Meetings & Events

1995 MRS Fall Meeting

November 27–December 1, 1995
Boston, Massachusetts
Meeting Chairs: Michael J. Aziz, Berend T. Jonker, Leslie J. Struble

Symposium H—Silicide Thin Films—Fabrication, Properties And Applications

Chairs

Ray Tung, AT&T Bell Laboratories
Paul W. Pellegrini, Rome Laboratory
Karen Maex, IMEC
Leslie H. Allen, University of Illinois, Urbana

Symposium Support

  • Intel Corporation
  • SGS-Thomson Microelectronics
  • China Technical Consultants Incorporated

Tutorial: FTH: Silicides for Integrated Circuits: Materials Aspects and Technological Implementation

Instructors

  • Karen Maex, IMEC
  • King-Ning Tu, UCLA

Monday, November 27, 1:30 p.m. - 5:00 p.m.
Essex East (W)

  • Introduction: Historical development of BEOL
  • Metrology of silicide formation
  • Kinetics of metal-silicon reactions
  • Schottky barrier and conductivity of silicides
  • Amorphous metal-Si alloy formation by interfacial reaction
  • Epitaxial and implanted silicides
  • Stability of silicides against aluminum and oxygen
  • Silicide on SOI and SiGe
  • Contact electromigration
  • Summary

Silicides have become an integral part of the fabrication process flow for integrated circuits. They are used to shunt the relatively high sheet resistance of doped regions. The silicide technology is very sensitive to process steps carried out before (during front end processing) and after the silicidation module (during back end processing).

In this tutorial it is the intent to cover the basic aspects of silicidation. The MOS technology will be used as a guideline for the selection and discussion of topics. The aim is to provide a fundamental understanding of the phenomena that occur when silicides are applied in a technology. The characteristics of the metal/Si reaction will be covered as well as the interaction with other materials that are used in device processing. The close link between material properties and technological implementation will be emphasized. In particular, as the scaling of MOS technologies progresses, the scalability and controllability of the silicidation process will be discussed and related to material aspects.

*Invited Paper

SESSION H1: FUNDAMENTALS: ENERGETICS & KINETICS
Chairs: K.N. Tu and L.A. Clevenger
Tuesday Morning, November 28
Essex East (W)

9:00 A.M. *H1.1
SILICIDE FORMATION: REACTION FUNDAMENTALS, F.M. d'Heurle, IBM Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY and Royal Institute of Technology, Kista, Sweden.

9:30 A.M. H1.2
A MODEL FOR QUALITATIVE PREDICTIONS OF THE CRYSTALLIZATION TEMPERATURE FOR ALL Si-BASED BINARY ALLOYS, J.R.A. Carlsson, L.D. Madsen, J.-E. Sundgren and H.T.G. Hentzell, Linköping University, Department of Physics, Thin Film Division, Linköping, Sweden.

9:45 A.M. H1.3
STUDY ON THE PHASE TRANSITION FROM AMORPHOUS PHASES TO CRYSTALLINE TiSi2, H.G. Nam and Nam-Ihn Cho, Sun Moon University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Chungnam, Korea.

10:00 A.M. H1.4
INTERFACE STABILITY OF Ti(Si1-yGey)2 ON Si1-xGex ALLOYS, D.B. Aldrich, D.E. Sayers, R.J. Nemanich, North Carolina State University, Department of Physics, Raleigh, NC; and F.M. d'Heurle, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY.

10:15 A.M. BREAK

10:30 A.M. *H1.5
DIFFUSION PROCESSES IN SILICIDES: A COMPARISON BETWEEN BULK AND THIN FILM PHASE FORMATION, Patrick Gas, CNRS, Department of Metallurgical, Marseille, France.

11:00 A.M. H1.6
ARSENIC DIFFUSION IN SINGLE CRYSTALLINE CoSi2, A. Pisch, J. Cardenas and B.G. Svensson, Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Solid State Electronics, Kista-Stockholm, Sweden.

11:15 A.M. H1.7
STABILITY OF Co/Ti BILAYERS ON SiO2, S.W. Russell, E.J. Jaquez, T.L. Alford, Arizona State University, Department of Chemical, Bio and Materials Engineering, Tempe, AZ; G.K. Gust, T.W. Sigmon, Arizona State University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Tempe, AZ; and S.Q. Wang, Sematech, Austin, TX.

SESSION H2: SILICIDE PROCESSING
AND RELATED ISSUES
Chairs: K.N. Tu and L.A. Clevenger
Tuesday Morning, November 28
Essex East (W)

11:30 A.M. H2.1
PROCESS WINDOWS OF NICKEL AND PLATINUM SILICIDES IN DEEP SUB-MICRON REGIME, Dan-Xia Xu, Suhit R. Das, John McCaffrey, Bernie F. Mason, Lynden E. Erickson and Jeff W. Fraser, Institute for Microstructural Sciences, National Research Council, Ontario, Canada.

11:45 A.M. H2.2
INVESTIGATION OF TiN/TiSi2 BILAYER THIN FILMS ON Si (100) SUBSTRATE, Y. Shor and J. Pelleg, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Department of Materials Engineering, Beer-Sheva, Israel.

