Meetings & Events

 

Spring 2009 Logo2009 MRS Spring Meeting & Exhibit



April 13-17, 2009
| San Francisco
Meeting Chairs: Paul R. Besser, Peter Fratzl, Nicola Spaldin, Terry M. Tritt

Symposium H : Materials and Physics for Nonvolatile Memories

2009-04-14   Show All Abstracts

Symposium Organizers

Yoshihisa Fujisaki Hitachi Ltd.
Rainer Waser RWTH Aachen University
Tingkai Li Sharp Laboratories of America Inc.
Caroline Bonafos CEMES/CNRS
H1: Advanced Flash I
Session Chairs
Gerard BenAssayag
Fabrice Gourbillleau
Tuesday AM, April 14, 2009
Room 2007 (Moscone West)

9:30 AM - **H1.1
Fundamental Limits and Trade-Offs for Flash Memory.

Victor Zhirnov 1 , Ralph Cavin 1
1 , Semiconductor Research Corporation, Durham, North Carolina, United States

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10:00 AM - H1.2
Si Nanocrystals Synthesis in HfO2/SiO/HfO2 Multilayer Structures.

Michele Perego 1 , Gabriele Seguini 1 , Claudia Wiemer 1 , Marco Fanciulli 1 2 , Caroline Bonafos 3
1 , Laboratorio Nazionale MDM, CNR-INFM, Agrate Brianza Italy, 2 Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Università degli studi di Milano Bicocca, Milano Italy, 3 , nMat group CEMES-CNRS, Toulouse France

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10:15 AM - H1.3
Ultra-Low energy Ion Implantation of Si into HfO2-based layers for Non Volatile Memory Applications

Caroline Bonafos 1 , Kristel Chan Shin Yu 1 , Gerard Benassayag 1 , Sylvie Schamm 1 , Abdou Slaoui 2 , Sahu Bhabani 2 , Marzia Carrada 2 , Sandrine Lhostis 3
1 nMat group, CEMES-CNRS, Université de Toulouse, Toulouse France, 2 , InESS-CNRS - ULP, Strasbourg France, 3 , ST Microelectronics, Crolles France

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10:30 AM - H1.4
Ge Nanocrystals Embedded in Si3N4/HfO2 Stack Gate Dielectrics by Low-energy Ion Implantation for Nonvolatile Memory Application.

Bhabani Sahu 1 , Abdelillah Slaoui 1 , Jean-Jacques Grob 1 , Marzia Carrada 1 , Caroline Bonafos 2 , Sandrine Lhostis 3
1 InESS, InESS-ULP-CNRS, Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France, 2 Groupe Nanomat – CEMES, CNRS – Université de Toulouse, Toulouse, Toulouse, France, 3 ST Microelectronics, ST Microelectronics, Crolles, Crolles, France

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10:45 AM - H1.5
Performance Enhancement of Ti Silicide Nanocrystal Memory Device.

Huimei Zhou 1 , Jianlin Liu 1
1 , UCR, Riverside, California, United States

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11:00 AM - *
Coffee Break

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11:30 AM - **H1.6
Nanocrystal Memories.

Thierry Baron 1 , Barbara De Salvo 2 , Pierre Mur 2 , Abdelkader Souifi 3 , Michel Gendry 3 , Sylvie Bodnar 4
1 LTM, CNRS, Grenoble France, 2 D2NT, CEA-Leti, Grenoble France, 3 INL, CNRS , Lyon France, 4 , ATMEL, Rousset France

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12:00 PM - H1.7
Pt Nanocrystals with Remote Plasma Atomic Layer Deposited HfO2 for Nonvolatile Memory Devices.

Honggyu Kim 1 , Sanghyun Woo 1 , Hyungchul Kim 1 , Hyeyeong Chung 1 , Yongchan Kim 1 , Daesik Choi 1 , Hyeongtag Jeon 1
1 Materials science & engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul Korea (the Republic of)

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12:15 PM - H1.8
Non-volatile Memory Devices with in-situ Atomic-layer-deposited Ru Nanocrystals on the SiO2/Al2O3 Bilayer Tunnel Oxide.

