MRS Meetings and Events


EL07.05.05 2023 MRS Spring Meeting

Millimeter Wave to Terahertz Sub-5nm Nonlinear Optoelectronic CMOS Technolog—Performance Advantages Over Traditional CMOS-Based ASICs, SoC and Silicon Photonics

When and Where

Apr 12, 2023
5:00pm - 7:00pm

Moscone West, Level 1, Exhibit Hall



James Pan1



James Pan1

Negative resistance millimeter wave semiconductor devices (including Tunnel, Gunn, IMPATT and, BARITT diodes) can generate high frequency microwave signals approaching the terahertz infrared regime for commercial telecommunications and military applications. These devices can be included in the drain or source regions of a MOSFET as one integral device to form Millimeter Wave to Terahertz Optoelectronic CMOS Transistors. Here, we will discuss the performance advantages of this novel technology: how it may even outperform traditional CMOS-Based RF ASICs, System on Chip (SoC), or Silicon Photonics due to reduced series resistance and capacitance. Critical RF parameters, such as cutoff frequency (ft and fmax), are improved due to the switching speed improvements from the photonic and millimeter wave generation process. The integrated device produces less heat and can be thermally more stable. Also, photonic millimeter-wave devices can be designed to handle pulsed laser and millimeter-wave signals simultaneously. Low operating voltages are possible due to the nature of the tunneling process and the close proximity of the components in the integrated device. We also show a path toward monolithic integration in a CMOS fabrication sequence. IMPATT and BARITT are reverse-biased diodes. Laser and LED are forward-biased diodes. The source or drain junction of a MOSFET is a reverse-biased diode. Photon and microwave generating diodes can be included in the drain or source regions of a MOSFET. Photon sensors can be fabricated in the substrate, well or drain regions. Millimeter wave diodes, laser or LED, Photon Sensors, and MOSFET are fabricated as one integral device to form the Millimeter-wave Photonic CMOS Transistors. A millimeter wave tunnel diode can be operated at a very low voltage, due to the tunneling process without thermal diffusion. Photonic Microwave CMOS functions with electric fields (it is a field effective device) compared with diode lasers, which rely on thermal diffusion and produce more thermal noises. With improved device models and circuit designs, nonlinear laser and millimeter wave communications can be a reality. The manufacturing costs for 3D All-Around-Gate FETs and Sub-5nm FINFETs can be very high.<br/><br/>The Milliwave Optoelectronic CMOS is 100% compatible to sub-5nm CMOS technology nodes, as the Laser, LED, and Microwave diodes are in the MOSFET or FINFET drain region - the gate and channel regions are not affected. The manufacturing cost for sub-5nm Millimeter Wave Optoelectronic CMOS is much lower, and the performance can be much higher.<br/><br/>Terahertz operations can be achieved using the Millimeter Wave Optoelectronic CMOS, with Microwave Diodes and Mid- or Far- Infrared QCL (Quantum Cascade Laser) in the CMOS drain regions.<br/><br/>The Transferred Electron Tunnel Millimeter Wave and Gunn Diodes present unique "Negative Resistance" characteristics under a certain bias conditions and internal electric fields, which may reduce the Rsd (series resistance), ft / fmax (cutoff frequency) and are suitable for high clock-speed operations.<br/><br/>In this report we will discuss the performance advantages and cost benefits of the technology. We will also look into various Microwave diodes, how they can be added to the sub-5nm CMOS, and what are the operating conditions, as one integral transistor.


nanostructure | nonlinear effects

Symposium Organizers

Katerina Kusova, Czech Academy of Sciences
Lorenzo Mangolini, University of California, Riverside
Xiaodong Pi, Zhejiang University
MingLee Tang, University of Utah

Symposium Support

Magnitude Instruments
Royal Society of Chemistry

Publishing Alliance

MRS publishes with Springer Nature