SESSION H2: SILICIDE PROCESSING
AND RELATED ISSUES (continued)
Chairs: R.J. Nemanich and Z. Ma
Tuesday Afternoon, November 28
Essex East (W)

1:30 P.M. *H2.3
POST TITANIUM SILICIDE PROCESSING, Vida Ilderem, Motorola, Advanced Custom Technologies, Mesa, AZ; Mel Miller, MRST, Mesa, AZ; and Shri Ramasswami, MOSS Manufacturing, Mesa, AZ.

2:00 P.M. H2.4
PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS OF TITANIUM DISILICIDE INDUCED BY HIGH-TEMPERATURE SPUTTERING, Kunihiro Fujii, NEC Corporation, ULSI Device Development Laboratories, Kanagawa, Japan; Raymond T. Tung, David J. Eaglesham, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ; Kuniko Kikuta and Takamaro Kikkawa, NEC Corporation, ULSI Device Development Laboratories, Kanagawa, Japan.

2:15 P.M. H2.5
Ti-SALICIDE PROCESS IMPROVEMENT BY PRE-AMORPHIZATION FOR ULSI APPLICATION, Chun-Cho Chen, Qingfeng Wang, Franky Jonckx and Karen Maex, IMEC, Leuven, Belgium.

2:30 P.M. H2.6
REDUCTION OF THE C54-TiSi2 PHASE FORMATION TEMPERATURE USING METALLIC IMPURITIES, R.W. Mann, IBM Microelectronics, Essex Junction, VT; L.A. Clevenger, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY; G.L. Miles, IBM Microelectronics, Essex Junction, VT; J.M.E. Harper, C. Cabral Jr., F.M. D'Heurle, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY; T.A. Knotts and D.W. Rakowski, IBM Microelectronics, Essex Junction, VT.

2:45 P.M. H2.7
SURFACE NUCLEATION OF TITANIUM SILICIDES AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES, R.T. Tung and F. Schrey, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ.

3:00 P.M. H2.8
SELF-ALIGNED SILICIDATION BY CO-DEPOSITION TECHNIQUE, A.G. Vasiliev, O.I. Lebedev and A.A. Orlikovsky, Institute of Physics and Technology Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.

3:15 P.M. BREAK

3:30 P.M. *H2.9
PROPERTIES OF POINT-DEFECTS DURING FRONT-END PROCESSING, H.-J. Gossmann, C.S. Rafferty, P.A. Stolk, D.J. Eaglesham, G.H. Gilmer, J.M. Poate, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ; T.K. Mogi, M.O. Thompson, Cornell University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ithaca, NY; B. Herner and K.S. Jones, University of Florida, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Gainesville, FL.


4:00 P.M. H2.10
TITANIUM SILICIDATION INDUCED POINT DEFECTS IN SI, S.B. Herner, V. Krishnamoorthy, K.S. Jones, University of Florida, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Gainesville, FL; and H.-J. Gossmann, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ.

4:15 P.M. H2.11
TITANIUM SILICIDATION AND SECONDARY DEFECT ANNIHILATION IN ION BEAM PROCESSED SixGe1-x LAYERS, K. Kyllesbech Larsen, F. La Via, S. Lombardo, V. Raineri and S.U. Campisano, CNR-IMETEM, Catania, Italy.

4:30 P.M. H2.12
ON THE FORMATION OF INHOMOGENEITIES IN EPITAXIAL CoSi2 LAYERS GROWN FROM THE INTERACTIONS OF Co/Ti BILAYERS WITH Si<100> SUBSTRATES, J. Cardenas, S.L. Zhang, B.G. Svensson and S. Petersson, Royal Institute of Technology, Solid State Electronics, Stockholm, Sweden.

4:30 P.M. H2.13
THE ROLE OF TRANSIENT PHASE FORMATION DURING THE GROWTH OF EPITAXIAL CoSi2 BY ANNEALING OF Co/Ti BILAYERS ON (100) Si, D.J. Miller, T.I. Selinder and K.E. Gray, Argonne National Laboratory, Materials Science Division, Argonne, IL.

5:00 P.M. H2.14
DEFECT GENERATION DURING EPITAXIAL GROWTH OF CoSi2 ON MINIATURE SIZED (100)Si SUBSTRATE AND ITS EFFECT ON ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES, Jeong S. Byun, Jeong M. Sun, Jin W. Park and J.J. Kim, LG Semicon Co. Ltd., Advanced Process Development Center, Chungbuk, Korea.

SESSION H3: POSTER SESSION
Chair: R. Tung
Tuesday Evening, November 28
8:00 P.M.
America Ballroom (W)

H3.1 FORMATION OF NICKEL SILICIDES FROM Ni-Au FILMS ON (111) Si, Dominque Mangelinck, Oliver Thomas, Bernard Pichaud, Laboratory MATOP, URA, Marseille, France; Jean-Jacques, Grob Laboratory Phase CRN, Strasbourg, France; and Patrick Gas, Laboratory EDIFIS URA, Marseille, France.

H3.2 AGGLOMERATION AND DIRECTED CRYSTALLIZATION OF COBALT DISILICIDE IN THIN Co/Si FILMS, I. Belousov, E. Rudenko, V. Svetchnikov, Institute for Physics of Metals, Kiev, Ukraine.

H3.3 PHASE FORMATION BETWEEN CO-DEPOSITED CO-TA THIN FILM AND SINGLE CRYSTAL SILICON SUBSTRATE, J. Pelleg, G. Briskin and M. Talianker, University of the Negev, Department of Materials Engineering, Beer-Sheva, Israel.

