN ALUMINUM, Richard Frankovic and Gary H. Bernstein, University of Notre Dame, Department of Electrical Engineering, Hudson MA.

3:45 P.M. L1.7
CURRENT DEPENDENCE OF (IR)REVERSIBLE ELECTROMIGRATION-INDUCED RESISTANCE CHANGES IN SHORT Al LINES, A.H. Verbruggen, A. Willemsen, J. Kraayeveld, A. Kalkman and S. Radelaar, Delft University of Technology, DIMES, Delft, Netherlands.
SESSION L2: TEXTURE AND BARRIER EFFECTS
ON RELIABILITY
Chair: J. Clement

4:00 P.M. *L2.1
SUBSTRATE EFFECTS ON FILM TEXTURE AND ELECTROMIGRATION IN LAYERED ALUMINUM METALLIZATION, K.P. Rodbell, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY; P.W. DeHaven, IBM Analytical Services, Hopewell Junction, NY; R.G. Filippi, IBM Microelectronics Division, Hopewell Junction, NY; J.L. Hurd, IBM Analytical Services, Hopewell Junction, NY; and T.J. Licata, R.G. Filippi, IBM Microelectronics Division, Hopewell Junction, NY.

4:30 P.M. L2.2
THE STUDY OF THE THERMAL STABILITY OF TITANIUM NITRIDE FILMS BY TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY, Hoojeong Lee and Robert Sinclair, Stanford University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford, CA.

4:45 P.M. L2.3
VOID-FREE METALLIZATION BY CONTROLLING STRESSES IN TiN BARRIER METAL FILMS, Toru Yamaoka and Takeshi Yamauchi, NIPPONDENSO Company, Ltd., Production Engineering Research and Development Department, Kariya, Japan.

5:00 P.M. L2.4
ELECTROMIGRATION IN SINGLE-CRYSTALLINE AND BAMBOO Al LINES FABRICATED BY GRAPHOEPITAXY, Marc J.C. van den Homberg, Delft University of Technology, DIMES/NF, Department of Applied Physics, Delft, Netherlands; Paul F.A. Alkemade, Ad H. Verbruggen, DIMES/NF, Nanophysics and Technology, Delft, Netherlands; Jeff L. Hurd, IBM Analytical Services Group, Hopewell Junction, NY; Sybrand Radelaar, DIMES/NF, Nanophysics and Technology, Delft, Netherlands.

SESSION L3: ELECTROMIGRATION:
A GRAND MASTERS' PERSPECTIVE
Chair: J. Lloyd
Tuesday Morning, April 9
Golden Gate A2
8:30 A.M. *L3.1
REFLECTIONS ON EARLY ELECTROMIGRATION STUDIES, James Black, Phoenix, AZ.

9:00 A.M. *L3.2
ELECTROMIGRATION-HIGHLIGHTS OF THE EARLY YEARS, Ilan Blech, Los Altos, CA.

9:30 A.M. *L3.3
ELECTROMIGRATION AND INTERCONNECT RELIABILITY, P.B. Ghate, Testchip Technologies Inc., Dallas, TX.

10:00 A.M. BREAK

10:30 A.M. *L3.4
THIRTY YEARS OF ELECTROMIGRATION IN THIN FILMS, Rolf Hummel, University of Florida, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Gainesville, FL.

11:00 A.M. *L3.5
THIRTY YEARS OF ELECTROMIGRATION STUDIES: WHAT HAVE WE LEARNED? Paul S. Ho, University of Texas at Austin, Center for Materials Science and Engineering, Austin, TX.

11:30 A.M. *L3.6
SOLUTE INHIBITION MECHANISMS AND MICROSTRUCTURE SENSITIVITY, R. Rosenberg, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY.

JOINT SESSION L4/K4: RELIABILITY ISSUES
FOR Cu METALLIZATION
Chairs: S. Murarka and R. Rosenberg
Tuesday Afternoon, April 9
Golden Gate A1

1:30 P.M. *L4.1/K4.1
ANNEALED Cu/Al/SiO2 BILAYERS: A SIMPLE, FLEXIBLE METALLIZATION SCHEME? W.A. Lanford, Physics Department, State University of New York, Albany, Albany, NY; P. Isberg and B. Hjorvarsson, University of Uppsala, Physics Department, Uppsala, Sweden.