Do-Joong Lee 1 , Sung-Soo Yim 1 , Ki-Su Kim 1 , Soo-Hyun Kim 2 , Ki-Bum Kim 1
1 Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul Korea (the Republic of), 2 School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea (the Republic of)

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12:30 PM - H1.9
MOSFET Memory with NiSi Nanocrystals as Floating Gate.

Bei Li 1 , Jianlin Liu 1
1 Electrical Engineering, University of California Riverside, Riverside, California, United States

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H3/FF3: Joint Session: Magnetic Resistive RAM
Session Chairs
Nick Rizzo
Tuesday PM, April 14, 2009
Room 2007 (Moscone West)

4:30 PM - **H3.1/FF3.1
Spin Torque Effects in Nanoscale Magnetic Tunnel Junction Structures.

Robert Buhrman 1
1 Applied and Engineering Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States

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5:00 PM - **H3.2/FF3.2
Material and Device Properties of MgO-Based Magnetic Tunnel Junctions for Spin Torque MRAM.

R. Dave 1 , N. Rizzo 1 , F. Mancoff 1 , P. Mather 1 , K. Smith 1 , B. Butcher 1 , T. Andre 1 , J. Slaughter 1 , S. Tehrani 1
1 , Everspin Technologies, Inc., Chandler, Arizona, United States

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5:30 PM - H3.3/FF3.3
Presence of B Oxide in the MgO Barrier in CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB Magnetic Tunnel Junctions and Its Effect on Tunneling Magnetoresistance.

Judy Cha 1 , J. Read 2 , R. Buhrman 1 , David Muller 1
1 School of applied and engineering physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States, 2 Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States

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5:45 PM - H3.4/FF3.4
Novel Magnetoresistive Structures Using Self-Assembly and Nanowires on Si.

Mazin Maqableh 1 , Xiaobo Huang 1 , Liwen Tan 1 , Beth Stadler 1
1 , U Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States

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2009-04-15   Show All Abstracts

Symposium Organizers

Yoshihisa Fujisaki Hitachi Ltd.
Rainer Waser RWTH Aachen University
Tingkai Li Sharp Laboratories of America Inc.
Caroline Bonafos CEMES/CNRS
H7: Organic Memory I
Session Chairs
Robert Mueller
Jea-Gun Park
Wednesday AM, April 15, 2009
Room 2007 (Moscone West)

9:30 AM - **H7.1
Recent Progress on Polymer Memory Devices and Their Switching Mechanism

Yang Yang 1 , Wei Lek Kwan 1 , Bao Lei 1 , Yue Shao 1 , Guanwen Yang 1 , Liping Ma 1
1 Department of Materials Science and Engineering, UCLA, Los Angeles, California, United States

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10:00 AM - H7.2
Enhancing the Reliability of Polymer Memory Devices Using Dynamic Programming Circuit

Bao Lei 1 , Wei Lek Kwan 1 , Yue Shao 1 , Yang Yang 1
1 Department of Materials Science and Engineering, UCLA, Los Angeles, California, United States

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10:15 AM - H7.3
Observation of Localized Conductive Pathways in Polymer Memory Device.

Wei Lek Kwan 1 , Bao Lei 1 , Yue Shao 1 , Yang Yang 1
1 Department of Materials Science and Engineering, UCLA, Los Angeles, California, United States

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10:30 AM - H7.4
Resistive Electrical Switching of CuTCNQ Based Memory with a Dedicated Switching Layer.