H3.4 BULK VS SURFACE DIFFUSION OF NI AND CO ON SILICON, M.Y. Lee, Arizona State University, Science Engineering Materials Program, Tempe, AZ; and P.A. Bennett, Arizona State University, Department of Physics, Tempe, AZ.

H3.5 STUDY ON Ti-SiO2 REACTION - THERMODYNAMIC APPROACH, Marcelo B.A. Fontes, University of Pennsylvania, Department of Electrical Engineering, Philadelphia, PA and University of Sao Paulo, Laboratorio de Sistemas Integraveis, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Jose D.T. Capocchi, University of Sao Paulo, Departamento de Metalurgia e Materiais, Sao Paulo, Brazil; and Juan Carlos A. Quacchia, University of Sao Paulo, Departamento de Fisica Nuclear, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

H3.6 INFLUENCE OF O, C IMPURITY ATOMS OF THE PHASE COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF TRANSITION METALS SILICIDES, Yu.N. Makogon, L.P. Maximovich and S.I. Sidorenko, Politechnic Institute, Department Metal Physics, Kiev, Ukraine.

H3.7 IMPURITY REARRANGEMENTS IN Ti-Si FILMS, Yu.N. Makogon, S.I. Sidorenko and I.E. Kotenko, National Technical University, Kiev, Ukraine.

H3.8 INCREASED UNIFORMITY OF CoSi2 THIN FILMS BY Ti CAPPING, R.T. Tung and F. Schrey, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ.

H3.9 STUDY OF EFFECT OF TITANIUM FILM THICKNESS ON C54 TITANIUM SILICIDE PHASE FORMATION KINETICS, R.V. Nagabushnam, V.R. Rakesh, R.K. Singh, University of Florida, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Gainesville, Fl; S. Sharan and G. Sandhu, Process Development, Micron Semiconductor, Boise, ID.

H3.10 FORMATION OF TITANIUM SILICIDE STRAP LINES BY THE DEPOSITION OF A DOUBLE LAYER OF AMORPHOUS SILICON-TITANIUM, Ana Neilde Rodrigues da Silva, Rogerio Furlan, Laboratorio de Sistemas Integraveis-Ecola Politecnica da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brasil; and J.J. Santiago-Avilés, University of Pennsylvania, Department of Electrical Engineering, Philadelphia, PA.

H3.11 SUBSTRATE INFLUENCE ON THE FORMATION OF TITANIUM DICILICIDE ON POLYCRYSTALLINE SILICON, Ana Neilde Rodgrigues da Silva, Rogerio Furlan, Laboratorio de Sistemas Integraveis-Ecola Politecnica da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brasil; and J.J. Santiago-Avilés, University of Pennsylvania, Department of Electrical Engineering, Philadelphia, PA.

H3.12 LOW TEMPERATURE TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF Ru2Si3 SINGLE CRYSTALS, U. Gottlieb, R. Madar, ENSPG INPG, LMGP, St. Martin d'Hères, France; and O. Laborde, CRTBT, LCMI, CNRS, Grenoble, France.

H3.13 SYNCHROTRON RADIATION STUDIES OF SELF-ALIGNED PLATINUM SILICIDE THIN FILMS, T.K. Sham, S.J. Naftel, A. Bzowski, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada; S.R. Das, National Research Council, Institute for Microstructural Science, Ottawa, Canada; S.M. Heald, D. Brewe, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA; and M. Kuhn, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Brookhaven, NY.

H3.14 TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE AND ANNEALING BEHAVIOUR OF Hf IMPLANTED IN Si(100), M.R. Da Silva, A.A. Melo, J.C. Soares, Centro de Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Department Fisica, Lisboa, Portugal; M.F. da Silva, ITN, Department of Physics, Scavém, Portugal; G. Langouche and A. Vantomme, University of Leuven, Institut voor Kern en Stralingsfysica, Leuven, Belgium.

H3.15 CHARACTERIZATION OF TiB2/TiSi2 BILAYER STRUCTURE DEPOSITED BY SPUTTERING, G. Sade and J. Pelleg, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Beer-Sheva, Israel.

H3.16 THE FEATURES OF THE IMPURITY DIFFUSION KINETICS IN SILICON FILMS, A.V. Vaysleyb, Columbia University, Materials Science Division, School of Mines, New York, NY; and M.G. Goldiner, University of Michigan, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ann Arbor, MI.

H3.17 FORMATION OF TERNARY SOLID SOLUTION DISILICIDE FILMS, Ludmili A. Dvorina, Institute for Problem of Materials, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Kiev, Ukraine.

H3.18 FORMATION OF SILICIDES ON THE INTERFACE W/Si (100) DURING DEPOSITION OF W FILMS BY USING CVD TECHNIQUES, S.V. Pluscheva, J.V. Malikov, L.Y. Shabelnikov, A. Andreeva and V. Petrashov, Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Microelectronics Technology, Chernogolovka, Russia.

H3.19 ORDER-ORDER TRANSFORMATION AND STABILITY IN FeSi2: A THEORETICAL STUDY, P.E.A. Turchi and J. Van Ek, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA.