2:00 P.M. L4.2/K4.2
OXIDATION RESISTANT COPPER (BORON) ALLOYS FOR INTERCONNECTIONS IN SILICON INTEGRATED, S. Hymes, K.S. Kumar and S.P. Murarka, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Center for Integrated Electronics and Electronics Manufacturing, Troy, NY; W. Wang and W. Lanford, University at Albany, Physics Department, Albany, NY.
2:15 P.M. L4.3/K4.3
OXIDATION RESISTANCE OF COPPER ALLOY THIN FILMS FORMED BY CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION, V. Bhaskaran, A. Ludviksson, P. Atanasova, University of New Mexico, Department of Nuclear and Chemical Engineering, Albuquerque, NM; T.T. Kodas, University of New Mexico, Department of Chemical Engineering, Albuquerque, NM; and M.J. Hampden-Smith, University of New Mexico, Department of Chemistry, Albuquerque, NM.

2:30 P.M. L4.4/K4.4
ADHESION RELIABILITY OF Cu-Cr ALLOY FILMS TO POLYMIDE, Jin Yu, KAIST, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul, Korea.

2:45 P.M. BREAK

3:30 P.M. *L4.5/K4.5
IN-SITU STUDY OF ELECTROMIGRATION IN CU FILMS, Richard W. Vook, Syracuse University, Physics Department, Syracuse, NY.

4:00 P.M. *L4.6/K4.6
ELECTOMIGRATION AND DIFFUSION IN PURE Cu AND Cu(Sn) ALLOYS, C.-K. Hu, K.L. Lee and D. Gupta, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown, NY.

4:30 P.M. L4.7/K4.7
DETERMINATION OF ACTIVATION ENERGY OF ELECTROMIGRATION IN COPPER THIN FILM CONDUCTOR LINES, A. Gladkikh and Y. Lereah, Tel Aviv University, Department of Physical Electronics, Tel Aviv, Israel; M.Karpovski and A. Palevski, Tel Aviv University, Department of Physics, Tel Aviv, Israel.

4:45 P.M. L4.8/K4.8
ELECTROMIGRATION IN SUBMICRON WIDE COPPER LINES, Oleg V. Kononenko, Victor N. Matveev, Yurij I. Koval' and Sergey V. Dubonos, Institute of Microelectronics Technology and High Purity Materials, RAS, Moscow, Russia.

SESSION L5: GATE OXIDE RELIABILITY I:
SILICON DIOXIDE FILMS
Chair: P. Lenahan
Wednesday Morning, April 10
Golden Gate A2

8:30 A.M. *L5.1
APPLICATION OF ELECTRON SPIN RESONANCE AS A TOOL FOR BUILDING IN RELIABILITY, John F. Conley Jr., Commercial Systems, Dynamics Research Corporation, Beaverton, OR.

9:00 A.M. L5.2
1/f CURRENT NOISE IN THIN GATE DIELECTRICS, G.B. Alers, K.S. Krisch, B.E. Weir and A.M. Chang, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ.

9:15 A.M. L5.3
EFFECT OF GROWTH CONDITIONS ON THE RELIABILITY OF ULTRATHIN MOS GATE OXIDES, Tien-Chun Yang and Krishna C. Saraswat, Stanford University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford, CA.

9:30 A.M. L5.4
GENERATION OF HOLE TRAPS IN SILICON DIOXIDE UNDER FOWLER-NORDHEIM STRESS, T. Brozek, C.R. Viswanathan, University of California, Department of Electrical Engineering, Los Angeles, CA; and Y.D. Chan, SEMATECH, Department Phase 3 Damage and Etch, Austin, TX.

9:45 A.M. L5.5
ACCELERATED BREAKDOWN IN THIN OXIDE FILMS DUE TO INTERFACIAL STRESS AND CARRIER DEPLETION, Vivek Subramanian, Navakanta Bhat and Krishna C. Saraswat, Stanford University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford, CA.

10:00 A.M. BREAK

10:30 A.M. *L5.6
NEW MODEL FOR OXIDE TRAPPED HOLES: IMPLICATIONS FOR RELIABILITY STUDIES, T. Oldham and A. Lelis, US Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, MD.