Robert Mueller 1 , Nicole Thomas 1 , Christoph Krebs 1 2 , Ludovic Goux 1 , Dirk Wouters 1 , Jan Genoe 1 , Paul Heremans 1 3 , Sabina Spiga 4 , Marco Fanciulli 4
1 , IMEC v.z.w., Leuven Belgium, 2 , RWTH Aachen, Aachen Germany, 3 ESAT, KULeuven, Leuven Belgium, 4 Laboratorio Nazionale MDM, CNR-INFM, Agrate Brianza Italy

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10:45 AM - H7.5
Manipulation the Current of the Polymer/nanoparticle Nonvolatile Memory Device.

Jianyong Ouyang 1
1 Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore Singapore

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11:00 AM - *
Coffee Break

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11:30 AM - H7.6
A Self-assembled Electrically Driven Molecular Rotor for Non-volatile Memory Application.

Mei Xue 1 , Kang L. Wang 1 , Sanaz Kabehie 2 , Jeffrey I. Zink 2
1 Electrical Engineering, UCLA, los Angeles, California, United States, 2 Chemistry and Biochemistry, UCLA, Los Angeles, California, United States

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12:00 PM - H7.8
Ferroelectric Size-effects in Nanoscale BiFeO3 Films Measured by Ultra-High Vacuum Piezoresponse Force Microscopy

Peter Maksymovych 1 , Stephen Jesse 1 , Sergey Lisenkov 2 , Laurent Bellaiche 2 , Nina Balke 3 , Mark Huijben 3 , Ramamoorthy Ramesh 3 , Arthur Baddorf 1 , Sergei Kalinin 1
1 Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, United States, 2 Physics Department, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas, United States, 3 Department of Materials Science and Engineering, and Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California, United States

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12:15 PM - H7.9
Effect of Interface Property on Small-molecular Nonvolatile Memory-cells

Sung-Ho Seo 1 , Woo-Sik Nam 1 , Yool-Guk Kim 1 , Young-Hwan Oh 1 , Sang-Yi Lee 1 , Jea-Gun Park 1
1 Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Tera-bit Nonvolatile Memory Development Center, Hanyang University, Seoul Korea (the Republic of)

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12:30 PM - H7.10
Effect of Tunneling Barrier Capping Au Nanocrystals on Nonvolatile Memory Characteristics for Polymer Memory-cells

Hyun Min Seung 2 3 , Jong-Dae Lee 1 3 , Kyoung-Cheol Kwon 1 3 , Chang-Hwan Kim 1 3 , Jea-gun Park 1 2 3
2 Nanoscale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang Univ., Seoul Korea (the Republic of), 3 , Tera-bit Nonvolatile Memory Development Center, Seoul Korea (the Republic of), 1 Electrical & Computer Engineering, Hanyang Univ., Seoul Korea (the Republic of)

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2009-04-16   Show All Abstracts

Symposium Organizers

Yoshihisa Fujisaki Hitachi Ltd.
Rainer Waser RWTH Aachen University
Tingkai Li Sharp Laboratories of America Inc.
Caroline Bonafos CEMES/CNRS
H10: Resistive Switching RAM II
Session Chairs
Xiaomin Li
Tae Won Noh
Thursday PM, April 16, 2009
Room 2007 (Moscone West)

2:30 PM - **H10.1
Research Progress in the Resistance Switching of Transition Metal Oxides for RRAM Application: Thin Film Growth, Electrode Materials, Switching Mechanism and Properties Optimization.

Xiaomin Li 1 , Weidong Yu 1 , Lidong Chen 1
1 , Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, ,Shanghai China

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3:00 PM - H10.2
Improved Electrical Resistive Switching of MnOx Based Nonvolatile Memory Devices.

Min Kyu Yang 1 2 , Tae Kuk Ko 2 , Jeon Kook Lee 1
1 Materials Science and Technology Research Division, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul Korea (the Republic of), 2 Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul Korea (the Republic of)

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3:15 PM - H10.3
Programmable Resistance Switching in Amorphous Silicon Switches and Crossbar Arrays

Sung Hyun Jo 1 , Kuk-Hwan Kim 1 , Ting Chang 1 , Wei Lu 1
1 , University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States

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3:30 PM - H10.4
Predictable RESET Switching in Oxide-Based Unipolar RRAM and Its Application for Error Correction Technique to Enhance Reliability.