H3.20 THICKNESS DEPENDENT PHASE FORMATION IN Fe THIN FILM AND Si SUBSTRATE SOLID PHASE REACTION, Gy, Molnár, G. Peto, E. Zsoldos and Z.E. Horváth, KFKI Research Institute for Materials Science, Budapest, Hungary.

H3.21 TRANSPORT AND LOW TEMPERATURE SPECIFIC HEAT MEASUREMENTS OF CrSi2 SINGLE CRYSTALS, J.C. Lasjaunias, CRTBT, CNRS, Grenoble, France; U. Gottlieb, LMPG, ENSPG, INPG, St. Martin d'Hères, France; O. Laborde, CRTBT, CNRS, Grenoble, France and LCMI, CNRS, Grenoble, France; O. Thomas and R. Madar, LMPG, ENSPG, INPG, St. Martin d'Hères, France.

H3.22 ANISOPTROPIC OPTICAL RESPONSE IN ß-FeSi2 SINGLE CRYSTALS AND THIN FILMS, S. Bocelli, G. Guizzetti, F. Marabelli, G.B. Parravicini, M. Patrini, University of Pavia, Department of Physics, Pavia, Italy; W. Henrion. H. Lange and Y. Tomm, Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH, Berlin, Germany.

H3.23 HALL EFFECT INVESTIGATION OF DOPED AND UNDOPED ß-FESi2, Stephen Brehme, Horst Lange, Yvonne Tomm and Ludmilla Ivanenko, Hahn-Meitner-Institute Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

H3.24 EVOLUTION OF THE OPTICAL RESPONSE FROM A VERY NARROW GAP SEMICONDUCTOR TO A METALLIC MATERIAL IN THE Fe1-xMnxSi, S.Bocelli, F. Marabelli, R. Spolenak, University of Pavia, Department of Physics, Pavia, Italy; and E. Bauer, Technische Universität Institut für Experimentalphysik, Vienna, Austria.

H3.25 INTERPRETATION OF THE INFRARED AND RAMAN SPECTRA OF ß-FeSi2 BY MOLECULAR DYNAMICS SIMULATIONS, Leo Miglio and Valeria Meregalli, Universita di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milano, Italy.

H3.26 SOLID PHASE EPITAXY FORMATION OF FESI AND ß-FeSi2 WITH RAPID THERMAL ANNEALING, P.H. Amesz, University of Groningen, Department of Applied Physics, Groningen, Netherlands; L.V. Jørgensen, University of Technology, Interfaculty Reactor Institute, Delft, Netherlands; M. Libezny, J. Poortmans, J. Nijs, IMEC, Leuven, Belgium; A. Van Veen, H. Schut, University of Technology, Interfaculty Reactor Institute, Delft, Netherlands; and J.Th.M. De Hosson, University of Groningen, Department of Applied Physics, Groningen, Netherlands.

H3.27 MAGNETO-TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF EPITAXIAL IRON-SILICIDES, S. Goncalves-Conto, N. Onda and H. Von Känel, ETH Zürich, Laboratorium für Festkörperphysik, Zürich, Switzerland.

H3.28 PHASE DEVELOPMENT IN Pt / Si-Ge ALLOY LAYERS, Michael W. Carmody and Eric P. Kvam, Purdue University, School of Materials Engineering, West Lafayette, IN.

H3.29 TITANIUM GERMANOSILICIDE PHASE FORMATION DURING THE Ti-Si-xGex SOLID PHASE REACTIONS, D.B. Aldrich, D.E. Sayers and R.J. Nemanich, North Carolina State University, Department of Physics, Raleigh, NC.

H3.30 IRIDIUM SILICIDES FORMATION ON HIGH DOSES Ge+ IMPLANTED Si LAYERS, G. Curello, R. Gwilliam, M. Harry, B.J. Sealy, University of Surrey, Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Surrey, United Kingdom; T. Rodriguez and J. Jimenez-Leube, Ciudad Universitaria, ETSI Telecommunication, Madrid, Spain.

SESSION H4: ULSI PROCESSING & ISSUES
Chairs: F. d'Heurle and T. Kikkawa
Wednesday Morning, November 29
Essex East (W)

8:30 A.M. *H4.1
CHALLENGES TO SILICIDES IN FUTURE TECHNOLOGIES, David B. Fraser, INTEL Corporation, Santa Clara, CA.

9:00 A.M. *H4.2
0.35 um TECHNOLOGIES IN JAPAN, Takamaro Kikkawa and Isami Sakai, NEC Corporation, ULSI Device Development Laboratories, Sagamihara City, Japan.

9:30 A.M. H4.3
A LOW TEMPERATURE SINGLE-STEP RTA PROCESS TO FORM ULTRA-THIN CoSi2 FOR MOSFET APPLICATIONS, Melanie J. Sherony, T.S. Sriram, Craig England, Aldo Pelillo, Digital Equipment, Hudson, MA; Isabel Y. Yang, Andy Wei and Dimitri A. Antoniadis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Cambridge, MA.

9:45 A.M. H4.4
APPLICATION OF COBALT SALICIDE IN SUB-QUARTER MICRON ULSI, G. Bai and A. Stivers, Intel Corporation, Santa Clara, CA.

10:00 A.M. BREAK

10:30 A.M. *H4.5
MANUFACTURABILITY ISSUES FOR APPLICATION OF SILICIDES IN 0.25 um CMOS PROCESS AND BEYOND, Q.F. Wang, A. Lauwers, F. Jonckx, M. Depotter, C.C. Chen and K. Maex, IMEC, Leuven, Belgium.