11:00 A.M. L5.7
LIMITATIONS OF PLASMA CHARGING DAMAGE MEASUREMENTS USING MOS CAPACITORS STRUCTURES, Shawming Ma, Wael L.N. Abdel-Ati and James P. McVittie, Stanford University, Center for Integrated Systems, Stanford, CA.

11:15 A.M. L5.8
FRONT-END INTEGRATION EFFECTS ON GATE OXIDE QUALITY, F. Lin, S.A. Ajuria, V. Ilderem and M. Masquelier, Motorola, Mesa, AZ.

11:30 A.M. L5.9
TRANSIENT PHOTOCURRENT SPECTROSCOPY OF TRAP LEVELS IN ULTRA-THIN SiO2FILMS, Y.Miura and S.Fujieda, NEC Corporation, Microelectronics Research Laboratories, Ibaraki, Japan.

11:45 A.M. L5.10
SELF-LOCALIZATION OF DEGRADATION PROCESS IN PRE-BREAKDOWN STAGE OF THIN SiO2 FILMS, Alexander E. Kotov, Kvazar-IPAN Firm, Kiev, Ukraine.

SESSION L6: GATE OXIDE RELIABILITY II:
OXYNITRIDE THIN FILMS
Chair: J. Lowell
Wednesday Afternoon, April 10
Golden Gate A2

1:30 P.M. *L6.1
GROWTH AND PROPERTIES OF ULTRATHIN N-DOPED SiO2 GATE OXIDES, R.A. Buhrman, Cornell University, School of Applied and Engineering Physics, Ithaca, NY.

2:00 P.M. L6.2
LOW-TEMPERATURE (850deg.C) TWO-STEP N2O ANNEALED THIN GATE OXIDES, Chai Sung Lai, Chung Len Lee, Tan Fu Lei, Tien Sheng Chao, Chun Hung Peng and Han Chiung Wang, National Chiao Tung University, Department of Electronics Engineering and Institute of Electronics, Hsingchu, Taiwan.

2:15 P.M. L6.3
A TWO STEP, LIGHTLY NITRIDED GATE OXIDATION PROCESS FOR SUB-MICRON CMOS TECHNOLOGY, P.K. Roy, Y. Ma, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Orlando, FL; and M. Flemming, AT&T Microelectronics, Orlando, FL.

2:30 P.M. L6.4
TUNNELING CURRENT THROUGH MIS STRUCTURES WITH ULTRA-THIN INSULATORS, Hiroshi Fujioka, Hsing-jen Wann, Donggun Park and Chenming Hu, University of California, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, Berkeley, CA.

2:45 P.M. L6.5
TRAPPING BEHAVIOR OF THIN SILICONOXYNITRIDE LAYERS PREPARED BY RAPID THERMAL PROCESSING, Reinhard Beyer, Hubert Burghardt, Rene Reich, Thomas Eberhard, TU Chemnitz, Halbleiterphysik, Chemnitz, Germany; Dieter Grambole, Hermann Volker, FZ Rossendorf e.V., Tonenstrahlphysik, Dresden, Germany; and Thomas Scholz, Jochem Albrecht, Institut Fresenius, Festkörperanalytik, Dresden, Germany; Dietrich R.T. Zahn, TU Chemnitz, Halbleiterphysik, Chemnitz, Germany; and Thomas Geßner, TU Chemnitz-Zwickau, Mikrotechnologie, Chemnitz, Germany.

3:00 P.M. BREAK

SESSION L7: GATE OXIDE RELIAIBILITY III:
NON CONTACT DIAGNOSTIC TOOLS
Chair: J. Lowell

3:30 P.M. L7.1
AN OPTICAL APPROACH TO EVALUATING THE EFFECTS OF CHLORINE ON THE QUALITY OF Si/SiO2 INTERFACES, Julia Sherry, John Lowell, Tim Hossain and Damon DeBusk, Advanced Micro Devices, Austin, TX.

3:45 P.M. L7.2
A NOVEL METHOD FOR STUDYING DEGRADATION RELATED TO PLASMA PROCESSING OF SILICON WAFERS, Jacek Lagowski, Andrew M. Hoff, University of South Florida, Center for Microelectronics Research, Tampa, FL; Piotr Edelman, Semiconductor Diagnostics, Inc., Tampa, FL; Lubek Jastrzebski, University of South Florida, Center for Microelectronics Research, Tampa, FL; and Tom Esry, AT&T Microelectronics, Orlando, FL.

