2:00 PM - *SF12.07.01
Biological Blueprints For Architected Impact Resistant Materials
University of California, Irvine1
There is a growing need for the development of low cost light-weight materials with high strength and durability. Nature has evolved efficient strategies, exemplified in the crystallized tissues of numerous species, to synthesize materials that often exhibit exceptional mechanical properties. These biological systems demonstrate the ability to control nano- and microstructural features that significantly improve the mechanical performance of otherwise brittle materials.
In this work, we investigate a number of impact resistant organisms but provide insight towards new multiscale architectural designs revealed in the hyper-mineralized combative and fast striking dactyl club of the stomatopods, highly aggressive marine crustaceans [1-3]. Within the outermost surface of the clubs is the impact surface, where we uncover a novel and previously unobserved architectural design that provides the capability to localize damage and avoid catastrophic failure from high-speed collisions during its feeding activities . This coating consists of a biomineralized composite of densely packed ~ 65 nm nanoparticles within an organic matrix. Closer analysis of these particles reveals a bi-continuous network of hydroxyapatite (HAP) mineral integrated within an organic matrix. The mesocrystalline HAP nanoparticles are assembled from small highly aligned nanocrystals guided by the biomineral templating proteins. Under high strain rate (~104 s-1) impacts, particles rotate and translate, while the nanocrystalline networks fracture at low angle grain boundaries, form dislocations, and undergo amorphization. The interpenetrating organic network provides additional toughening, as well as significant damping, with loss coefficient ~0.02. A rare combination of stiffness and damping is therefore achieved, outperforming many engineered materials.
Based on these findings, we are now engineering biomimetic coatings that integrate the design features found in the mantis shrimp and demonstrating their use in automotive, aerospace and personal protective equipment.
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