11:00 A.M. *H4.6
INTEGRATION OF THE SALICIDE PROCESS MODULE FOR SUB-HALF-MICRON TECHNOLOGY, Pushkar P. Apte, Douglas Prinslow, Jorge Kittl and Gordon Pollack, Texas Instruments Inc., Dallas, TX.

11:30 A.M. H4.7
SILICIDATION STRATEGY OF SUB-0.1um JUNCTIONS FOR DEEP SUBMICRON DEVICES, Jiunn-Yann Tsai, Carlton M. Osburn, North Carolina State University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Raleigh, NC; and Steve L. Hsia, Texas Instruments Inc., Dallas, TX.

11:45 A.M. H4.8
STRESS IN SILICON DUE TO THE FORMATION OF SELF ALIGNED POLY-CoSi2 LINES STUDIED BY MICRO-RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY, David J. Howard, Ingrid De Wolf, Hugo Bender and Karen Maex, IMEC, Leuven Belgium.

SESSION H4: ULSI PROCESSING & ISSUES (continued)
Chairs: D. Fraser and E. Seebauer
Wednesday Afternoon, November 29
Essex East (W)

1:30 P.M. *H4.9
THE IN SITU STUDY DURING RAPID THERMAL ANNEALING OF THE FORMATION OF THIN TISI2 AND COSI2 (< 50 NM) SILICIDE CONTACTS IN SUBMICRON CMOS STRUCTURES, L.A. Clevenger, C. Cabral Jr., R.A. Roy, C. Lavoie, R. Viswanathan, K.L. Saenger, J. Jordon-Sweet and G.B. Stephenson, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY; G. Morales and K.L. Ludwig Jr., Boston University, Boston, MA.

2:00 P.M. H4.10
KINETICS OF THE C49 TO C54 PHASE TRANSFORMATION IN TiSi2 THIN FILMS ON DEEP-SUB-MICRON LINES, Jorge A. Kittl, Douglas A. Prinslow, Pushkar P. Apte and Michael F. Pas, Texas Instruments Inc., Semiconductor Process and Device Center, Dallas, TX.

2:15 P.M. H4.11
A KINETIC STUDY OF THE C49 TO C54 CONVERSION OF TiSi2 USING ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY MEASUREMENTS ON SINGLE NARROW LINES, K.L. Saenger, C. Cabral Jr., L.A. Clevenger and R.A. Roy, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY.

2:30 P.M. H4.12
RELIABILITY OF COBALT SILICIDED SUB-MICRON CONTACTS, My. T. Doan and Abdalla Naem, Telecom Microelectronics Center, Ottawa, Canada.

2:45 P.M. H4.13
INITIAL STAGE OF TITANIUM SILICIDE FORMATION ON Si(111) SUBSTRATE, Shoso Shingubara, Shuichi Takata, Hiroyuki Sakaue and Takayuki Takahagi, Hiroshima University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Higashi-Hiroshima, Japan.

3:00 P.M. BREAK

SESSION H5: CVD SILICIDES
Chairs: D. Fraser and E. Seebauer
Wednesday Afternoon, November 29
Essex East (W)

3:30 P.M. *H5.1
SELECTIVE TITANIUM SILICIDE FOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS, D. Maury and J.L. Regolini, CNET Grenoble, MAD, Meylan, France.

4:00 P.M. H5.2
OPTIMIZATION OF SELECTIVE TiSi2 CVD BY MECHANISTIC CHEMICAL KINETICS, E.G. Seebauer, M.A. Mendicino and R.P. Southwell, University of Illinois, Chemical Engineering Department, Urbana, IL.

4:15 P.M. H5.3
SELECTIVE TiSi2 FORMATION USING TiCl4(g) AND H2(g): A STUDY OF THE MASK LOADING PHENOMENA, D.B. Gladden, North Carolina State University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Raleigh, NC; C.E. Weintraub and M.C. Öztürk, North Carolina State University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Raleigh, NC.

4:30 P.M. H5.4
INTERFACIAL REACTIONS IN THE PLASMA-ENHANCED CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION Ti, M.E. Gross, E. Coleman, W.L. Brown, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ; M. Ameen, J. Hillman and R. Foster, Materials Research Corporation, Phoenix, AZ.

4:45 P.M. H5.5
CVD-DEPOSITED THIN TUNGSTEN SILICIDE FILMS ON VARIOUS SUBSTRATES: INTERFACE STRUCTURES AND FILM PROPERTIES, Mansour Moinpour, California Technology and Manufacturing, Intel Corporation, Santa Clara, CA; Jen-E Wu, Mehmet Sarikaya, University of Washington, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seattle, WA; and Cengiz Ozhan, Stanford University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford, CA.

SESSION H6: SEMICONDUCTING SILICIDES
Chairs: P. Pellegrini and H. Lange
Thursday Morning, November 30
Essex East (W)

8:30 A.M. *H6.1
PROPERTIES AND PERSPECTIVES OF SEMICONDUCTING TRANSITION METAL SILICIDES, H. Lange, Hahn-Meitner, Institut Berlin GmbH, Photovoltaics Department, Berlin, Germany.