4:00 P.M. L7.3
A NEW REAL-TIME METHOD FOR MEASURING MOBILE CHARGE AND INJECTED CHARGE IN SiO2 ON Si, Jacek Lagowski, University of South Florida, Center for Microelectronics Research, Tampa, FL; Piotr Edelman, Semiconductor Diagnostics, Inc., Tampa, FL; Alexander Savchuk, Andrew M. Hoff, Lubek Jastrzebski, University of South Florida, Center for Microelectronics Research, Tampa, FL; and Eric Persson, AT&T Microelectronics, Orlando, FL.

SESSION L8: NOVEL ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS
OF ELECTROMIGRATION DAMAGE
Chair: R. Augur

4:15 P.M. L8.1
CHARACTERISATION OF THE EARLY STAGES OF EM IN Al-BASED METAL LINES BY MEANS OF A HRRMT BASED ON AN EXTREMELY STABLE AMBIENT TEMPERATURE, Veerle D'Haeger, Ward De Ceuninck, Luc De Schepper, L.M. Stals, Limburgs Universitair Centrum - Institute for Materials Research - Materials Physics Division, Diepenbeek, Belgium.

4:30 P.M. L8.2
QUANTITATIVE MEASUREMENT OF DAMAGE IN MICROELECTRONIC INTERCONNECTS USING SECOND AND THIRD HARMONIC SIGNALS, Qingzhe Wen and David R. Clarke, University of California, Santa Barbara, Materials Department, Santa Barbara, CA.

4:45 P.M. L8.3
ELECTROMIGRATION DAMAGE STUDIED BY 1/f NOISE, Kerstin Dagge, Max-Planck-Institut für Metallforschung, Institute für Physik, Stuttgart, Germany.

JOINT SESSION L9/CC8: POSTER SESSION:
STRESS EFFECTS IN THIN FILMS AND INTERCONNECTS
Wednesday Evening, April 10
8:00 P.M.
Presidio Ballroom

L9.12/CC8.12 STRESS IN SPUTTERED Co90Fe10/Ag GMR MULTILAYERS, J.D. Jarratt and J.A. Barnard, University of Alabama, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Tuscaloosa, AL.

L9.13/CC8.13 STRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION AND HILLOCK FORMATION IN MAGNETRON SPUTTERED ALUMINA THIN FILMS, N. Vershinia, V. Sursaeva and B. Straumal, Institute of Solid State Physics Russian Academy of Science, Chernogolovka, Russia.

L9.14/CC8.14 ELECTROMIGRATION AND STRESSMIGRATION DAMAGES IN FINE LINES FROM COPPER, Oleg V. Kononenko, Victor N. Matveev, Yurii I. Koval' and Sergey V. Dubonos, Institute of Microelectronicsc Technology and High Purity Materials, RAS, Moscow, Russia.

L9.15/CC8.15 ANALYSIS OF STRESSES IN PASSIVATED METAL LINES, I. Eppler, Daimler Benz AG, Frankfürt am Main, Germany; H. Schroeder, U. Burges, W. Schilling, Institut für Festkörperforschung, Jülich, Germany.

L9.16/CC8.16 REVERSIBLE FORCE-RESISTANCE BEHAVIOUR AT THIN FILMS OF THE TTF-TCNQ FAMILY, Wolfraud Vollmann and Hans-Ulrich Sonntag, Technology University Chemnitz, Department of Physics, Chemnitz, Germany.

JOINT SESSION L9/CC8: STRESS EFFECTS IN
THIN FILMS AND INTERCONNECTS
Chairs: W. Filter and G. Pharr
Thursday Morning, April 11
Golden Gate B2

8:30 A.M. *L9.1/CC8.1
CONNECTIONS BETWEEN CURVATURE AND MISMATCH STRAIN IN LAYERED OR GRADED THIN-FILM MATERIALS, L.B. Freund, Brown University, Division of Engineering, Providence, RI.

9:00 A.M. L9.2/CC8.2
AN ANALYSIS OF VOID NUCLEATION IN PASSIVATED ALUMINUM INTERCONNECT LINES DUE TO CONTAMINANTS AT THE METAL/PASSIVATION INTERFACE, Robert J. Gleixner and William D. Nix, Stanford University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford, CA.