Shin Buhm Lee 1 , Seung Chul Chae 1 , Seo Hyoung Chang 1 , Sunae Seo 2 , Tae Won Noh 1
1 ReCOE & FPRD, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul Korea (the Republic of), 2 , Samsung Advanced Insititute of Technology, Suwon Korea (the Republic of)

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3:45 PM - H10.5
Stackable All Oxide Based Nonvolatile Memory with Al2O3 Antifuse and p-CuOx/n-InZnOx Diode.

Seung-Eon Ahn 1 , Bo Soo Kang 1 , Ki Hwan Kim 1 , Myoung-Jae Lee 1 , Chang Bum Lee 1 , Changjung Kim 1 , Youngsoo Park 1
1 , Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Suwon Korea (the Republic of)

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4:00 PM - *
Coffee Break

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4:30 PM - **H10.6
Nonlinear Thermal Effects in Unipolar Resistance Switching and Their Explanations Based on The Random Circuit Breaker Network Model.

Tae Won Noh 1 , Seung Chul Chae 1 , Seo Hyoung Chang 1 , Shin Buhm Lee 1 , Jae Sung Lee 2 , Byoungnam Kahng 2
1 ReCOE & FPRD, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul Korea (the Republic of), 2 Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul Korea (the Republic of)

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5:00 PM - H10.7
Flexible Solution-Processed TiO2-Based Memory.

Nadine Gergel-Hackett 1 , Behrang Hamadani 1 , Barabara Dunlap 1 , John Suehle 1 , Curt Richter 1 , Christina Hacker 1 , Dave Gundlach 1
1 Semiconductor Electronics Division, EEEL, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States

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5:15 PM - H10.8
Engineering of Electrode Materials for NiO Resistive Switching non Volatile Memories.

Sabina Spiga 1 , Alessio Lamperti 1 , Elena Cianci 1 , Graziella Tallarida 1 , Flavio Volpe 1 , Marco Fanciulli 1 2 , Antoine Demolliens 3 , Christian Turquat 3 , Christophe Muller 4 , Ugo Russo 5 , Carlo Cagli 5 , Daniele Ielmini 5
1 Laboratorio Nazionale MDM, CNR-INFM, Agrate Brianza Italy, 2 Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Università di MIlano Bicocca, Milano Italy, 3 IM2NP, Université du Sud Toulon Var, La Garde Cedex France, 4 IM2NP, Polytech’Marseille, Université de Provence, Marseille France, 5 DEI, Politecnico di Milano, Milano Italy

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5:30 PM - H10.9
Oxidation Behavior of Ni Thin Films: Application to NiO-based ReRAM.

Judit Lisoni 1 , Ludovic Goux 1 , Eveline Verleysen 1 , Xin Peng Wang 1 , Nico Jossart 1 , Malgorzata Jurczak 1 , Dirk Wouters 1
1 , IMEC, Heverlee (Leuven) Belgium

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H12: Poster Session: Phase Change RAM I
Session Chairs
Yoshihisa Fujisaki
Claudia Wiemer
Thursday PM, April 16, 2009
Salon Level (Marriott)

9:00 PM - H12.10
Switching Power Reduction in Phase Change Memory Cell using CVD Ge2Sb2Te5 and Ultra-thin TiO2 Films.