9:00 A.M. H6.2
PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS IN LAYERED Fe-Si STRUCTURES, M. Fanciulli, C. Rosenblad, G. Weyer, Aarhus University, Institute of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus, Denmark; H. von Känel, N. Onda, ETH Zürich, Laboratory for Solid States Physics; V. Nevolin and A. Zenkevich, Moskow Engineering Physics Institute, Moscow, Russia.

9:15 A.M. H6.3
INFLUENCE OF STOICHIOMETRIC VARIATIONS AND RAPID THERMAL PROCESSING OF ß-FeSi2 THIN FILMS ON THEIR ELECTRICAL AND MICROSTRUCTURAL PROPERTIES, M. Döscher, Technical University Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg, Germany; B. Selle, Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH, Berlin, Germany; M. Pauli, F. Kothe, J. Szymanski and J. Müller, Technical University Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg, Germany.

9:30 A.M. H6.4
STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES ß-FeSi2 BULK CRYSTAL GROWN BY HORIZONTAL GRADIENT FREEZE METHOD, H. Kakemoto, Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; Y. Tsai, Union Material, Ibaraki, Japan; A. Beye, Electortechnical Laboratory, Ibaraki, Japan; H. Katsumata, Meiji University, Kanagawa, Japan; S. Sakuragi, Union Material, Ibaraki, Japan; Y. Makita, A. Obara, N. Kobayashi, H. Shibata, Electortechnical Laboratory, Ibaraki, Japan; S. Uekusa, Meiji University, Kanagawa, Japan; and T. Tsukamoto, Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

SESSION H7: METAL-SiGe REACTION
Chairs: P. Pellegrini and H. Lange
Thursday Morning, November 30
Essex East (W) 9:45 A.M. H7.1
ELECTRICAL AND STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF ZR ANNEALED ON SIGE EPILAYER, Z. Wang, P. Goeller, R.J. Nemanich and D.E. Sayers, North Carolina University, Department of Physics, Raleigh, NC.

10:00 A.M. H7.2
ION BEAM PROCESSED Ir/SiGe STRUCTURES, G. Curello, R. Gwilliam, M. Harry, B.J. Sealy, University of Surrey, Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Surrey, United Kingdom; T. Rodriguez and M. Clement, Ciudad Universitaria, ETSI Telecommunication, Madrid, Spain.

10:15 A.M. BREAK

SESSION H8: SILICIDES AND THEIR ANALOGS
FOR IR SENSING
Chairs: P. Pellegrini and H. Lange
Thursday Morning, November 30
Essex East (W)
10:30 A.M. *H8.1
VOLTAGE-TUNABLE SILICIDE SCHOTTKY IR DETECTORS, Jorge R. Jimenez, Faura Scientific Inc., Bedford, MA.

11:00 A.M. H8.2
MBE GROWTH CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE FABRICATION OF 640X480 IR FOCAL PLANE ARRAYS OF SiGe HIP DETECTORS, P.E. Thompson, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC; M. Weeks, Rome Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA; P. Tedrow, PML, Lowell, MA; and K. Hobart, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC.

11:15 A.M. H8.3
GROWTH AND ELECTRICAL PERFORMANCE OF HETEROJUNCTION, p+-Si1-x-yGexCy/p- -Si DIODES, C.L. Chang, A.St. Amour, L.D. Lanzerotti and J.C. Sturm, Princeton University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton, NJ.

11:30 A.M. H8.4
SELECTIVELY GROWN GexSi1-x FILMS BY ULTRA HIGH VACUUM CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION FOR INFRARED FOCAL PLANE ARRAYS, R. Strong, D.W. Greve, Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Pittsburgh, PA; and M. Weeks, Rome Laboratories, Hanscom AFB, MA.

11:45 A.M. H8.5
CHARACTERIZATION OF ULTRA-THIN PtSi FILMS FOR INFRARED DETECTORS, H. Bender, P. Roussel, S. Kolodinski, A. Torres, R.A. Donaton, K. Maex, IMEC, Leuven, Belgium; and P.van der Sluis, Philips Research Laboratories, Eindhoven, Netherlands.

SESSION H9: INTERFACES AND EPITAXY
Chairs: S. Mantl and H. von Kaenel
Thursday Afternoon, November 30
Essex East (W)

1:30 P.M. *H9.1
BEEM AND UHV-TEM STUDIES OF THE ELECTRICAL AND STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF PtSi/Si(001), K.L. Kavanagh, B.A. Morgan, K.M. Ring, University of San Diego, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, La Jolla, CA; A.A. Talin, R.S. Williams, University of California Los Angeles, Department of Chemistry. Los Angeles, CA; M. Reuter and R.M. Tromp, IBM T.J. Watson Research Laboratories, Yorktown, NY.

2:00 P.M. H9.2
ELECTRICAL AND STRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION OF Ti CONTACTS TO Si0.9Ge0.1/Si(001) EPILAYERS, M. Lyakas, M. Beregovsky, I Moskowitz and M. Eizenberg, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Department of Materials Engineering, Haita, Israel.

2:15 P.M. H9.3
STRUCTURE OF THE ORDERED ATOMIC INTERFACE OF CoSi2/Si(001) LAYER BY ANOMALOUS X-RAY SCATTERING AND Z-CONTRACT IMAGING, J.Z. Tischler, J.D. Budai and M.F. Chisholm, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN.