9:15 A.M. L9.3/CC8.3
QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE DEPENDENCE OF ABNORMAL GRAIN GROWTH IN COPPER ON MAGNITUDE AND SIGN OF THERMAL STRESS, Richard P. Vinci, John C. Bravman and Eden M. Zielinski, Stanford University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford, CA.

9:30 A.M. L9.4/CC8.4
DRIVING FORCE FOR GRAIN BOUNDARY MIGRATION DURING ELECTROMIGRATION EFFECT OF ELASTIC ANISOTROPY, A. Katsman, L. Klinger and L. Levin, Technion, Department of Materials Engineering, Haifa, Israel.

9:45 A.M. L9.5/CC8.5
MEASUREMENTS OF STRESS EVOLUTION DURING THIN FILM DEPOSITION, E. Chason and J.A. Floro, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM.

10:00 A.M. BREAK

10:30 A.M. L9.6/CC8.6
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE VOID AND HILLOCK FORMATION AND THE GRAIN GROWTH IN THIN ALUMINUM FILMS, Oleg V. Kononenko, Victor N. Matveev and Vladimir K. Egorov, Institute of Microelectronics Technology and High Purity Materials, RAS, Moscow, Russia.

10:45 A.M. L9.7/CC8.7
UNIFIED FINITE ELEMENT CALCULATIONS OF STRESSES IN INTERCONNECT METAL LINES AND SEMICONDUCTOR STRIPES, K. Pinardi, S.C. Jain and H.E. Maes, IMEC, Leuven, Belgium.

11:00 A.M. L9.8/CC8.8
PROCESSING-INDUCED STRESSES AND CURVATURE IN PATTERNED LINES ON SILICON WAFERS, Yu-Lin Shen, Subra Suresh, Ilan Blech, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.

11:15 A.M. L9.9/CC8.9
ISOTHERMAL STRESS RELAXATION IN Al, AlCu AND AlVPd FILMS, J.P. Lokker, J.F. Jongste, G.C.A.M. Janssen and S. Radelaar, Delft University of Technology, Dimes Vinf, Delf, Netherlands.

11:30 A.M. L9.10/CC8.10
THE EFFECT OF THE PASSIVATION MATERIAL ON THE STRESS AND STRESS RELAXATION BEHAVIOR OF NARROW AL-SI-CU LINES, A. Witvrouw, IMEC Kapeldreef 75, Leuven, Belgium; and P.A. Flinn, Stanford University, Department of Material Science and Engineering, Stanford, CA; and K. Maex, IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, Leuven, Belgium.

11:45 A.M. L9.11/CC8.11
THERMAL-AND ELECTROMIGRATION-INDUCED STRESSES IN Al AND Al-ALLOY INTERCONNECTS, D. Beckers, H. Schroeder, U. Burgtes, J. Hönings, W. Schilling, Institut für Festkörperforschung, Jülich, Germany; and I. Eppler, Daimler Benz AG, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

SESSION L10: NEW X-RAY TECHNIQUES FOR
RESIDUAL STRESS MEASUREMENT
Chair: W. Filter
Thursday Afternoon, April 11
Golden Gate A2

1:30 P.M. *L10.1
SUBMICRON-RESOLUTION X-RAY STRAIN MEASUREMENTS ON PATTERNED FILMS: SOME HOWS AND WHYS, M.A. Marcus, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ.

2:00 P.M. L10.2
RESIDUAL STRESS MAPPING OF PATTERN DEVICES WHICH FAILED ELECTROMIGRATION TESTING USING MICROBEAM X-RAY DIFFRACTION TECHNIQUES, B.R. York, H.L. Pfizenmayer, IBM Materials Laboratory, San Jose CA; C.H. Lee and R.O. Carnes, Motorola Semiconductor, Phoenix, AZ.

2:15 P.M. *L10.3
LOCAL AND GLOBAL STRESS DISTRIBUTIONS IN BEOL METALLIZATION, I.C. Noyan, E.G. Liniger, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY; P.-C. Wang and G.S. Cargill, Columbia University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Material Science and Mining Engineering, New York, NY.