Byung Joon Choi 1 , Seol Choi 1 , Taeyong Eom 1 , Cheol Seong Hwang 1 , Suk Kyoung Hong 2
1 Materials science & engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul Korea (the Republic of), 2 R & D division, Hynix Semicon. Inc., Ichon Korea (the Republic of)

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9:00 PM - H12.11
Influence of The Stoechiometry of GeTe Thin Films on Their Physical Properties for PCRAM Applications

Emmanuel Gourvest 1 4 , Sandrine Lhostis 1 , Jens Kreisel 2 , Marilyn Armand 3 , Bernard Pelissier 4 , Cyril Dressler 3 , Frederic Fillot 3 , Patrice Gergaud 3 , Christophe Vallee 4
1 , STMicroelectronics, Crolles France, 4 CNRS-LTM, CEA/LETI, Grenoble France, 2 LMGP, INPGrenoble Minatec, Grenoble France, 3 DRT, CEA/LETI, Grenoble France

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9:00 PM - H12.12
Multiple Phase-transition in Ge2Sb2Te5 Films During the Cubic to Hexagonal Phase Change.

Riccardo De Bastiani 1 2 , Corrado Bongiorno 3 , Egidio Carria 1 2 , Giuseppe Nicotra 3 , Maria Grazia Grimaldi 1 2 , Emanuele Rimini 2 3
1 , MATIS CNR-INFM , Catania Italy, 2 Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia, Università di Catania, Catania Italy, 3 , IMM-CNR, Catania Italy

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9:00 PM - H12.13
Optical Phase-Change Experiments on and Characterization of Novel Sample Geometries of the Ge2Sb2Te5 Alloy.

David Baker 1 , P. Taylor 1 , Kris Campbell 2
1 Physics, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado, United States, 2 Physics, Boise State University, Boise, Idaho, United States

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9:00 PM - H12.2
Crystallization-induced Stress in Thin Phase Change Films of Different Thicknesses.

Qiang Guo 1 2 , Minghua Li 3 , Yi Li 1 2 , Luping Shi 3 , Tow Chong Chong 3 , Johannes Kalb 1 4 , Carl Thompson 1 4
1 Advanced Materials for Micro-/Nano- Systems, Singapore-MIT Alliance, Singapore Singapore, 2 Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore Singapore, 3 , Data Storage Institute, Singapore Singapore, 4 Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

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9:00 PM - H12.3
Effect of Nitrogen Doping and Working Pressure on Crystallization of 1Sb4Te7 Thin Films for PRAM Application.

Hyung Keun Kim 1 , Seung Yoon Lee 1 , Sangwoo Shin 2 , Hyung Hee Cho 2 , Doo-Jin Choi 1
1 Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University , Seoul Korea (the Republic of), 2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul Korea (the Republic of)

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9:00 PM - H12.5
Electrical Resistance and Structural Changes on Crystallizaiton Process of Amorphous Ge-Te Thin Films.

Yuta Saito 1 , Yuji Sutou 1 , Junichi Koike 1
1 Department of Materials and Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan

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9:00 PM - H12.6
Energy Band Offset of Amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 on Dielectric or Metal and the Impact of Nitrogen Incorporation on its Alignment.

Lina Wei-Wei Fang 1 , Zheng Zhang 2 , Ji-Sheng Pan 2 , Minghua Li 3 , Rong Zhao 3 , Luping Shi 3 , Tow-Chong Chong 3 , Yee-Chia Yeo 1
1 , National University of Singapore, Singapore Singapore, 2 , Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A*STAR, Singapore Singapore, 3 , Data Storage Insititue, A*STAR, Singapore Singapore

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9:00 PM - H12.7
Deposition Study of Binary and Ternary Chalcogenide Layers by Conventional MOCVD in Nitrogen Atmosphere.

Massimo Longo 1 , Claudia Wiemer 1 , Olivier Salicio 1 , Marco Fanciulli 1 2
1 Laboratorio Nazionale MDM, CNR-INFM, Agrate Brianza Italy, 2 Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, University of Milano Bicocca, Milano Italy

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9:00 PM - H12.8
Evolution of the Transrotational Structure During Crystallization of Amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 Thin Films.