2:30 P.M. H9.4
HETEROEPITAXY OF CoSi2 ON PATTERNED Si(100) SUBSTRATES, O.P. Karpenko, University of Michigan, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ann Arbor, MI; D.J. Eaglesham, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ; and S.M. Yalisove, University of Michigan, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ann Arbor, MI.

SESSION H10: NOVEL PROCESSING AND STRUCTURES
Chairs: S. Mantl and H. von Kaenel
Thursday Afternoon, November 30
Essex East (W)

2:45 P.M. H10.1
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CoSi2 LAYERS FORMED BY MEVVA IMPLANTATION OF Co INTO Si, Qicai Peng and S.P. Wong, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Electronic Engineering and Materials Technology Research Centre, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong.


3:00 P.M. H10.2
RAPID SELF-ION STIMULATED PROCESS FOR TiSi2 THIN FILMS FORMATION, V.I. Chapljuk, I.V. Gusev, Kiev Research Institute for Microdevices, Kiev, Ukraine; and V.P. Belevsky, Kiev Polytechnic Institute, Radio-Technique Faculty, Kiev, Ukraine.

3:15 P.M. BREAK

3:30 P.M. H10.3
PATTERNING OF SILICIDE LAYERS BY LOCAL OXIDATION, S. Mantl, M. Dolle, M. Hacke, F. Klinkhammer, St. Mesters and H.L. Bay, KFA Juelich, Institut für Schicht- und Ionentechnik, Juelich, Germany.

3:45 P.M. H10.4
NEW EPITAXIALLY STABILIZED SILICIDE PHASES, S. Goncalves-Conto, C. Schwarz and H. von Känel, ETH Zürich, Laboratorium für Festkörperphysik, Zürich, Switzerland.

4:00 P.M. H10.5
TEMPLATE STRUCTURE AT THE SILICON/AMORPHOUS SILICIDE INTERFACE, M.Y. Lee, Arizon State University, Science Engineering Materials Program, Tempe, AZ; P.A. Bennett, Arizona State University, Department of Physics, Tempe, AZ; R. Schuster, P.J. England and I.K. Robinson, University of Illinois, Department of Physics, Urbana, IL.

4:15 P.M. H10.6
REACTION OF Co, Ni AND METAL-RICH SILICIDE WITH AMORPHOUS Si, Jer-shen Maa and Shusheng He, Sharp Microelectronics Technology, Cama, WA.

4:30 P.M. H10.7
SILICIDE METALLIZATION OF AlN SUBSTRATES FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE MICROELECTRONICS, Ender Savrun, Quest Integrated, Inc. Kent, WA; M. Sarikaya, F. Dogan and T.P. Pearsall, University of Washington, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seattle, WA.

4:45 P.M. H10.8
ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY OF THREE POLYMORPHS OF BASI2 AND P-T PHASE DIAGRAM, M. Imai and T. Hirano, National Research Institute for Metals, Ibaraki, Japan.

SESSION H11: POSTER SESSION
PROPERTIES OF SILICIDE THIN FILMS
Chairs: L.H. Allen, K. Maex, P. Pellegrini and R. Tung
Thursday Evening, November 30
8:00 P.M.
America Ballroom (W)

H11.1 BARRIER HEIGHT CONTROL AND X-RAY DIFFRACTION STUDY OF METAL ON SiGe GROWN BY LOW PRESSURE CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION, Z.Q. Shi, Neocera Inc., Beltsville, MD; L. He, Northern Illinois University, Department of Electrical Engineering, DeKalb, IL; and Y. Zheng, Nanjing University, Department of Physics, Nanjing, China.

H11.2 IRIDIUM SILICIDES FORMED BY RTA IN VACUUM, T. Rodríguez, A. Almendra, ETSI Telecommunicacíon, Madrid, Spain; M.F. da Silva, I.N.T., Sacavém, Portugal; H. Wolters, J. Soares, C.F.N.U.L., Lisboa, Portugal; and C. Ballesteros, E.P.S., Leganes, Spain.

H11.3 EFFECT OF PHONON CONFINEMENT ON INTERSUBBAND LASING LIFETIMES OF SI/SIGE QUANTUM WELL STRUCTURES, L. Friedman, Rome Laboratory/EROC, Hanscom AFB, MA; and G. Sun, University of Massachusetts at Boston, Boston, MA.

H11.4 SHALLOW CONTACT METALLIZATION OF SiGeC WITH Co/Ti BILAYERS, A.E. Bair, T.L. Alford, Z. Atzmon, Arizona State University, Department of Chemical, Bio and Materials Engineering, Tempe, AZ; and J.W. Mayer, Arizona State University, Center for Solid State Science, Tempe, AZ.

H11.5 STRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ION BEAM SYNTHESIZED EPITAXIAL ErSi2-x LAYERS, H. Bender, IMEC, Leuven, Belgium; M.F. Wu, A. Vantomme, H. Pattyn and G. Langouche, University of Leuven, IKS, Leuven, Belgium.

H11.6 EFFECTS OF GROWTH PARAMETERS ON THE EPITAXY OF CoSi2/Si(100) FORMED BY REACTIVE DEPOSITION EPITAXY, A. Vantomme, J. Dekoster, S. Degroote, G. Langouche, Catholic University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; and H. Bender, IMEC, Leuven, Belgium.