2:45 P.M. L10.4
TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE OF RESIDUAL STRESSES IN CAPPED BLANKET CU FILMS OF VARIOUS THICKNESSES, G. Langelaan, S. Saimoto, Queens University, Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Kingston, Canada; and M. Moske, Universität Augsburg, Institut für Physik, Augsburg, Germany.

3:00 P.M. BREAK

SESSION L11: ELECTROMIGRATION MODELLING
Chair: M. Fluss

3:30 P.M. *L11.1
ELECTROMIGRATION MECHANISMS QUANTITATIVE OBSERVATIONS AND MODELLING, E. Arzt, O. Kraft, and U.E. Möckl, Max-Planck-Institut für Metallforschung, Stuttgart, Germany.

4:00 P.M. L11.2
STEADY-STATE SLIT PROPAGATION ALONG GRAIN BOUNDARIES, L.M. Klinger, The Technion, Haifa, Israel; X. Chu, C.L. Bauer and W.W. Mullins, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA.

4:15 P.M. L11.3
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF SURFACE DIFFUSION CONTROLLED MOTION AND SHAPE CHANGE OF ELECTROMIGRATION VOIDS, O. Kraft, U.E. Möckl and E. Arzt, Max-Planck-Institut für Metallforschung, Stuttgart, Germany.

4:30 P.M. L11.4
MODELING ELECTROMIGRATION-LIMITED INTERCONNECT RELIABILITY AS A FUNCTION OF LINE TYPE AND THERMAL HISTORY, B.D. Knowlton, J.J. Clement, R.I. Frank and C.V. Thompson, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cambridge, MA.

4:45 P.M. L11.5
ELECTROMIGRATION IN THIN METAL FILMS IN THE PRESENCE OF TWO STRESS RELAXATION MECHANISMS, A. Katsman and L. Levin, Technion, Department of Materials Engineering, Haifa, Israel.

SESSION L12: POSTER SESSION
Chairs: W. Filter, J. Clement, A. Oates,
R. Rosenberg and P. Lenahan
Thursday Evening, April 11
8:00 P.M.
Presidio Ballroom

L12.1 IN-SITU OBSERVATIONS OF PRE-PATTERNED VOIDS UNDER ELECTROMIGRATION- INDUCED STRESS, Richard Frankovic and Gary H. Bernstein, University of Notre Dame, Department of Electrical Engineering, Notre Dame, IN.

L12.2 THE EFFECT OF STRESS ON THE RESISTIVITY OF SUBMICRON ALUMINUM LINES, N.L. Beverly, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ; G.B. Alers and J.A. Prybala, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ.

L12.3 COMPARISON OF ELECTROMIGRATION PERFORMANCE IN PASSIVATED Al-Sc, Al-Cu, AND Al INTERCONNECTS, S. Lee, J.C. Doan, J.C. Bravman, P.A. Flinn, Stanford University, Department of Materials Science, Stanford, CA; T.N. Marieb, Intel Corporation, Components Research, Santa Clara, CA; and S. Ogawa, Matsushita Electric Industrial Company, Ltd, Department of Thin Film Metallurgy and Interconnection, Osaka, Japan.

L12.4 ELECTROMIGRATION IN VLSI METALLIZATION TEST STRUCTURES STRESSED OVER A WIDE RANGE OF DC PULSE CONDITIONS UP TO FREQUENCIES OF 100 MHZ, David Malone and Rolf Hummel, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Gainesville, FL.

L12.5 COPPER DIFFUSION INTO Al AND Al-Si METALLIZATIONS AFTER THERMAL AND ACCELERATED ELECTRICAL STRESSING, George O. Ramseyer, Lois Walsh, Rome Laboratory, Department ERDR, Rome, NY; and Kenneth P. MacWilliams, The Aerospace Corporation, El Segundo, CA; Joseph V. Beasock and Herbert F. Helbig, Rome Laboratory, Department ERDR, Rome, NY.

L12.6 A STUDY OF VOID FORMATION FOR INTERCONNECT-PLUG-INTERCONNECT STRUCTURES, W.C. Shih, A.L. Greer, University of Cambridge, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Cambridge, United Kingdom; A. Ghiti and A.G. O'Neill, University of Newcastle, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom.