Emanuele Rimini 1 2 , Corrado Bongiorno 2 , Egidio Carria 1 3 , Riccardo De Bastiani 1 3 , Maria Grazia Grimaldi 1 3 , Giuseppe Nicotra 2 , Alberto Piro 1 3 , Corrado Spienella 2
1 Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia, Università di Catania, Catania Italy, 2 , IMM-CNR, Catania Italy, 3 , MATIS CNR-INFM, Catania Italy

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9:00 PM - H12.9
Investigation on the Growth Behavior of Ge Doped SbxTey Thin Films Deposited by a Plasma-enhanced CVD.

Seol Choi 1 , Byung Joon Choi 1 , Taeyoung Eom 1 , Cheol Seong Hwang 1
1 material science and engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, Kwanak-gu, Korea (the Republic of)

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2009-04-17   Show All Abstracts

Symposium Organizers

Yoshihisa Fujisaki Hitachi Ltd.
Rainer Waser RWTH Aachen University
Tingkai Li Sharp Laboratories of America Inc.
Caroline Bonafos CEMES/CNRS
H13: Phase Change RAM II
Session Chairs
Chung Lam
Friday AM, April 17, 2009
Room 2007 (Moscone West)

10:00 AM - **H13.1
Recent Advances in Phase Change Memory.

Greg Atwood 1
1 , Numonyx B.V., Santa Clara, California, United States

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10:30 AM - H13.2
Field Induced Crystal Nucleation in Chalcogenide Phase Change Memory.

Marco Nardone 1 , Victor Karpov 1 , ILya Karpov 2 , Mukut Mitra 2
1 Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio, United States, 2 , Intel Corporation, Santa Clara, California, United States

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10:45 AM - H13.3
Analysis of Nanoscale Transformation of Phase Change Materials.

Kristof Darmawikarta 1 2 , Bong-Sub Lee 1 2 , Simone Raoux 3 , Albert Liao 4 , Eric Pop 4 , Stephen Bishop 2 4 , John Abelson 1 2
1 Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, United States, 2 Coordinated Science Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, United States, 3 , IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, California, United States, 4 Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, United States

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11:00 AM - *
Coffee Break

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11:30 AM - H13.4
Compact Thermal Model for Segmented Nanowire Phase Change Memory Cell.

I-ru Chen 1 , Eric Pop 1
1 Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, United States

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11:45 AM - H13.5
In-situ TEM Study of Phase-change Memory Cells.

Stefan Meister 1 , David Schoen 1 , Yi Cui 1
1 Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States

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12:00 PM - H13.6
Nuclei in Various Amorphous States of Phase Change Materials and their Effect on Transformation Speed.

Bong-Sub Lee 1 2 , Simone Raoux 3 , Robert Shelby 3 , Charles Rettner 3 , Geoffrey Burr 3 , Kristof Darmawikarta 1 2 , Stephen Bishop 2 4 , John Abelson 1 2
1 Materials Science & Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, United States, 2 Coordinated Science Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, United States, 3 , IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, California, United States, 4 Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, United States

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12:15 PM - H13.7
Crystallization Rate, Glass Transition, and Thermomechanical Properties of Nitrogen-doped Ge2Sb2Te5 Film.

Il-Mok Park 1 , Tae-Youl Yang 1 , Young-Chang Joo 1
1 , Seoul National Univ., Seoul Korea (the Republic of)

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12:30 PM - H13.8
The Influence of Nitrogen Doping on the Chemical and Local Bonding Environment of Amorphous and Crystalline Ge2Sb2Te5.

Joseph Washington 1 , Eric Joseph 2 1 , Jean Jordan-Sweet 2 , Simone Raoux 3 , Chieh-Fang Chen 2 , Adam Pyzyna 2 , Ravi Dasaka 2 , Dolores Miller 3 , Alejandro Schrott 2 , Chung Lam 2 , Ying Zhang 2 , Bruce Ravel 4 , Joseph Woicik 4
1 Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, United States, 2 T. J. Watson Research Center, IBM/Macronix PCRAM Joint Project, Yorktown Heights, New York, United States, 3 , IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, California, United States, 4 , National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States

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