H11.7 EPITAXIAL FILMS OF COBALT DISILICIDE (100) EVAPORATED ONTO Si(100) FROM A MIXED SOURCE, P.T. Goeller, Z. Wang, D.E. Sayers, J.T. Glass and R.J. Nemanich, North Carolina State University, Department of Physics, Raleigh, NC.

H11.8 CHARACTERIZATION OF ATMOSPHERIC IMPURITIES IN TUNGSTEN SILICIDE FILMS BY SECONDARY ION MASS SPECTROMETRY (SIMS), Salman Mitha and David B. Sams, Charles Evans and Associates, Redwood City, CA.

H11.9 ROOM TEMPERATURE REACTION OF THIN Ti FILMS WITH Si(111)-(7x7) SURFACES, Adli A. Saleh and L.D. Peterson, Montanan State University, Physics Department, Bozeman, MT.

H11.10 STRUCTURE AND ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF Cu/Ge OHMIC CONTACTS, Serge Oktyabrsky, M.O. Aboelfotoh and J. Narayan, North Carolina State University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Raleigh, NC.

H11.11 INITIAL STAGES OF REACTIONS BETWEEN MONOLAYER Fe AND Si(001) SURFACES, M. Hasegawa, N. Kobayashi and N. Hayashi, Electrotechnical Laboratory, Quantum Radiation Division, Ibaraki, Japan.

H11.12 ROLE OF THE SURFACE STEPS ON THE EPITAXY OF CHROMIUM DISILICIDE ON (111) SILICON, Andre M. Rocher, CNRS, CEMES/LOE, Toulouse, France; Andre Oustry, Marie Jose David and Michel Caumont, Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, France.

H11.13 INVESTIGATION OF THE SCHOTTKY BARRIER AND INTERFACE STATES OF COBALTON SixGe1-x ALLOYS, Ja-Hum Ku and R.J. Nemanich, North Carolina State University, Department of Physics, Raleigh, NC.

H11.14 FABRICATION OF EPITAXIAL SILICIDES THIN FILMS BY COMBINING LOW-ENERGY ION BEAM DEPOSITION AND Si MOLECULAR BEAM EPITAXY, H. Shibata, Y. Makita, H. Katsumata, S. Kimura, N. Kobayashi, S. Hishita, A. Beye, H. Takahashi, J. Tanabe and S. Uekusa, Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba, Japan.

H11.15 PLATINUM SILICIDE FORMATION THROUGH Si SEGREGATION ON Pt(111), U. Diebold, J.F. Anderson, Lanping Zhang and P. Mrozek, Tulane University, Department of Physics, New Orleans, LA.

H11.16 FIRST STAGES OF THE PLATINUM ELECTROLESS DEPOSITION ON SILICON (100) FROM HF SOLUTIONS, P. Gorostiza, J. Servat and J.R. Morante, University of Barcelona, Departament de Fisica Aplicada i Electrònica, Barcelona, Spain; and F. Sanz, University of Barcelona, Departament de Química Física, Barcelona, Spain.

H11.17 PHASE FORMATION SEQUENCE AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE AMORPHOUS AND CRYSTALLINE SILICON-PHOSPHORUS ALLOYS, J.R.A. Carlsson, L. Clevenger, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY; L.D. Madsen and H.T.G. Hentzell, Linköping University, Department of Physics, Thin Film Division, Linköping, Sweden.

H11.18 FORMATION OF THIN SILICIDE FILMS ON Ta AND Nb SURFACES, E.Yu. Afanas'eva and S.M. Solo'ev, A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Laboratory of Physics of Adsorptioin, St. Petersburg, Russia.

H11.19 LOW TEMPERATURE SILICIDES FOR THIN FILM TRANSISTOR APPLICATIONS, Greg Sarcona and Miltiadis K. Hatalis, Lehigh University, Display Research Laboratory, Bethlehem, PA.

H11.20 EFFECT OF THE VOLUME VARIATION ON THE SUPERCONDUCTIVITY OF TaSi2, N. Keller, CRTBT, CNRS, Grenoble, France; O. Laborde, CRTBT, CNRS, Grenoble, France and LCMI, CNRS, Grenoble, France; U. Gottlieb and R. Madar, LMPG, ENSPG, INPG, St. Martin d'Hères, France.

H11.21 STABILITY HIERARCHY OF THE NEW EPITAXIAL PHASES OF CoSi2, Leo Miglio and Francesca Tavazza, Universita di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milano, Italy.

H11.22 RAPID THERMAL ANNEALING OF TUNGSTEN SILICIDE FILMS, Alexander Fabricius, Olaf Nennewitz, Lothar Spiess, Institut für Werkstoffe, Ilmenau, Germany; and Volker Cimalla, Institut für Festkörperelektronik, Ilmenau, Germany.

H11.23 DISORDER AND STRAIN EFFECTS IN THE OPTICAL RESPONSE OF THIN CoSi EPITAXIAL FILMS, S. Bocelli, G. Guizzetti, F. Marabelli, University of Pavia, Department of Physics, Pavia, Italy; and C. Schwarz, H. von Känel, Laboratorium für Festkörperphysik, Zürich, Switzerland.




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See page 6 for a list of companies exhibiting books and software and a complete list of exhibitors.