L12.7 A HIGH RESOLUTION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY STUDY OF THE [[Sigma]]11(113)/[10] SYMMETRIC TILT BOUNDARY IN PURE Al AND Al-1 at.% Cu, Geoffrey H. Campbell, Wayne E. King and Walter L. Wien, University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Department of Chemistry and Materials Science, Livermore, CA.

L12.8 INTERFACIAL REACTION PATHWAYS AND KINETICS IN POLYCRYSTALLINE Al/W AND Al/Ti0.25W0.75 BILAYERS, D.B. Bergstrom, J.-S. Chun, I. Petrov, L.H. Allen and J.E. Greene, University of Illinois, Department of Material Science, Urbana, IL.

L12.9 EVALUATION OF MICROSTRUCTURE EVOLUTION OF Al-1%Si-0.5%Cu THIN FILM INDUCED BY POST DEPOSITION PROCESSING, Chiara Zaccherini and Gluseppe Pavia, SGS-Thompson Microelectrics, Agratebrianza, Italy.

L12.10 THE IMPROVEMENT OF IMMUNITY TO ELECTROMIGRATION BY MEANS OF MICROSTRUCTURAL DESIGN, Oleg V. Kononenko and Victor N. Matveev, Institute of Microelectronics Technology and High Purity Materials, RAS, Moscow, Russia.

L12.11 CHARACTERIZATION OF ALUMINIDE FORMATION IN Al/Ti BILAYERS BY TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY, R. Banerjee, S. Swaminathan, R. Wheeler and H.L Fraser, Ohio State University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Columbus, OH.

L12.12 BUILDING IN RELIABILITY THROUGH A 100X REDUCTION IN MOBILE IONS IN A 0.8uM BiCMOS PROCESS, Larry B. Anderson, Sukelu A. Parikh, Samuel Nagalingam and Edwin Sabin, Silicon Systems, Inc., Advanced Process Development, Santa Cruz, CA.

L12.13 HOT CARRIER RELIABILITY IN SUB-0.1 um nMOSFET DEVICES, Samar K. Saha, Silicon Systems Incorporated, Advanced Process Development, Santa Cruz, CA.

L12.14 HOT CARRIER EFFECTS IN DEEP SUBMICRON nMOSFETs, A.M. Phanse, U. Nellore, National Semiconductor, Department of Technology Libraries and Characterization, Santa Clara, CA; S. Saha, Silicon Systems Inc., Advanced Process Development, Santa Cruz, CA.

L12.15 NON-DESTRUCTIVE ASSESSMENT OF SEMICONDUCTOR CARRIER LIFETIME USING PHOTOTHERMAL RADIOMETRY, S. Amirhaghi, A.J. Kenyon, M. Federighi, C.W. Pitt, University College London, Department Electronic and Electrical Engineering, London, United Kingdom.

L12.16 METHOD FOR INVESTIGATION OF LOCAL DEGRADATION PROCESSES IN ELECTRICALLY ACTIVE DEFECTS AT INSULATOR-SEMICONDUCTOR INTERFACE, Vladimir M. Popov, Research Institute of Microelectronic Devices, Physical and Chemical Research Center, Kiev, Ukraine.

L12.17 NONCONTACT MAPPING OF Fe CONTAMINATION IN OXIDIZED Si WAFERS WITH SENSITIVITY IN THE PART-PER-TRILLION RANGE, Jacek Lagowski, University of South Florida, Center for Microelectronics Research, Tampa, FL; and Piotr Edelman, Semiconductor Diagnostics, Inc., Tampa, FL.

L12.18 ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF ECR-ASSISTED SiON THIN FILMS ON Si(100), Ali Bousetta, University of Houston, Space Vacuum Epitaxy Center, Houston, TX.

L12.19 REACTIVE PLASMA SPUTTER DEPOSITION OF SILICON OXIDE, K.K. Vossough and C.E. Hunt, University of California at Davis, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Davis, CA.

SESSION L13: MICROSTRUCTURAL
INFLUENCES IN ELECTROMIGRATION
Chair: A. Oates
Friday Morning, April 12
Golden Gate A2

8:30 A.M. *L13.1
MICROSTRUCTURAL EVOLUTION IN ALUMINUM COPPER LINES DURING ELECTROMIGRATION TESTING, T.M. Shaw, C-K. Hu, K.Y. Lee and R. Rosenberg, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY.

9:00 A.M. L13.2
MICROSTRUCTURE OF PASSIVATED Al-Cu AND Al-Si-Cu CONDUCTOR LINES: INTERACTION OF PRECIPITATES, DEFECTS AND MECHANICAL STRESSES, Albertus G. Dirks, Philips Research Laboratories, Eindhoven, Netherlands.

9:15 A.M. L13.3
IN SITU STUDY OF Al2Cu PRECIPITATE EVOLUTION DURING ELECTROMIGRATION IN SUBMICRON Al INTERCONNECTS, Silva K. Theiss and J.A. Prybyla, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ.

9:30 A.M. L13.4
ELECTROMIGRATION IN Al THIN FILMS WITH THE ADDITION OF VARIOUS SOLUTES, Choong-un Kim, J.W. Morris Jr., University of California, Center for Advanced Materials, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory an Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Berkeley, CA; M. Fluss and F.Y. Génin, Chemistry and Materials Science, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA.

9:45 A.M. BREAK

10:15 A.M. L13.5
TEMPERATURE-DEPENDENCE OF ELECTROMIGRATION DYNAMIC PROCESSES IN SUBMICRON Al(0.5wt%Cu) INTERCONNECTS BY REAL-TIME TEM, J.A. Prybyla, S.P. Riege and A.W. Hunt, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ.

10:30 A.M. L13.6
ELECTROMIGRATION IN SINGLE-CRYSTAL ALUMINUM LINES PRE-DAMAGED BY NANOINDENTATION, Y.-C. Joo, M.P. Knauß, S.P. Baker and E. Arzt, Max-Planck-Institut für Metallforschung, Stuttgart, Germany.

10:45 A.M. L13.7
EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENTS OF THE POLYGRANULAR TO BAMBOO TRANSITION IN POST-PATTERN ANNEALING, D.L. Barr, W.L. Brown, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ; and M. Ohring, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ.

11:00 A.M. L13.8
DIRECT CORRELATION BETWEEN GRAIN CONFIGURATION AND ELECTROMIGRATION DAMAGE DEVELOPMENT, W.C. Shih, A.L. Greer, University of Cambridge, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Cambridge, United Kingdom; and J.F. Walker, FEI Europe Limited, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

11:15 A.M. L13.9
MICROSCOPIC ESTIMATES FOR ELECTROMIGRATION VELOCITIES OF INTRAGRANULAR VOIDS IN THIN ALUMINUM LINES, Lisa K. Wickham and James P. Sethna, Cornell University, Physics Department, Ithaca, NY.

11:30 A.M. L13.10
A STUDY ON THE ELECTROMIGRATION FAILURE MECHANISM IN Al-2Cu NEAR BAMBOO LINES USING THE "SILICON-NITRIDE-WINDOW" TECHNIQUE, S.H. Kang, University of California, Berkeley, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Berkeley, CA; F.Y. Genin, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Chemistry and Materials Science, Livermore, CA; C. Kim and J.W. Morris Jr., University of California, Berkeley, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Berkeley, CA.

11:45 A.M. L13.11
RESIDUAL GAS PHASE CONTAMINATION OF PHYSICAL VAPOR DEPOSITED AL ALLOY FILMS AND THEIR EFFECT ON ELECTROMIGRATION BEHAVIOUR, I. Hashim, I.J. Raaijmakers, Applied Materials, Santa Clara, CA; G. Adler, A. Sidhwa and S. Chopra, Integrated Device Technology, Salinas, CA.
The following exhibitors have identified their products and services as directly related to your research:

Academic Press
American Institute of Physics
Elsevier Science, Inc.
Charles Evans & Associates
FEI Company
IOP Publishing, Inc.
Keithley Instruments
Kluwer Academic Publishers
Lambda Technologies, Inc.
LUXTRON Corporation
n & k Technology, Inc.
Nano Instruments, Inc.
National Electrostatics Corp.
Philips Semiconductors/Materials Analysis Group
Quesant Instrument Corp.
Radiant Technologies
Research & PVD Materials Corp.
South Bay Technology, Inc.
Surface/Interface, Inc.
Tencor Instruments
Thermionics Laboratory, Inc.

See page 6 for a complete list of exhibitors.